Timeline of Taiwanese history

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This is a timeline of Taiwanese history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Taiwan and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Taiwan and History of the Republic of China. See also the list of rulers of Taiwan.

3rd century[edit]

Year Date Event
230 Eastern Wu expedition troops land on an island known as Yizhou (suspected to be Taiwan) where most of them die but manage to bring "several thousand" natives back to China[1]

7th century[edit]

Year Date Event
607–610 The Sui dynasty sends expeditions to an island known as Liuqiu, which may or may not be Taiwan, but is probably Ryukyu[1]

12th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1170 The Song dynasty stations officers at the Penghu Islands[2]
1171 Chinese fishermen settle on the Penghu Islands[3]

13th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1271 Chinese people start visiting Taiwan[4]
1292 The Yuan dynasty sends an expedition to Liuqiu, which may or may not be Taiwan[5]
1297 The Yuan dynasty sends an expedition to Liuqiu, which may or may not be Taiwan[5]

14th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1349 Wang Dayuan provides the first account of a visit to Taiwan and also notes substantial settlements of Chinese traders and fishermen on the Penghu Islands[2]

16th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1525 Some merchants from Fujian are able to speak Formosan languages[4]
1544 Portuguese sailors passing Taiwan record in the ship's log the name Ilha Formosa (Beautiful Island).[6]
1563 Pirate Lin Daoqian retreats to southwestern Taiwan after being chased by Ming naval forces[7]
A walled town is built in Penghu on the orders of a Ming general[8]
1574 3 November Pirate Lin Feng lands in southwestern Taiwan only to be attacked by aboriginals[9]
27 December Lin Feng returns to Taiwan again[9]
1582 Portuguese shipwreck survivors, the first Europeans known to have landed on Taiwan, build a raft after 45 days and return to Macau[6]
1590 Chinese from Fujian start settling in southwestern Taiwan[9]
1592 Japan unsuccessfully seeks sovereignty over Taiwan (Takayamakoku 高山国 in Japanese, lit. high mountain country).[10]
1593 Ming officials issue ten licenses each year for Chinese junks to trade in northern Taiwan[11]

