Timeline of Taiwanese history
This is a timeline of Taiwanese history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Taiwan and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Taiwan and History of the Republic of China. See also the list of rulers of Taiwan.
|230||Eastern Wu expedition troops land on an island known as Yizhou (suspected to be Taiwan) where most of them die but manage to bring "several thousand" natives back to China|
|607–610||The Sui dynasty sends expeditions to an island known as Liuqiu, which may or may not be Taiwan, but is probably Ryukyu|
|1170||The Song dynasty stations officers at the Penghu Islands|
|1171||Chinese fishermen settle on the Penghu Islands|
|1271||Chinese people start visiting Taiwan|
|1292||The Yuan dynasty sends an expedition to Liuqiu, which may or may not be Taiwan|
|1297||The Yuan dynasty sends an expedition to Liuqiu, which may or may not be Taiwan|
|1349||Wang Dayuan provides the first account of a visit to Taiwan and also notes substantial settlements of Chinese traders and fishermen on the Penghu Islands|
|1525||Some merchants from Fujian are able to speak Formosan languages|
|1544||Portuguese sailors passing Taiwan record in the ship's log the name Ilha Formosa (Beautiful Island).|
|1563||Pirate Lin Daoqian retreats to southwestern Taiwan after being chased by Ming naval forces|
|A walled town is built in Penghu on the orders of a Ming general|
|1574||3 November||Pirate Lin Feng lands in southwestern Taiwan only to be attacked by aboriginals|
|27 December||Lin Feng returns to Taiwan again|
|1582||Portuguese shipwreck survivors, the first Europeans known to have landed on Taiwan, build a raft after 45 days and return to Macau|
|1590||Chinese from Fujian start settling in southwestern Taiwan|
|1592||Japan unsuccessfully seeks sovereignty over Taiwan (Takayamakoku 高山国 in Japanese, lit. high mountain country).|
|1593||Ming officials issue ten licenses each year for Chinese junks to trade in northern Taiwan|
|1603||Chinese scholar Chen Di spends some time at the Bay of Tayouan (which Taiwan takes its name from) during a Ming dynasty anti-pirate mission and provides the first significant description of Taiwanese aborigines|
|1604||Sino-Dutch conflicts: Dutch envoy Wijbrand van Waerwijck and his army are ordered to occupy Penghu in order to open trade with China|
|1609||The Tokugawa Shogunate sends feudal lord Arima Harunobu on an exploratory mission to Taiwan.|
|1616||Nagasaki official Murayama Tōan leads troops on an unsuccessful invasion of Taiwan.|
|1622||August||The Dutch start building a fort at Penghu|
|1623||Chinese population in southwestern Taiwan reaches 1,500|
|1624||26 August||Sino-Dutch conflicts: Ming forces evict the Dutch from Penghu and they retreat to Taiwan, settling near the Bay of Tayouan next to a pirate village|
|There are two Chinese villages in Southwestern Taiwan, on a long thing peninsula on the Bay of Tayouan, and on the mainland in what would become Tainan|
|Chinese laborers start building the Fort Zeelandia at the Bay of Tayouan for the Dutch|
|1625||The Dutch clash with 170 Chinese pirates in the Madou and are forced to retreat; later the pirates are driven away|
|1626||July||The Dutch force the Chinese inhabitants of Taiwan to obtain a permit of residence|
|Spanish expedition to Formosa: The Spanish arrive at Santissima Trinidad (Jilong) and build a fort|
|1627||Chinese trade with Spanish Formosa picks up after the Spanish manage to ingratiate themselves with the governor of Fujian by defending him from attacks by the aborigines|
|1628||The Dutch sign a trade treaty with Zheng Zhilong|
|The Spanish establish a settlement at Danshui and build Fort Santo Domingo in an attempt to attract Chinese merchants.|
|1629||summer||Madou ambushes and kills 35 Dutch soldiers|
|1630||February||Madou signs a nine-month truce with the Dutch|
