Toll (gene family)
The toll genes encode members of the toll-like receptor class of proteins. Mutants in the toll gene were originally identified by 1995 Nobel Laureates Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard and Eric Wieschaus and colleagues in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster in 1985, and cloned by the laboratory of Kathryn Anderson in 1988. Since then, thirteen mammalian toll genes have been identified.
In flies, toll was first identified as a gene important in embryogenesis in establishing the dorsal-ventral axis. In 1996, toll was found to have a role in the fly's immunity to fungal infections. Both mammalian and invertebrate toll genes are required for innate immunity.
Toll-like receptors in mammals were identified in 1997 at Yale University by Ruslan Medzhitov and Charles Janeway. Concurrently, two separate studies, led by Shizuo Akira, Bruce A. Beutler and their respective colleagues discovered that the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) act as the principal sensors of infection in mammals.
The name of the gene family derives from Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard's 1985 exclamation, "Das ist ja toll!" The exclamation, which translates as "That's amazing!" was in reference to the underdeveloped ventral portion of a fruit fly larva. The adjective "toll" is German for "amazing" or "great".
- Hansson GK, Edfeldt K (2005). "Toll to be paid at the gateway to the vessel wall". Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 25 (6): 1085–7. PMID 15923538. doi:10.1161/01.ATV.0000168894.43759.47.
- Hashimoto C, Hudson KL, Anderson KV (1988). "The Toll gene of Drosophila, required for dorsal-ventral embryonic polarity, appears to encode a transmembrane protein". Cell. 52 (2): 269–79. PMID 2449285. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(88)90516-8.
- Lemaitre B, Nicolas E, Michaut L, Reichhart JM, Hoffmann JA (1996). "The dorsoventral regulatory gene cassette spätzle/Toll/cactus controls the potent antifungal response in Drosophila adults". Cell. 86 (6): 973–983. PMID 8808632. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80172-5.
- Medzhitov R, Preston-Hurlburt P, Janeway CA (1997). "A human homologue of the Drosophila Toll protein signals activation of adaptive immunity". Nature. 388 (6640): 394–7. PMID 9237759. doi:10.1038/41131.
- Hoshino, K; Takeuchi, O; Kawai, T; Sanjo, H; Ogawa, T; Takeda, Y; Takeda, K; Akira, S (Apr 1, 1999). "Cutting edge: Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-deficient mice are hyporesponsive to lipopolysaccharide: evidence for TLR4 as the Lps gene product.". Journal of Immunology. 162 (7): 3749–52. PMID 10201887.
- Poltorak, Alexander; et al. (1998). "Defective LPS Signaling in C3H/HeJ and C57BL/10ScCr Mice: Mutations in Tlr4 Gene". Science. 282 (5396): 2085–2088. PMID 9851930. doi:10.1126/science.282.5396.2085.
- "toll - LEO Deutsch-English Worterbuch". Retrieved 2011-10-03.
|This immunology article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|
|This developmental biology article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|