17th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1603 Chinese scholar Chen Di spends some time at the Bay of Tayouan (which Taiwan takes its name from) during a Ming dynasty anti-pirate mission and provides the first significant description of Taiwanese aborigines[6]
1604 Sino-Dutch conflicts: Dutch envoy Wijbrand van Waerwijck and his army are ordered to occupy Penghu in order to open trade with China[10]
1609 The Tokugawa Shogunate sends feudal lord Arima Harunobu on an exploratory mission to Taiwan.[10]
1616 Nagasaki official Murayama Tōan leads troops on an unsuccessful invasion of Taiwan.[10]
1622 August The Dutch start building a fort at Penghu[12]
1623 Chinese population in southwestern Taiwan reaches 1,500[4]
1624 26 August Sino-Dutch conflicts: Ming forces evict the Dutch from Penghu and they retreat to Taiwan, settling near the Bay of Tayouan next to a pirate village[13]
There are two Chinese villages in Southwestern Taiwan, on a long thing peninsula on the Bay of Tayouan, and on the mainland in what would become Tainan[14]
Chinese laborers start building the Fort Zeelandia at the Bay of Tayouan for the Dutch[14]
1625 The Dutch clash with 170 Chinese pirates in the Madou and are forced to retreat; later the pirates are driven away[15]
1626 July The Dutch force the Chinese inhabitants of Taiwan to obtain a permit of residence[14]
Spanish expedition to Formosa: The Spanish arrive at Santissima Trinidad (Jilong) and build a fort[11]
1627 Chinese trade with Spanish Formosa picks up after the Spanish manage to ingratiate themselves with the governor of Fujian by defending him from attacks by the aborigines[11]
1628 The Dutch sign a trade treaty with Zheng Zhilong[14]
The Spanish establish a settlement at Danshui and build Fort Santo Domingo in an attempt to attract Chinese merchants.[11]
1629 summer Madou ambushes and kills 35 Dutch soldiers[15]
1630 February Madou signs a nine-month truce with the Dutch[15]
1631 Spanish Formosa uses sulphur in Taiwan to trade for Chinese goods[11]
1633 7 July Battle of Liaoluo Bay: Hans Putmans' fleet sails into the harbor of Xiamen and fire on Zheng Zhilong's fleet without warning[14]
22 October Battle of Liaoluo Bay: Hans Putmans' fleet is defeated by Zheng Zhilong off of Kinmen[14]
1634 October The Dutch forbid Chinese trade of deerskins to anyone but them[16]
5 November Dutch forces rout Taccariang's forces[15]
Liu Xiang attacks Fort Zeelandia in retaliation for their refusal to aid him against Zheng Zhilong, but fails[14]
Chinese start planting sugarcane near Fort Provintia[4]
1635 winter Dutch pacification campaign on Formosa: The Dutch defeat Madou[15]
1636 The Dutch declare a pax hollandica in the plains around the Bay of Tayouan[15]
The Chinese start conducting large scale commercial hunting in Taiwan with assistance from the Dutch East India Company[16]
1637 The Spanish withdraw half their forces from Taiwan[11]
1640 The Dutch force Chinese people in Taiwan to pay a residency tax[17]
1641 The Dutch attempt to oust the Spaniards from Jilong but fail[18]
1642 August The Dutch oust the Spaniards in Jilong; so ends Spanish Formosa[18]
The Dutch forbid Chinese from settling outside of areas of company control[17]
1645 The Chinese are forbidden from hunting deer in Taiwan[17]