|1631||Spanish Formosa uses sulphur in Taiwan to trade for Chinese goods|
|1633||7 July||Battle of Liaoluo Bay: Hans Putmans' fleet sails into the harbor of Xiamen and fire on Zheng Zhilong's fleet without warning|
|22 October||Battle of Liaoluo Bay: Hans Putmans' fleet is defeated by Zheng Zhilong off of Kinmen|
|1634||October||The Dutch forbid Chinese trade of deerskins to anyone but them|
|5 November||Dutch forces rout Taccariang's forces|
|Liu Xiang attacks Fort Zeelandia in retaliation for their refusal to aid him against Zheng Zhilong, but fails|
|Chinese start planting sugarcane near Fort Provintia|
|1635||winter||Dutch pacification campaign on Formosa: The Dutch defeat Madou|
|1636||The Dutch declare a pax hollandica in the plains around the Bay of Tayouan|
|The Chinese start conducting large scale commercial hunting in Taiwan with assistance from the Dutch East India Company|
|1637||The Spanish withdraw half their forces from Taiwan|
|1640||The Dutch force Chinese people in Taiwan to pay a residency tax|
|1641||The Dutch attempt to oust the Spaniards from Jilong but fail|
|1642||August||The Dutch oust the Spaniards in Jilong; so ends Spanish Formosa|
|The Dutch forbid Chinese from settling outside of areas of company control|
|1645||The Chinese are forbidden from hunting deer in Taiwan|
|1651||Reports of violence and extortion of the Chinese by the Dutch are reported|
|1652||7–11 September||Guo Huaiyi rebellion: Chinese farmers rebel against the Dutch and are defeated; considered to be the first Chinese anti-western uprising|
|Chinese population in Taiwan reaches 20,000 to 25,000|
|1654||May||Locusts, plague, and earthquakes greatly damage Taiwan|
|1655||August||Ming loyalist Zheng Chenggong declares sovereignty over Chinese citizens in Taiwan|
|1656||9 July||An edict from Zheng Chenggong arrives at Fort Zeelandia declaring all Chinese trade of foreign products to be illegal and punishable by death, and Chinese merchants start leaving Taiwan as a result|
|1660||March||The Dutch receive news of Zheng Chenggong's plans to invade Taiwan|
|Albrecht Herport notes that even in their depleted state, there are an abundance of deer in Taiwan|
|1661||21 April||Zheng Chenggong departs from Kinmen Island for Taiwan|
|30 April||Zheng Chenggong arrives on the shores of Dutch Formosa near Fort Provintia where three Dutch ships attack them, but one sinks, and the other two retreat; two subsequent Dutch attacks are also defeated|
|1 May||Fort Provintia surrenders to Zheng Chenggong|
|3 May||Aboriginals around the Bay of Tayouan surrender to Zheng Chenggong|
|16 September||Fort Zeelandia launches an attack on Zheng Chengong's army and is defeated|
|1662||1 February||Siege of Fort Zeelandia: Fort Zeelandia surrenders to Zheng Chenggong and the Dutch depart from Taiwan; so ends Dutch Formosa|
|23 June||Zheng Chenggong dies and is succeeded by Zheng Xi|
|November||Zheng Jing defeats Zheng Xi and renamed his realm the Kingdom of Dongning|
|1663||February||Zheng Jing returns to Xiamen|
|July||Zheng Jing imprisons his brother Zheng Tai, and as a result their relatives surrender to the Qing dynasty|
|November||The Qing dynasty conquers Xiamen and Kinmen Island|
|1664||July||The Dutch occupy Jilong|
|September||Qing commander Shi Lang leads a fleet of warships to invade Taiwan but is turned back by bad weather|
|Chinese population in Taiwan rises to 50,000|
|1665||May||Shi Lang attempts to invade Taiwan but his fleet is scattered by a storm|
|1666||May||Chinese troops attempt to dislodge the Dutch from Jilong but fail|
|1668||The Dutch abandon Jilong after alienating local aboriginal villages|
|1674||Zheng Jing re-enters Xiamen|
|1678||Zheng Jing's forces under Liu Guoxuan attempt to conquer Zhangzhou but fail|
|1680||26 March||Zheng Jing departs from Xiamen|
