A dress (also known as a frock or a gown) is a garment consisting of a skirt with an attached bodice (or a matching bodice giving the effect of a one-piece garment). It consists of a top piece that covers the torso and hangs down over the legs. A dress can be any one-piece garment containing a skirt of any length. Dresses can be formal or informal. In many cultures, dresses are more often worn by women and girls.
Dresses are outer garments made up of a bodice and a skirt and can be made in one or more pieces. Dresses are generally suitable for both general and formal wear in the West for women and children.
In the 11th century, women in Europe wore dresses that were similar to men's tunics and were loose, with a hemline reaching to below the knees or lower. By the end of the century, these dresses featured a tighter fit on the arms and women's upper bodies. Dresses were made snug by featuring slits on the sides of the dress that were pulled tight in order to fit a woman's figure.
Starting in the 1550s, middle- and upper-class women in Europe wore dresses which included a smock, stays, kirtle, gown, forepart, sleeves, ruff and a partlet. Undergarments were not worn underneath. In England, Queen Elizabeth dictated what kinds of dresses women were allowed to wear. French women were inspired by Spanish-style bodices and also wore ruffs. French dresses were known as marlottes. In Italy, dresses were known as ropa and semarra. Dresses in the 16th century also displayed surface decoration such as embroidery, with blackwork being especially popular.
Holland, as a center of textile production, was a particularly noted area of innovation in dress during this time period. During this time period, in Spain and Portugal, women wore stomachers. However, in England and France, dresses became more "naturally" shaped. Lace and slashing were popular decorations. Skirts were full, with regular folds and the overskirt allowed the display of an underskirt of contrasting fabric. Necklines became lower as well. Embroidery that reflected scientific discoveries, such as new animals and plants discovered were popular. In the British Colonies, the multiple-piece dresses were also popular, though less luxurious. Wealthy women living in the Spanish or Dutch colonies in the Americas copied the fashions that were popular from their homelands.
The three-piece dress, which had a bodice, petticoat and gown, were popular until the last 25 years, in which the mantua, or a one-piece gown, became more popular. Corsets became more important in dresses by the 1680s.
Working women, and women in slavery in the Americas, used simple patterns to create shifts, wool or linen petticoats and gowns and cotton dresses. The bottoms of the skirts could be tucked into the waistband when a woman was near fire when near a cooking or heating source.
Large, triangular silhouettes were favored during the 18th century, skirts were wide and supported by hoop underskirts. One-piece gowns remained popular until the middle of the century. During the 1760s in France, hoop petticoats were reduced in size. Lighter colors and lighter fabrics were also favored. In Colonial America, women most often wore a gown and petticoat, in which the skirt of the gown opened to reveal the petticoat underneath. Women also had riding habits which consisted of the petticoat, jacket and a waistcoat.
French fashion regarding dresses became very fast-changing during the later part of the 18th century. Throughout this period, the length of fashionable dresses varied only slightly, between ankle-length and floor-sweeping. Between 1740 and 1770, the robe à la française was very popular with upper-class women. In France, the Empire style became popular after the French Revolution. This style was more simple and was also favored by Josephine Bonaparte. Other types of dresses that were popular during the revolution included tunic dresses and the negligée à la patriot, which featured the red, white and blue colors, symbolic of the revolution.
Early nineteenth century dresses in Russia were influenced by Classicism and were made of thin fabrics, with some dresses being semi-transparent. Elizabeth Vigée Le Brun wore these types of dresses with a short skirt (reaching to her ankles) when she lived in Russia between 1785 and 1801. Many Russian women copied her style. By the 1840s, Russian women were turning to what was in fashion in Europe.
Europeans styles in dresses increased dramatically to the hoopskirt and crinoline-supported styles of the 1860s, then fullness was draped and drawn to the back. Dresses had a "day" bodice with a high neckline and long sleeves, and an "evening" bodice with a low neckline (decollete) and very short sleeves. In Russia, metal hoopskirts were known as "malakhovs." Skirts of the 1860s were heavily decorated.
To sleep, women in the American West wore floor-length dresses of white cotton with high collars displaying decoration. Various Native American people, such as the Navajo and the Mescalero Apache began to adapt the designs of their dresses to look more like the European Americans they came in contact with. Navajo women further adapted the European designs, incorporating their own sense of beauty, "creating hózhó."
Paper sewing patterns for women to sew their own dresses started to be readily available in the 1860s, when the Butterick Publishing Company began to promote them. These patterns were graded by size, which was a new innovation.
The Victorian era's dresses were tight-fitting and decorated with pleats, rouching and frills. Women in the United States who were involved in dress reform in the 1850s found themselves the center of attention, both positive and negative. By 1881, the Rational Dress Society had formed in reaction to the restrictive dress of the era.