1651 Reports of violence and extortion of the Chinese by the Dutch are reported[17]
1652 7–11 September Guo Huaiyi rebellion: Chinese farmers rebel against the Dutch and are defeated; considered to be the first Chinese anti-western uprising[17]
Chinese population in Taiwan reaches 20,000 to 25,000[17]
1654 May Locusts, plague, and earthquakes greatly damage Taiwan[19]
1655 August Ming loyalist Zheng Chenggong declares sovereignty over Chinese citizens in Taiwan[19]
1656 9 July An edict from Zheng Chenggong arrives at Fort Zeelandia declaring all Chinese trade of foreign products to be illegal and punishable by death, and Chinese merchants start leaving Taiwan as a result[19]
1660 March The Dutch receive news of Zheng Chenggong's plans to invade Taiwan[20]
Albrecht Herport notes that even in their depleted state, there are an abundance of deer in Taiwan[6]
1661 21 April Zheng Chenggong departs from Kinmen Island for Taiwan[21]
30 April Zheng Chenggong arrives on the shores of Dutch Formosa near Fort Provintia where three Dutch ships attack them, but one sinks, and the other two retreat; two subsequent Dutch attacks are also defeated[21]
1 May Fort Provintia surrenders to Zheng Chenggong[22]
3 May Aboriginals around the Bay of Tayouan surrender to Zheng Chenggong[20]
16 September Fort Zeelandia launches an attack on Zheng Chengong's army and is defeated[20]
1662 1 February Siege of Fort Zeelandia: Fort Zeelandia surrenders to Zheng Chenggong and the Dutch depart from Taiwan; so ends Dutch Formosa[22]
23 June Zheng Chenggong dies and is succeeded by Zheng Xi[23]
November Zheng Jing defeats Zheng Xi and renamed his realm the Kingdom of Dongning[24]
1663 February Zheng Jing returns to Xiamen[24]
July Zheng Jing imprisons his brother Zheng Tai, and as a result their relatives surrender to the Qing dynasty[24]
November The Qing dynasty conquers Xiamen and Kinmen Island[24]
1664 July The Dutch occupy Jilong[25]
September Qing commander Shi Lang leads a fleet of warships to invade Taiwan but is turned back by bad weather[25]
Chinese population in Taiwan rises to 50,000[26]
1665 May Shi Lang attempts to invade Taiwan but his fleet is scattered by a storm[25]
1666 May Chinese troops attempt to dislodge the Dutch from Jilong but fail[27]
1668 The Dutch abandon Jilong after alienating local aboriginal villages[27]
1674 Zheng Jing re-enters Xiamen[28]
1678 Zheng Jing's forces under Liu Guoxuan attempt to conquer Zhangzhou but fail[29]
1680 26 March Zheng Jing departs from Xiamen[29]
1681 March Zheng Jing dies and his son Zheng Kezang succeeds him, only to be ousted by Zheng Keshuang[29]
1683 12 July Battle of Penghu: Qing commander Shi Lang leads an attack on the Zheng fleet near Penghu but fails[29]
17 July Battle of Penghu: The Qing fleet returns and defeats the Zheng fleet, occupying Penghu[29]
The Qing dynasty conquers the Kingdom of Dongning; Zheng Keshuang is given a non-hereditary position in Beijing[30]
1684 Taiwan is made a prefecture of Fujian, governed by a prefect, under which are magistrates of three counties, Zhuluo, Taiwan, and Fengshan[31]
Total population of Taiwan is around 100,000[6][26]
Shi Lang estimates that half of Taiwan's Chinese population has left for the mainland[32]
1699 Taiwanese aborigines rebel in northern Taiwan[33]