|1681||March||Zheng Jing dies and his son Zheng Kezang succeeds him, only to be ousted by Zheng Keshuang|
|1683||12 July||Battle of Penghu: Qing commander Shi Lang leads an attack on the Zheng fleet near Penghu but fails|
|17 July||Battle of Penghu: The Qing fleet returns and defeats the Zheng fleet, occupying Penghu|
|The Qing dynasty conquers the Kingdom of Dongning; Zheng Keshuang is given a non-hereditary position in Beijing|
|1684||Taiwan is made a prefecture of Fujian, governed by a prefect, under which are magistrates of three counties, Zhuluo, Taiwan, and Fengshan|
|Total population of Taiwan is around 100,000|
|Shi Lang estimates that half of Taiwan's Chinese population has left for the mainland|
|1699||Taiwanese aborigines rebel in northern Taiwan|
|1721||19 April||Zhu Yigui and a group of 80 rebels attack a military outpost at Gangshan, south of Tainan, and rob its weapons; Du Junying also rebels|
|30 April||Zhu Yigui's rebels attack Tainan but fail|
|1 May||Zhu Yigui takes Tainan and Zhuluo|
|3 May||Zhu Yigui is declared a king|
|16 June||Qing forces land near Tainan and defeat Zhu Yigui|
|10 September||Du Junying surrenders to Qing forces|
|1723||Danshui subprefecture is created|
|1728||Tax registers are expanded to Zhanghua County|
|1731||The Dajiaxi (大甲西) aboriginals around Taizhong rebel and kill a subprefect|
|1732||Qing forces suppress the Dajiaxi (大甲西) aboriginal rebellion.|
|1733||Quarantine policies are abandoned by the Qing government and the military organization in Taiwan is overhauled; families on the mainland are allowed to move to Taiwan|
|1734||A total of 47 aboriginal schools are created|
|1738||Reclamation of aboriginal land is banned|
|1740||Legal migration to Taiwan is ended|
|1756||Immigrants in Taiwan number 600,147|
|1770||Chinese settlers start moving into Yilan|
|1777||Immigrants in Taiwan number 839,800|
|1782||Jiayi and Zhanghua prefectures go to war over gambling debts and more than 400 villages are destroyed|
|Immigrants in Taiwan number 912,000|
|1786||Lin Shuangwen rebellion: Ling Shuangwen rebels and takes over Zhanghua|
|Individuals whose relatives are already in Taiwan are allowed to emigrate|
|1788||Lin Shuangwen rebellion: The rebels are defeated|
|1795||Chen Zhouchuan rebellion|
|1805||Cai Qian rebellion|
|1809||Pirate Cai Qian is surrounded by the Qing navy and commits suicide.|
|1812||Northeast Taiwan is taken over by Chinese people|
|1824||Immigrants in Taiwan number 1,786,883|
|1832||Zhang Bing rebellion|
|1839||Qing authorities demarcate Chinese territories in Taiwan and prohibit Chinese settlers from encroaching on native lands|
|1853||Lin Gong rebellion|
|1860||Convention of Beijing: Danshui and Anping are opened to foreigners|
|1862||Dai Wansheng rebels|
|1863||Lin Wencha is promoted to commander-in-chief of Fujian troops, the highest position ever attained by a Taiwanese during the Qing dynasty|
|1865||Dai Wansheng's rebellion is defeated|
|1867||American military expedition sent to Kenting in response to the Rover incident.|
|1868||20 November||Camphor War: British Navy occupies Anping over rights to export camphor without regard for Chinese regulations|
|1 December||Camphor War: Qing dynasty gives in to British demands for reparations, freedom of missionary activity, and trade rights|
|John Dodd calls in British gunboats to force Qing authorities to apologize and pay reparations for being accosted by an angry crowd|
|1869||Government troops are decreased from 14,425 to 7,621|
|1871||November||Mudan Incident: Ryukyuan sailors shipwreck off of southern Taiwan and Paiwan people mistake them for enemies, causing the death of 54 mariners|
|1874||Japanese invasion of Taiwan (1874): Japan sends a punitive expedition to Taiwan in retribution for the Mudan Incident and forces the Qing dynasty to pay indemnities|
|Shen Baozhen has three roads constructed linking eastern and western Taiwan|
