Transport in the United Arab Emirates
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The United Arab Emirates have an extensive and very well developed road network, principally in the Northern Coastal area, where the main population centres are located. Many of these roads have been improved to become multilane dual-carriageway motorways, capable of coping with the high demand for road transportation in the country.
List of Motorways
- E10 Abu Dhabi - Al Shahama. Length: 44 km.
- E11 Al Silaa, on the border with Saudi Arabia to Al Qir, on the border with Oman. Length: 583 km. This is the most important motorway of the country, because it connects Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Umm al Quwayn, Ras Al Khaimah, amongst other important centres.
- E12 Abu Dhabi - Al Falah. Length: 34 km.
- E15 Ruways - Wasit Oasis. Length: 145 km.
- E16 Al Rahba - Al Saad. Length: 100 km.
- E18 Ras Al Khaimah - Al Manama. Length: 61 km.
- E20 Abu Dhabi - Al Hayer. Length: 144 km.
- E22 Abu Dhabi - Al Ain. Length: 157 km.
- E44 Dubai - Hatta. Length: 129 km.
- E45 Tarif - Liwa. Length: 109 km.
- E55 Umm Al Quwayn - Al Shuwaib. Length: 131 km.
- E66 Dubai - Al Ain. Length: 130 km.
- E84 Al Malaiha - Fujairah. Length: 43 km.
- E88 Sharjah - Masafi. Length: 77 km.
- E89 Diba al Fujairah - Fujairah. Length: 66 km.
- E99 Diba al Fujairah - Kalba. Length: 82 km.
- E102 Sharjah - Kalba. Length: 119 km.
- E311 Dubai - Ras al Khaimah. Length: 139 km.
- E611 Dubai - Umm al Quwayn. Also known as Emirates Bypass. Length: 110 km.
Private vehicles are commonly used in the country. Driving licenses are available to those who are 18 years of age and above. Unlike neighboring Saudi Arabia, women with valid driving licences are allowed to drive. An extensive and modern road network connects the main coastal cities; the desert roads are less developed.
Transport payment systems
Fares on Abu Dhabi buses are paid by the Hafilat Card since 2015, which is a contactless smart card to be flashed when entering and exiting the bus at mini-terminals inside of the bus. It is currently only available for bus travellers but will gradually be expanded into the water transport systems and the under -planning Abu Dhabi Metro, Etihad Rail and the Abu Dhabi Tram System. The Ojra card is used by frequent travellers. The Nol card is a contactless smart card used for Public Transport in Dubai. It is also used for payment on buses between Dubai and other cities.
Bus Services were introduced in Abu Dhabi by the Emirate in 2008 with four routes which were zero fare until the end of the year. At the end of 2011, the Bus Services in Emirate of Abu Dhabi could provide more than 95 service routes with 650 buses to transport 50 million passengers in the region. In the Bus Network Plan in 2013, 14 bus routes were operated in Abu Dhabi City.
Bus services also run in Dubai under the name DubaiBus and are part of the RTA. Buses in Sharjah are operated by Mowasalat.And finally in ajman by the name of "Ajman bus " Bus services also operate in between the different emirates due to the lack of rail connectivity, although in the near future, this will change.
The only intercity railway operational in the UAE is the Dubai Metro, while the Abu Dhabi Metro is under construction. Freight is transported through Etihad Rail, it was set up in 2009 to manage a national level freight and passenger rail network within the country and later to other nations of Gulf Cooperation Council. The first phase of the system is complete and now freight service has been started. The railway is then expected to reach for connection to Mussafah, Khalifa and Jebel Ali ports in Dubai in phase two and will connect to Saudi and Omani borders according to Shadi Malak as the Executive Director of Commercial and Operations of Etihad Rail. Reported in January 2016, phase two of construction is suspended for the company decides to re-plan the timing and delivery of the construction as phase one will still operate as originally planned. Costing approximately $10 billions, the three-stage rail system is expected to be built 1200 km long to connect cities in UAE including the railway connection of Dubai and Abu Dhabi to improve UAE's infrastructure, as well as to create opportunity to reach out to further in the world to transport products through links in other Gulf countries. As expectation, cities of Abu Dhabi, Al Ain, Dubai, Sharjah, Fujairah, Ras Al Khaimah and Khor Fakkan will be linked by Etihad Rail when completion is reached.
In November 2014, Dubai launched the UAE's first tram network named Dubai Tram, it currently operates mainly in the Dubai Marina with many new stations being constructed.
Taxis services are operated by both government agencies as well as private agencies.
The largest airports in the country are Dubai and Abu Dhabi. The General Civil Aviation Authority (GCAA) started applying an advanced program in 2010 that allows the assessment of aircraft registered in foreign countries in order to ensure their safety and airworthiness. In 2011 it banned all aircraft registered in countries like Congo DR, Swaziland, Equatorial Guinea, Sierra Leone and São Tomé and Príncipe due to their poor safety standards.
There are 42 airports spread across the UAE as of 2012.
Airports with paved runways
- total: 25
- over 3,047 m: 12
- 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
- 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
- 914 to 1,523 m: 4
- under 914 m: 2
Airports with unpaved runways
- total: 17
- over 3,047 m: 1
- 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
- 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
- 914 to 1,523 m: 6
- under 914 m: 5
Heliports 5 are known as of 2012
Emirates airline is the biggest national airline of the UAE and is owned by Dubai. Etihad Airways is the second largest National Airline and is owned by Abu Dhabi. Other airlines are flyDubai, Air Arabia and Royal Jet.
Ports and harbors
There are various ports spread across the 7 Emirates, they are Ajman Port, Fujairah Port, Das Island, Khalifa Port, Mina' Zayid and Mina Jabal Al Dhanna in Abu Dhabi, Khawr Fakkan, Mina Al Hemreya and, Mina' Khalid in Sharjah, Mina' Jabal 'Ali, Port Rashid in Dubai, Mina' Saqr in Ras Al Khaimah, Umm al-Qaiwain Port.
- total: 68 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,107,442 GRT/1,795,235 tonnes deadweight (DWT)
- ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 18, chemical tanker 3, container 8, liquified gas 1, livestock carrier 1, passenger 1, petroleum tanker 27, roll-on/roll-off 7, specialized tanker 1 (1999 est.)
Major Road Accidents
- Al-Mukhtar, Rima (5 May 2013). "Saudi women seek driving licenses in UAE". Jeddah: Arab News. Retrieved Sep 12, 2014.
- "All aboard for a free ride". The National. 30 June 2008. Retrieved 2008-07-12.
- "Abu Dhabi Region Bus Services". dot.abudhabi.ae. Retrieved 2016-11-09.
- Wam. "2017: Abu Dhabi to Dubai by train". Emirates 24|7. Retrieved 2016-11-09.
- Haider, Haseeb. "UAE's Etihad Rail stage two tendering process suspended - Khaleej Times". www.khaleejtimes.com. Retrieved 2016-11-09.
- "United Arab Emirates bans Congo registered aircraft". eTN. Retrieved 22 March 2011.
- https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ae.html Airports in UAE- CIA Factbook