18th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1721 19 April Zhu Yigui and a group of 80 rebels attack a military outpost at Gangshan, south of Tainan, and rob its weapons; Du Junying also rebels[34]
30 April Zhu Yigui's rebels attack Tainan but fail[35]
1 May Zhu Yigui takes Tainan and Zhuluo[35]
3 May Zhu Yigui is declared a king[35]
16 June Qing forces land near Tainan and defeat Zhu Yigui[35]
10 September Du Junying surrenders to Qing forces[36]
1723 Danshui subprefecture is created[37]
1728 Tax registers are expanded to Zhanghua County[38]
1731 The Dajiaxi (大甲西) aboriginals around Taizhong rebel and kill a subprefect[37]
1732 Qing forces suppress the Dajiaxi (大甲西) aboriginal rebellion.[39]
1733 Quarantine policies are abandoned by the Qing government and the military organization in Taiwan is overhauled; families on the mainland are allowed to move to Taiwan[39]
1734 A total of 47 aboriginal schools are created[40]
1738 Reclamation of aboriginal land is banned[40]
1740 Legal migration to Taiwan is ended[41]
1756 Immigrants in Taiwan number 600,147[42]
1770 Chinese settlers start moving into Yilan[43]
1777 Immigrants in Taiwan number 839,800[42]
1782 Jiayi and Zhanghua prefectures go to war over gambling debts and more than 400 villages are destroyed[44]
Immigrants in Taiwan number 912,000[42]
1786 Lin Shuangwen rebellion: Ling Shuangwen rebels and takes over Zhanghua[45]
Individuals whose relatives are already in Taiwan are allowed to emigrate[42]
1788 Lin Shuangwen rebellion: The rebels are defeated[46]
1795 Chen Zhouchuan rebellion[47]

19th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1805 Cai Qian rebellion[48]
1809 Pirate Cai Qian is surrounded by the Qing navy and commits suicide.[citation needed]
1812 Northeast Taiwan is taken over by Chinese people[49]
1824 Immigrants in Taiwan number 1,786,883[42]
1832 Zhang Bing rebellion[47]
1839 Qing authorities demarcate Chinese territories in Taiwan and prohibit Chinese settlers from encroaching on native lands[26]
1853 Lin Gong rebellion[48]
1860 Convention of Beijing: Danshui and Anping are opened to foreigners[50]
1862 Dai Wansheng rebels[51]
1863 Lin Wencha is promoted to commander-in-chief of Fujian troops, the highest position ever attained by a Taiwanese during the Qing dynasty[52]
1865 Dai Wansheng's rebellion is defeated[51]
1867 American military expedition sent to Kenting in response to the Rover incident.
1868 20 November Camphor War: British Navy occupies Anping over rights to export camphor without regard for Chinese regulations[53]
1 December Camphor War: Qing dynasty gives in to British demands for reparations, freedom of missionary activity, and trade rights[53]
John Dodd calls in British gunboats to force Qing authorities to apologize and pay reparations for being accosted by an angry crowd[53]
1869 Government troops are decreased from 14,425 to 7,621[54]
1871 November Mudan Incident: Ryukyuan sailors shipwreck off of southern Taiwan and Paiwan people mistake them for enemies, causing the death of 54 mariners[55]
1874 Japanese invasion of Taiwan (1874): Japan sends a punitive expedition to Taiwan in retribution for the Mudan Incident and forces the Qing dynasty to pay indemnities[56]
Shen Baozhen has three roads constructed linking eastern and western Taiwan[57]
1875 Taiwan is divided into two prefectures, Taibei Prefecture and a modified Taiwan Prefecture[58]
1881 Government troops are decreased to 4,500[54]
1884 August Keelung Campaign: French forces try to land at Jilong but are forced to withdraw by Chinese troops[59]
October Keelung Campaign: French forces capture Jilong[59]
8 October Battle of Tamsui: A French attack on Danshui is defeated[59]
1885 22 June Keelung Campaign: The French evacuate from Jilong[59]
1887 Taiwan is reorganized as Taiwan Province with Liu Mingchuan as its first governor[57]
April Construction on a road from Taibei to Jilong begins[60]
1888 Construction on a Taibei-Xinzhu road begins[61]
1891 Construction of the Taibei-Jilong road is completed[61]
1893 Construction of the Taibei-Xinzhu road is completed[61]
1895 March Pescadores Campaign (1895): Japan seizes Penghu[62]
17 April Taiwan and Penghu are ceded by the Qing dynasty to Japan in the Treaty of Shimonoseki[63]
20 May The Qing dynasty orders all officials to evacuate from Taiwan[62]
25 May The Republic of Formosa is formed with Tang Jingsong as its leader, who secretly leaves for the mainland a few days later, and is succeeded by Liu Yongfu[64]
29 May Japanese invasion of Taiwan (1895): Japanese forces land near Jilong[64]
7 June Japanese invasion of Taiwan (1895): Japanese forces occupy Taibei[62]
October Liu Yongfu leaves for the mainland[65]
21 October Capitulation of Tainan: Tainan surrenders; so ends the Republic of Formosa[64]
1896 June Yunlin Massacre: 6,000 Taiwanese are massacred by the Japanese at Yunlin[65]
1899 The Bank of Taiwan established to encourage Japanese investment[66]
Taiwanese are recruited as policemen after a lower rank is created[67]