|1875||Taiwan is divided into two prefectures, Taibei Prefecture and a modified Taiwan Prefecture|
|1881||Government troops are decreased to 4,500|
|1884||August||Keelung Campaign: French forces try to land at Jilong but are forced to withdraw by Chinese troops|
|October||Keelung Campaign: French forces capture Jilong|
|8 October||Battle of Tamsui: A French attack on Danshui is defeated|
|1885||22 June||Keelung Campaign: The French evacuate from Jilong|
|1887||Taiwan is reorganized as Taiwan Province with Liu Mingchuan as its first governor|
|April||Construction on a road from Taibei to Jilong begins|
|1888||Construction on a Taibei-Xinzhu road begins|
|1891||Construction of the Taibei-Jilong road is completed|
|1893||Construction of the Taibei-Xinzhu road is completed|
|1895||March||Pescadores Campaign (1895): Japan seizes Penghu|
|17 April||Taiwan and Penghu are ceded by the Qing dynasty to Japan in the Treaty of Shimonoseki|
|20 May||The Qing dynasty orders all officials to evacuate from Taiwan|
|25 May||The Republic of Formosa is formed with Tang Jingsong as its leader, who secretly leaves for the mainland a few days later, and is succeeded by Liu Yongfu|
|29 May||Japanese invasion of Taiwan (1895): Japanese forces land near Jilong|
|7 June||Japanese invasion of Taiwan (1895): Japanese forces occupy Taibei|
|October||Liu Yongfu leaves for the mainland|
|21 October||Capitulation of Tainan: Tainan surrenders; so ends the Republic of Formosa|
|1896||June||Yunlin Massacre: 6,000 Taiwanese are massacred by the Japanese at Yunlin|
|1899||The Bank of Taiwan established to encourage Japanese investment|
|Taiwanese are recruited as policemen after a lower rank is created|
|1900||Sun Zhongshan visits Taiwan|
|1905||Population census records 2,492,784 Chinese, 82,795 "mountain people", and a total of 3,039,751 Taiwanese residents|
|1911||Liang Qichao visits Taiwan|
|1913||Japanese forces engage in a campaign bring aboriginals on the east coast under government control |
|Hakka people rebel in Miaoli and are defeated |
|1914||December||Itagaki Taisuke creates the Taiwan Doukakai, a Taiwan assimilationist movement with popular support from Taiwanese|
|1915||January||Taiwan Doukakai comes under attack by Japanese residents and authorities in Taiwan, and it is quickly disbanded|
|Tapani Incident: Marks 20 years of resistance against Japanese rule|
|1921||The Taiwanese Cultural Association is founded|
|1925||Population of Taiwan grows to 3,993,408|
|1927||The Taiwanese People's Party breaks from the Taiwanese Cultural Association|
|1930||Wushe Incident: The Seediq people attack a police station and in response the government intensifies their efforts to govern of the Atayal aborigines|
|1935||Population of Taiwan grows to 5,212,426; Chinese population of eastern Taiwan increases to 70,000|
|1937||April||Chinese language in newspapers is banned and Classical Chinese is removed from the school curriculum|
|1943||Compulsory primary education begins. Enrollment rates reached 71.3% for Taiwanese children (including 86.4% for aborigine children) and 99.6% for Japanese children in Taiwan making Taiwan's enrollment rate the second highest in Asia after Japan.|
|1943 Cairo Declaration: The Allies of World War II demand the restoration of all Chinese territories lost to Japan including Taiwan and Penghu|
|1944||Taiwan is bombed by American forces as part of Allied effort to defeat Japan|
|1945||14 August||Jewel Voice Broadcast: Hirohito announces Japan's surrender|
|25 October||Retrocession Day: Rikichi Andō signs documents "restoring" Taiwan and Penghu to the Republic of China with Chen Yi appointed as Chief Executive.|
|Population of Taiwan grows to 6,560,000|
|1947||14 February||Taibei's rice market closes due to a riot|
