TLR10

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TLR10
PBB Protein TLR10 image.jpg
Available structures
PDB Human UniProt search: PDBe RCSB
Identifiers
Aliases TLR10, CD290, toll like receptor 10
External IDs OMIM: 606270 HomoloGene: 12809 GeneCards: TLR10
Gene location (Human)
Chromosome 4 (human)
Chr. Chromosome 4 (human)[1]
Chromosome 4 (human)
Genomic location for TLR10
Genomic location for TLR10
Band No data available Start 38,772,239 bp[1]
End 38,782,990 bp[1]
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)

NM_001017388
NM_001195106
NM_001195107
NM_001195108
NM_030956

n/a

RefSeq (protein)

NP_001017388
NP_001182035
NP_001182036
NP_001182037
NP_112218

n/a

Location (UCSC) Chr 4: 38.77 – 38.78 Mb n/a
PubMed search [2] n/a
Wikidata
View/Edit Human

Toll-like receptor 10 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TLR10 gene.[3] TLR10 has also been designated as CD290 (cluster of differentiation 290). TLR10 has not been extensively studies because it is a pseudogene in mice, though all other mammalian species contain an intact copy of the TLR10 gene. Unlike other TLRs, TLR10 does not activate the immune system and has instead been shown to suppress inflammatory signaling on primary human cells.[4] This makes TLR10 unique among the TLR family. No known ligand is currently known for TLR10.

Function[edit]

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the toll-like receptor (TLR) family which play a fundamental role in pathogen recognition and activation of innate immunity. TLRs are highly conserved from Drosophila to humans and share structural and functional similarities. They recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are expressed on infectious agents, and mediate the production of cytokines necessary for the development of effective immunity.

TLR10 is unique among the TLR family in having an anti-inflammatory function, rather than a pro-inflammatory function similar to the other TLR family members. This was discovered by over-expressing TLR10 in human cell lines and using antibody-mediated engagement of the receptor on primary human cells. When TLR10 is activated in this manner, it suppresses the amount of cytokines produced, as compared to control cells. TLR10 engagement also has long-term effects on monocyte and B cell activation/differentiation by suppressing the transcription of activation markers. TLR10's mechanism of action is not yet known but activation of the receptor has been shown to suppress NF-κB, MAP kinase and Akt signaling events stimulated by TLR and CD40 ligands.[5] Currently, no ligand has been identified for this receptor.

Expression[edit]

TLR10 has been transcriptionally shown to be expressed in secondary lymphoid tissues such as the spleen, lymph nodes and tonsils. More specifically, protein level expression of TLR10 has been shown on the surface of B cells, monocytes and neutrophils; but not on T cells. Monocytes have the highest expression of TLR10 among these cell types but the overall expression of TLR10 is low compared to other TLRs. TLR10 has also been shown to be produced intracellularly in neutrophils and B cells differentiating into plasma cells.

Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000174123 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". 
  3. ^ Chuang T, Ulevitch RJ (Mar 2001). "Identification of hTLR10: a novel human Toll-like receptor preferentially expressed in immune cells". Biochim Biophys Acta. 1518 (1-2): 157–61. PMID 11267672. doi:10.1016/s0167-4781(00)00289-x. 
  4. ^ Jiang S, Li X, Hess NJ, Guan Y, Tapping RI (May 2016). "TLR10 is a Negative Regulator of Both MyD88-Dependent and -Independent TLR Signaling". Journal of Immunology. 196 (9): 3834–3841. PMID 27022193. 
  5. ^ Hess NJ, Jiang S, Li X, Guan Y, Tapping RI (Jan 2017). "TLR10 Is a B Cell Intrinsic Suppressor of Adaptive Immune Responses". Journal of Immunology. 198 (2): 699–707. PMID 27956526. 
  6. ^ "Entrez Gene: TLR10 toll-like receptor 10". 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]