20th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1900 Sun Zhongshan visits Taiwan[68]
1905 Population census records 2,492,784 Chinese, 82,795 "mountain people", and a total of 3,039,751 Taiwanese residents[26]
1911 Liang Qichao visits Taiwan[68]
1913 Japanese forces engage in a campaign bring aboriginals on the east coast under government control [69]
Hakka people rebel in Miaoli and are defeated [70]
1914 December Itagaki Taisuke creates the Taiwan Doukakai, a Taiwan assimilationist movement with popular support from Taiwanese[71]
1915 January Taiwan Doukakai comes under attack by Japanese residents and authorities in Taiwan, and it is quickly disbanded[71]
Tapani Incident: Marks 20 years of resistance against Japanese rule[69]
1921 The Taiwanese Cultural Association is founded[72]
1925 Population of Taiwan grows to 3,993,408[26]
1927 The Taiwanese People's Party breaks from the Taiwanese Cultural Association[73]
1930 Wushe Incident: The Seediq people attack a police station and in response the government intensifies their efforts to govern of the Atayal aborigines[74]
1935 Population of Taiwan grows to 5,212,426;[26] Chinese population of eastern Taiwan increases to 70,000[75]
1937 April Chinese language in newspapers is banned and Classical Chinese is removed from the school curriculum[76]
1943 Compulsory primary education begins. Enrollment rates reached 71.3% for Taiwanese children (including 86.4% for aborigine children) and 99.6% for Japanese children in Taiwan making Taiwan's enrollment rate the second highest in Asia after Japan.[77]
1943 Cairo Declaration: The Allies of World War II demand the restoration of all Chinese territories lost to Japan including Taiwan and Penghu[78]
1944 Taiwan is bombed by American forces as part of Allied effort to defeat Japan[79]
1945 14 August Jewel Voice Broadcast: Hirohito announces Japan's surrender[79]
25 October Retrocession Day: Rikichi Andō signs documents "restoring" Taiwan and Penghu to the Republic of China with Chen Yi appointed as Chief Executive.[79]
Population of Taiwan grows to 6,560,000[26]
1947 14 February Taibei's rice market closes due to a riot[80]
28 February February 28 Incident: Six officers attempt to arrest a woman selling cigarettes illegally in Taibei, a Taiwanese man is killed, and as a result mass riots break out all over the island[80]
8 March February 28 Incident: Reinforcements from mainland China arrive in Jilong[81]
13 March February 28 Incident: The Taiwanese resistance is defeated by Chinese KMT[81]
22 April Chen Yi is replaced by Wei Daoming[82]
1948 November More than 31,000 refugees enter Taiwan per week[83]
30 December Wei Daoming is replaced by Chen Cheng[84]
1949 Approximately 5,000 refugees enter Taiwan each day[83]KMT retreat to Taiwan
19 May White Terror (Taiwan): Chinese KMT begins imposing 38 years of Martial law in Taiwan[85]
June The New Taiwan dollar is introduced at an exchange rate of one NT to 40,000 old Taiwan dollars[86]
10 December Chinese Civil War: The ROC relocates its government to Taipei.
1950 1 March Jiang Jieshi admits that he is personally responsible for the loss of mainland China at his inaugural ceremony for resuming the presidency of the Guomindang[87]
Elections are held at local and provincial levels, but not at the national level[88]
1 May Landing Operation on Hainan Island: Hainan falls to the Communists.
1951 Land Reform in Taiwan: The government starts selling public land to tenant farmers, nearly a fifth of Taiwan's arable land[86]
1952 Agricultural exports reach U.S.$114 million[89]
1953 January Land Reform in Taiwan: Amount of land available to landlords is restricted and excess land is sold to tillers[86]
1955 20 January Battle of Yijiangshan Islands: People's Liberation Army forces ROC forces off the Yijiangshan Islands[89]
Population of Taiwan grows to 9,078,000[26]
1958 Second Taiwan Strait Crisis: People's Liberation Army attacks Kinmen and the Matsu Islands but fail to take them[90]
Population of Taiwan reaches 10 million[91]
1960 Jiang Jieshi's presidency is extended past two terms[92]
Institutions of higher education increase to 15, primary schools rise to 1,982, and secondary schools to 299[93]
1961 Slightly over half of Taiwan's population lives in urban areas[94]
1964 Taiwanese language is banned in schools and official settings[95]
1965 Population of Taiwan grows to 12,628,000[26]
1968 Compulsory education is extended from 6 to 9 years[96]
1970 Taiwan's Gini coefficient falls to 0.321[96]
1971 China and the United Nations: The United Nations recognizes the People's Republic of China as the government of China. The Republic of China withdraws from the United Nations.
1975 Population of Taiwan grows to 16,150,000[26]
1980 Xinzhu Science-Based Industrial Park founded[97]
1985 Population of Taiwan grows to 19,258,000[26]
1987 15 July Martial law in Taiwan: Martial law is lifted from Taiwan[98]
The Environmental Protection Administration reveals that 15 percent of farmland is contaminated by heavy metals[94]
1990 Wild Lily student movement in Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall.
Number of farm households fall to less than 20 percent[94]
1991 Legislative Yuan and National Assembly elected in 1947 were forced to resign.
The first democratic election of National Assembly.
1992 Fair Trade Law enacted.
The first democratic election of the Legislative Yuan.
1992 Consensus
1994 National Health Insurance begins.
1995 US government reverses policy and allows President Lee Teng-hui to visit the US. The People's Republic of China responds with the Third Taiwan Strait Crisis by launching a series of missiles into the waters off Taiwan. The Taiwan stock market loses one-third of its value.
February 28 Incident monument erected; President Lee Teng-hui publicly apologizes on behalf of the KMT.
Population of Taiwan grows to 21,300,000[26]
1996 President Bill Clinton dispatches the USS Nimitz supercarrier to patrol the Taiwan Strait.
The first direct presidential election; Lee Teng-hui elected.
1997 Private cellular phone companies begin services.
1999 Resolution on Taiwan's Future
Chi-Chi earthquake.