In the early twentieth century, the look popularized by the Gibson Girl was fashionable. The upper part of women's dresses in the Edwardian era included a "pigeon breast" look that gave way to a corseted waist and an s-shaped silhouette. Women called their dresses "waists" if one-piece, or "shirtwaists," if it consisted of a skirt and a blouse. The bodice of the dresses had a boned lining. Informally, wealthy women wore tea gowns at home. These garments were looser, though not as loose as a "wrapper," and made of expensive fabric and laces.
By 1910, the Edwardian look was replaced with a straighter silhouette. French designer, Paul Poiret, had a huge impact on the look of the time. Designs developed by Poiret were available in both boutiques and also in department stores. Popular dresses of the time were one-piece and included lingerie dresses which could be layered. At around the same time, in the United States, the American Ladies Tailors' Association developed a dress called the suffragette suit, which was practical for women to work and move around in. Another innovation of the 1910s was the ready availability of factory-made clothing.
Waistlines started out high and by 1915 were below the natural waist. By 1920, waistlines were at hip-level. Between 1910 and 1920 necklines were lower and dresses could be short-sleeved or sleeveless. Women who worked during World War I preferred shorter dresses, which eventually became the dominant style overall. In addition to the shorter dresses, waistlines were looser and the dominant colors were black, white and gray.
By 1920, the "new woman" was a trend that saw lighter fabrics and dresses that were easier to put on. Younger women were also setting the trends that older women started to follow. The dresses of the 1920s could be pulled over the head, were short and straight. It was acceptable to wear sleeveless dresses during the day. Flapper dresses were popular until end of the decade.
During World War II, dresses were slimmer and inspired by military uniforms. After WWII, the New Look, promoted by Christian Dior was very influential on fashion and the look of women's dresses for about a decade.
Since the 1970s, no one dress type or length has dominated fashion for long, with short and ankle-length styles often appearing side-by-side in fashion magazines and catalogs.
|Part of a series on|
|Western dress codes|
and corresponding attires
Contents/Culture and the arts portal
In most varieties of formal dress codes in Western cultures, a dress of an appropriate style is mandatory for women. They are also very popular for special occasions such as proms or weddings. For such occasions they, together with blouse and skirt, remain the de facto standard attire for many girls and women.
Types of dresses
Silk velvet, chenille and chiffon created by Jean-Philippe Worth, 1903
Lola Beer Ebner in "afternoon dress", 1950
Gown or Long Dress - a woman's formal dress, usually having a floor-length skirt.
Midi dress - a “midi” is used to refer to any dress or skirt that has a hem which hits at mid-calf – halfway between the knee and ankle.
Knee length dress- Hemline ends at knee height.
Micro dress (right) with minidresses, 2008.- A microdress is an extremely short version of a mini.
- History of Western fashion
- China poblana
- Granny dress
- Jumper dress
- Lingerie dress
- List of dresses
- Sack-back gown (also known as robe à la française)
- Squaw dress
- Condra, Jill. The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Clothing Through World History: 1801 to the present. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 59. ISBN 9780313336652.
- Davis, Michael (2007). Art of dress designing (1st ed.). Delhi: Global Media. ISBN 81-904575-7-8.
- "The definition of dress". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 2018-01-29.
- Picken 1957, p. 101.
- Edwards 2017, p. 20.
- Cunningham 2003, p. 20.
- Edwards 2017, p. 30.
- Newman 2001, p. 113.
- Newman 2001, p. 114.
- Edwards 2017, p. 21.
- Bigelow 1970, p. 110.
- Edwards 2017, p. 23.
- Pushkareva 1997, p. 120.
- Edwards 2017, p. 34.
- Staples & Shaw 2013, p. 222.
- Havelin 2012, p. 27.
- Edwards 2017, p. 35.
- Bigelow 1970, p. 126.
- Havelin 2012, p. 26.
- Bigelow 1970, p. 135.
- Bigelow 1970, p. 137.
- Edwards 2017, p. 49.
- Pietsch 2013, p. 400.
- "Costume". Funk & Wagnalls New World Encyclopedia. 2017 – via EBSCOhost. (Subscription required (help)).
- "A Colonial Lady's Clothing: A Glossary of Terms". Colonial Williamsburg. Retrieved 2018-01-24.
- Pietsch 2013, p. 397-398.
- Delpierre 1997, p. 15-16.
- "A Brief History of Women's Fashion". Makers. 7 September 2016. Retrieved 2018-01-24.
- Bigelow 1970, p. 157.
- Bigelow 1970, p. 183.
- Pushkareva 1997, p. 242.
- Pushkareva 1997, p. 244.
- Krohn 2012, p. 36.
- Bigelow 1970, p. 188.
- Krohn 2012, p. 37.
- Parezo & Jones 2009, p. 384.
- Parezo & Jones 2009, p. 384-385.
- Darnell 2000, p. 27.
- "Butterick History". Butterick Patterns. Retrieved 2018-01-24.
- Cullen-DuPont, Kathryn (2014). Encyclopedia of Women's History in America. Infobase Publishing. pp. 71–72. ISBN 9781438110332.