|28 February||February 28 Incident: Six officers attempt to arrest a woman selling cigarettes illegally in Taibei, a Taiwanese man is killed, and as a result mass riots break out all over the island|
|8 March||February 28 Incident: Reinforcements from mainland China arrive in Jilong|
|13 March||February 28 Incident: The Taiwanese resistance is defeated by Chinese KMT|
|22 April||Chen Yi is replaced by Wei Daoming|
|1948||November||More than 31,000 refugees enter Taiwan per week|
|30 December||Wei Daoming is replaced by Chen Cheng|
|1949||Approximately 5,000 refugees enter Taiwan each dayKMT retreat to Taiwan|
|19 May||White Terror (Taiwan): Chinese KMT begins imposing 38 years of Martial law in Taiwan|
|June||The New Taiwan dollar is introduced at an exchange rate of one NT to 40,000 old Taiwan dollars|
|10 December||Chinese Civil War: The ROC relocates its government to Taipei.|
|1950||1 March||Jiang Jieshi admits that he is personally responsible for the loss of mainland China at his inaugural ceremony for resuming the presidency of the Guomindang|
|Elections are held at local and provincial levels, but not at the national level|
|1 May||Landing Operation on Hainan Island: Hainan falls to the Communists.|
|1951||Land Reform in Taiwan: The government starts selling public land to tenant farmers, nearly a fifth of Taiwan's arable land|
|1952||Agricultural exports reach U.S.$114 million|
|1953||January||Land Reform in Taiwan: Amount of land available to landlords is restricted and excess land is sold to tillers|
|1955||20 January||Battle of Yijiangshan Islands: People's Liberation Army forces ROC forces off the Yijiangshan Islands|
|Population of Taiwan grows to 9,078,000|
|1958||Second Taiwan Strait Crisis: People's Liberation Army attacks Kinmen and the Matsu Islands but fail to take them|
|Population of Taiwan reaches 10 million|
|1960||Jiang Jieshi's presidency is extended past two terms|
|Institutions of higher education increase to 15, primary schools rise to 1,982, and secondary schools to 299|
|1961||Slightly over half of Taiwan's population lives in urban areas|
|1964||Taiwanese language is banned in schools and official settings|
|1965||Population of Taiwan grows to 12,628,000|
|1968||Compulsory education is extended from 6 to 9 years|
|1970||Taiwan's Gini coefficient falls to 0.321|
|1971||China and the United Nations: The United Nations recognizes the People's Republic of China as the government of China. The Republic of China withdraws from the United Nations.|
|1975||Population of Taiwan grows to 16,150,000|
|1980||Xinzhu Science-Based Industrial Park founded|
|1985||Population of Taiwan grows to 19,258,000|
|1987||15 July||Martial law in Taiwan: Martial law is lifted from Taiwan|
|The Environmental Protection Administration reveals that 15 percent of farmland is contaminated by heavy metals|
|1990||Wild Lily student movement in Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall.|
|Number of farm households fall to less than 20 percent|
|1991||Legislative Yuan and National Assembly elected in 1947 were forced to resign.|
|The first democratic election of National Assembly.|
|1992||Fair Trade Law enacted.|
|The first democratic election of the Legislative Yuan.|
|1994||National Health Insurance begins.|
|1995||US government reverses policy and allows President Lee Teng-hui to visit the US. The People's Republic of China responds with the Third Taiwan Strait Crisis by launching a series of missiles into the waters off Taiwan. The Taiwan stock market loses one-third of its value.|
|February 28 Incident monument erected; President Lee Teng-hui publicly apologizes on behalf of the KMT.|
|Population of Taiwan grows to 21,300,000|
|1996||President Bill Clinton dispatches the USS Nimitz supercarrier to patrol the Taiwan Strait.|
|The first direct presidential election; Lee Teng-hui elected.|
|1997||Private cellular phone companies begin services.|