21st century[edit]

Year Date Event
2000 Chen Shui-bian, the opposition candidate from the DPP, elected president by a lead of 2.5% of votes marking the end of the KMT status as the ruling party. Voter turnout was 82.69%; first peaceful transfer of power.
Four Noes and One Without
2001 Three mini-links between Kinmen, Matsu and the mainland of Fujian begins.
Private fixed-line telephone companies begin services.
Serious flooding caused by Typhoon Nari.
2002 Entry into the World Trade Organization.
Penetration rate of cellular phones exceeds 100%.
2003 SARS outbreaks.
North-Link Line railroad electrified.
2004 Second north-south freeway completed.
228 Hand-in-Hand Rally.
President Chen Shui-bian is re-elected by a margin of 0.22% votes after being shot the day before.
Taipei 101 becomes World's Tallest Building.
2005 The first direct commercial airplane flights from Beijing to Taipei for the Chinese New Year.
The PRC passes an "anti-secession law" authorizing the use of force against Taiwan and the ROC government should it formally declare independence. In response, 1.6 million people marched in Taipei against China's "anti-secession law". Similar marches occur across the world by Taiwanese nationalists. Protests against the PRC were held worldwide, including, but not limited to: Chicago, New York City, Washington DC, Paris, and Sydney.
Pan-Blue leaders visit to mainland China
President Chen is invited and attends the funeral of Pope John Paul II. He is the first ROC president to visit the Vatican.
The National Assembly of the Republic of China convenes for the last time to implement several constitutional reforms, including single-member two-vote districts, and votes to transfer the power of constitutional reform to the popular ballot, essentially abolishing itself.
2006 Taiwan's first high-speed rail line, Taiwan High Speed Rail, begins operation.
Rename "Chiang Kai-shek International Airport" to Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport.
2007 Rename Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall to National Taiwan Democracy Memorial Hall.
Taiwan applies for membership in the United Nations under the name "Taiwan", and is rejected by the General Assembly.
2008 1025 demonstration
Chen Yunlin visit
Wild Strawberry student movement
Lien Chen represents Ma Ying-jeou meets Hu Jintao at APEC Peru 2008
March 9 Red Line of the Kaohsiung MRT completed.
March 22 presidential election; with 58.48% of the vote, KMT candidate Ma Ying-jeou defeats DPP candidate Frank Hsieh. Many voters boycott the referendum on whether and how to join UN so the level of voter participation required for referendum to be considered valid is not achieved.
May 20 Ma Ying-jeou sworn into office as the 12th President of ROC. Second peaceful transfer of power. Tsai Ing-wen inaugurate as the Chairperson of DPP.
July For the first time in nearly 60 years, the first direct China-Taiwan flights are opened[99][100][101]
2009 World Games 2009
Typhoon Morakot
October 17 Ma Ying-jeou inaugurates as Chairperson of Kuomintang.
2012 January 14 presidential election; with 51.6% of the vote, KMT candidate Ma Ying-jeou defeats DPP candidate Tsai Ing-wen.
2013 Ma Ying-jeou meets Pope Francis, the first ROC president to meet with the pope.
2014 March 18 Sunflower Student Movement, students occupy the Legislative Yuan force to halt the enforcement of Cross-Strait Service Trade Agreement.
November 29 Regional election; DPP elects 13 mayor and magistrates.
2015 Ma Ying-jeou meets with Xi Jinping, the first Cross-Strait leader meeting.
2016 January 16 presidential election; with 56.3% of the vote, DPP candidate Tsai Ing-wen defeats KMT candidate Eric Chu.
May 20 Tsai Ing-wen sworn into office as the 14th and current President of ROC. Third peaceful transfer of power.