- Darnell 2000, p. 9.
- Darnell 2000, p. 11.
- Darnell 2000, p. 13.
- Darnell 2000, p. 49.
- Darnell 2000, p. 50.
- Darnell 2000, p. 53.
- Greenberg, Molly (2017-03-01). "100 Years of Feminist History Explained in 10 Women's Work Suits". UNC. Retrieved 2018-01-24.
- Khan, Sarah (2016-11-16). "The fascinating history and evolution of the female pantsuit". Marie France Asia. Retrieved 2018-01-24.
- Richards 2010, p. 100.
- Darnell 2000, p. 57.
- Richards 2010, p. 100-101.
- Darnell 2000, p. 73.
- Darnell 2000, p. 77.
- Darnell 2000, p. 105.
- Parezo & Jones 2009, p. 383.
- "The History of Hemlines". Women's History Network. 2013-09-01. Retrieved 2018-01-24.
- Pundir, Nirupama (2007). Fashion technology : today and tomorrow. New Delhi: Mittal Publications. ISBN 81-8324-203-0.
- The Vogue Sewing Book. Vogue Patterns. 1975. p. 337.
- Cumming, Valerie; Cunnington, C.W.; Cunnington, P.E. (2010). The dictionary of fashion history (Rev., updated and supplemented [ed.]. ed.). Oxford: Berg. p. 130. ISBN 9780857851437.
- Delamore, Philip. "Mini and Midi". The Wedding Dress: A Visual Sourcebook of Over 200 of the Most Beautiful Gowns Ever Made. Pavilion Books. p. 122. ISBN 9781862057647.
- Cumming, Valerie; Cunnington, C. W.; Cunnington, P. E. The Dictionary of Fashion History. Berg. ISBN 9781847887382.
- Bigelow, Marybelle S. (1970). Fashion in History: Apparel in the Western World. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Burgess Publishing Company. ISBN 9780808702610.
- Brockmamn, Helen L.: The Theory of Fashion Design, Wiley, 1965.
- Darnell, Paula Jean (2000). From Victorian to Vamp:Women's Clothing 1900-1929. Reno, NV: Fabric Fancies. ISBN 9781887402156.
- Cunningham, Patricia A. (2003). Reforming Women's Fashion, 1850-1920: Politics, Health and Art. Kent, Ohio: The Kent State University Press. ISBN 0873387422.
- Delpierre, Madeleine (1997). Dress in France in the Eighteenth Century. Translated by Caroline Beamish. New Haven: Yale University. ISBN 9780300071283.
- Edwards, Lydia (2017). How to Read a Dress: A Guide to Changing Fashion from the 16th to the 20th Century. London: Bloomsbury Academic. ISBN 9781472533272.
- Havelin, Kate (2012). Buckskin Dresses and Pumpkin Breeches: Colonial Fashions from the 1580s to 1760s. Minneapolis: Twenty-First Century Books. ISBN 9780761358879.
- Krohn, Katherine (2012). Calico Dresses and Buffalo Robes: American West Fashions from the 1840s to the 1890s. Minneapolis: Twenty-First Century Bookos. ISBN 9780761380528.
- Newman, Paul B. (2001). Daily Life in the Middle Ages. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc. ISBN 9780786408979.
- Parezo, Nancy J.; Jones, Angelina R. (June 2009). "What's in a Name?: The 1940s-1950s 'Squaw Dress'". American Indian Quarterly. 33 (3): 373–404 – via EBSCOhost. (Subscription required (help)).
- Picken, Mary Brooks (1957). The Fashion Dictionary: Fabric, Sewing, and Dress as Expressed in the Language of Fashion. New York: Funk & Wagnalls Company.
- Pietsch, Johannes (September 2013). "On Different Types of Women's Dresses in France in the Louis XVI Period". Fashion Theory: The Journal of Dress, Body & Culture. 17 (4): 397–416. doi:10.2752/175174113X13673474643084 – via EBSCOhost. (Subscription required (help)).
- Pushkareva, Natalia (1997). Women in Russian History: From the Tenth to the Twentieth Century. Translated and edited by Eve Levin. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 9780765632708.
- Richards, Marlee (2010). America in the 1910s. Minneapolis: Twenty-First Century Books. ISBN 9780822534372.
- Staples, Kathleen A.; Shaw, Madelyn (2013). Clothing Through American History: The British Colonial Era. Santa Barbara, California: Greenwood. ISBN 9780313084607.
- Stoykov, Lubomir (2016). Theoretical problems of fashion, Sofia: National Academy of Art. ISBN 978-954-9799-11-8
- Tozer, Jane, and Sarah Levitt: Fabric of Society: A Century of People and Their Clothes 1770–1870, Laura Ashley Ltd., 1983; ISBN 0-9508913-0-4
- Media related to Dresses at Wikimedia Commons