|1999||Resolution on Taiwan's Future|
|2000||Chen Shui-bian, the opposition candidate from the DPP, elected president by a lead of 2.5% of votes marking the end of the KMT status as the ruling party. Voter turnout was 82.69%; first peaceful transfer of power.|
|Four Noes and One Without|
|2001||Three mini-links between Kinmen, Matsu and the mainland of Fujian begins.|
|Private fixed-line telephone companies begin services.|
|Serious flooding caused by Typhoon Nari.|
|2002||Entry into the World Trade Organization.|
|Penetration rate of cellular phones exceeds 100%.|
|North-Link Line railroad electrified.|
|2004||Second north-south freeway completed.|
|228 Hand-in-Hand Rally.|
|President Chen Shui-bian is re-elected by a margin of 0.22% votes after being shot the day before.|
|Taipei 101 becomes World's Tallest Building.|
|2005||The first direct commercial airplane flights from Beijing to Taipei for the Chinese New Year.|
|The PRC passes an "anti-secession law" authorizing the use of force against Taiwan and the ROC government should it formally declare independence. In response, 1.6 million people marched in Taipei against China's "anti-secession law". Similar marches occur across the world by Taiwanese nationalists. Protests against the PRC were held worldwide, including, but not limited to: Chicago, New York City, Washington DC, Paris, and Sydney.|
|Pan-Blue leaders visit to mainland China|
|President Chen is invited and attends the funeral of Pope John Paul II. He is the first ROC president to visit the Vatican.|
|The National Assembly of the Republic of China convenes for the last time to implement several constitutional reforms, including single-member two-vote districts, and votes to transfer the power of constitutional reform to the popular ballot, essentially abolishing itself.|
|2006||Taiwan's first high-speed rail line, Taiwan High Speed Rail, begins operation.|
|Rename "Chiang Kai-shek International Airport" to Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport.|
|2007||Rename Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall to National Taiwan Democracy Memorial Hall.|
|Taiwan applies for membership in the United Nations under the name "Taiwan", and is rejected by the General Assembly.|
|Chen Yunlin visit|
|Wild Strawberry student movement|
|Lien Chen represents Ma Ying-jeou meets Hu Jintao at APEC Peru 2008|
|March 9||Red Line of the Kaohsiung MRT completed.|
|March 22||presidential election; with 58.48% of the vote, KMT candidate Ma Ying-jeou defeats DPP candidate Frank Hsieh. Many voters boycott the referendum on whether and how to join UN so the level of voter participation required for referendum to be considered valid is not achieved.|
|May 20||Ma Ying-jeou sworn into office as the 12th President of ROC. Second peaceful transfer of power. Tsai Ing-wen inaugurate as the Chairperson of DPP.|
|July||For the first time in nearly 60 years, the first direct China-Taiwan flights are opened|
|2009||World Games 2009|
|October 17||Ma Ying-jeou inaugurates as Chairperson of Kuomintang.|
|2012||January 14||presidential election; with 51.6% of the vote, KMT candidate Ma Ying-jeou defeats DPP candidate Tsai Ing-wen.|
|2013||Ma Ying-jeou meets Pope Francis, the first ROC president to meet with the pope.|
|2014||March 18||Sunflower Student Movement, students occupy the Legislative Yuan force to halt the enforcement of Cross-Strait Service Trade Agreement.|
|November 29||Regional election; DPP elects 13 mayor and magistrates.|
|2015||Ma Ying-jeou meets with Xi Jinping, the first Cross-Strait leader meeting.|
|2016||January 16||presidential election; with 56.3% of the vote, DPP candidate Tsai Ing-wen defeats KMT candidate Eric Chu.|
|May 20||Tsai Ing-wen sworn into office as the 14th and current President of ROC. Third peaceful transfer of power.|
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