  1. ^ a b Knapp 1980, p. 5.
  2. ^ a b Rubinstein 1999, p. 86.
  3. ^ Knapp 1980, p. 6.
  4. ^ a b c d Andrade 2008f.
  5. ^ a b Knapp 1980, p. 8.
  6. ^ a b c d e Andrade 2008a.
  7. ^ Knapp 1980, p. 9.
  8. ^ Knapp 1980, p. 117.
  9. ^ a b c Knapp 1980, p. 10.
  10. ^ a b c d Huang (2005), Chapter 3.
  11. ^ a b c d e f Andrade 2008d.
  12. ^ Knapp 1980, p. 12.
  13. ^ Twitchett 1998, p. 603.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g Andrade 2008b.
  15. ^ a b c d e f Andrade 2008c.
  16. ^ a b Andrade 2008g.
  17. ^ a b c d e f Andrade 2008h.
  18. ^ a b Andrade 2008e.
  19. ^ a b c Andrade 2008j.
  20. ^ a b c Andrade 2008k.
  21. ^ a b Twitchett 1998, p. 722.
  22. ^ a b Twitchett 1998, p. 723.
  23. ^ Twitchett 1998, p. 724.
  24. ^ a b c d Rubinstein 1999, p. 96.
  25. ^ a b c Rubinstein 1999, p. 97.
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Rubinstein 1999, p. 10.
  27. ^ a b Rubinstein 1999, p. 98.
  28. ^ Rubinstein 1999, p. 100.
  29. ^ a b c d e Rubinstein 1999, p. 101.
  30. ^ Rubinstein 1999, p. 102.
  31. ^ Rubinstein 1999, p. 109.
  32. ^ Rubinstein 1999, p. 108.
  33. ^ Rubinstein 1999, p. 112.
  34. ^ Rubinstein 1999, p. 113.
  35. ^ a b c d Rubinstein 1999, p. 114.
  36. ^ Rubinstein 1999, p. 115.
  37. ^ a b Rubinstein 1999, p. 117.
  38. ^ Rubinstein 1999, p. 116.
  39. ^ a b Rubinstein 1999, p. 118.
  40. ^ a b Rubinstein 1999, p. 119.
  41. ^ Rubinstein 1999, p. 124.
  42. ^ a b c d e Rubinstein 1999, p. 136.
  43. ^ Knapp 1980, p. 71.
  44. ^ Rubinstein 1999, p. 143.
  45. ^ Davidson (1903), p. 80-1.
  46. ^ Rubinstein 1999, p. 155.
  47. ^ a b Knapp 1980, p. 97.
  48. ^ a b Knapp 1980, p. 96.
  49. ^ Rubinstein 1999, p. 142.
  50. ^ Rubinstein 1999, p. 167.
  51. ^ a b Rubinstein 1999, p. 158.
  52. ^ Rubinstein 1999, p. 157.
  53. ^ a b c Rubinstein 1999, p. 168.
  54. ^ a b Knapp 1980, p. 102.
  55. ^ Rubinstein 1999, p. 183.
  56. ^ Rubinstein 1999, p. 165.
  57. ^ a b Knapp 1980, p. 169.
  58. ^ Rubinstein 1999, p. 185.
  59. ^ a b c d Rubinstein 1999, p. 187.
  60. ^ Knapp 1980, p. 169-170.
  61. ^ a b c Knapp 1980, p. 170.
  62. ^ a b c Rubinstein 1999, p. 205.
  63. ^ Knapp 1980, p. 44.
  64. ^ a b c Rubinstein 1999, p. 206.
  65. ^ a b Rubinstein 1999, p. 207.
  66. ^ Rubinstein 1999, p. 209.
  67. ^ Rubinstein 1999, p. 212.
  68. ^ a b Rubinstein 1999, p. 217.
  69. ^ a b Rubinstein 1999, p. 211.
  70. ^ Rubinstein 1999, p. 218.
  71. ^ a b Rubinstein 1999, p. 219.
  72. ^ Rubinstein 1999, p. 232.
  73. ^ Rubinstein 1999, p. 234.
  74. ^ Knapp 1980, p. 48.
  75. ^ Knapp 1980, p. 50.
  76. ^ Rubinstein 1999, p. 240.
  77. ^ Huang (2005), Chapter 6.
  78. ^ Rubinstein 1999, p. 245.
  79. ^ a b c Rubinstein 1999, p. 236.
  80. ^ a b Rubinstein 1999, p. 293.
  81. ^ a b Rubinstein 1999, p. 295.
  82. ^ Rubinstein 1999, p. 297.
  83. ^ a b Rubinstein 1999, p. 299.
  84. ^ Rubinstein 1999, p. 300.
  85. ^ Rubinstein 1999, p. 302.
  86. ^ a b c Rubinstein 1999, p. 324.
  87. ^ Rubinstein 1999, p. 321.
  88. ^ Rubinstein 1999, p. 322.
  89. ^ a b Rubinstein 1999, p. 325.
  90. ^ Rubinstein 1999, p. 326.
  91. ^ Rubinstein 1999, p. 331.
  92. ^ Rubinstein 1999, p. 327.
  93. ^ Rubinstein 1999, p. 329.
  94. ^ a b c Rubinstein 1999, p. 22.
  95. ^ Lin, Alvin (1999). "Writing Taiwanese: The Development of Modern Written Taiwanese" (PDF). Sino-Platonic Papers (89). OCLC 41879041.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  96. ^ a b Rubinstein 1999, p. 333.
  97. ^ Rubinstein 1999, p. 374.
  98. ^ Rubinstein 1999, p. 286.
  99. ^ "Historic China-Taiwan flights begin – CNN.com". Archived from the original on 2008-07-23. Retrieved 2008-07-25.
  100. ^ "BBC NEWS | World | Asia-Pacific | Direct China-Taiwan flights begin". Archived from the original on 2008-08-31. Retrieved 2008-07-25.
  101. ^ "China resumes direct flights to Taiwan after 60 years | World news | The Guardian". 4 July 2008. Archived from the original on 2016-08-21. Retrieved 2016-12-17.


External links[edit]