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|Centuries:||15th century – 16th century – 17th century|
|Decades:||1520s 1530s 1540s – 1550s – 1560s 1570s 1580s|
|Years:||1555 1556 1557 – 1558 – 1559 1560 1561|
|1558 by topic|
|Arts and science|
|Lists of leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Ab urbe condita||2311|
|English Regnal year||4 Ph. & M. – 1 Eliz. 1|
— to —戊午年十一月廿二日
|- Vikram Samvat||1614–1615|
|- Shaka Samvat||1480–1481|
|- Kali Yuga||4659–4660|
|- Ǹrí Ìgbò||558–559|
|Japanese calendar||Kōji 4Eiroku 1
|Juche calendar||N/A (before 1912)|
|Julian calendar||1558 MDLVIII|
|Minguo calendar||354 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2101|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: 1558|
- January 7 – French troops led by Francis, Duke of Guise take Calais, the last continental possession of the Kingdom of England.
- January 9 – Geneva becomes independent from the Canton of Bern.
- January 22 – Beginning of the Livonian War.
- February 2 – The University of Jena is founded in Thuringia, Germany.
- February 5 – during the Arauco War, Pedro de Avendaño with sixty men capture Caupolicán, the Mapuche Gran Toqui leading their first revolt against the Spanish Empire, nearby Antihuala encamped with a small band of followers.
- July 13 – Battle of Gravelines: In France, Spanish forces led by Count Lamoral of Egmont defeat the French forces of Marshal Paul des Thermes at Gravelines.
- July 18 – The city of Tartu, capital of the Bishopric of Dorpat, now in Estonia, surrenders to Russia.
- April 24 – Mary, Queen of Scots, marries Francis II of France.
- November 17 – The Elizabethan era begins: Queen Mary I of England dies and is succeeded by her younger half-sister Elizabeth.
Date unknown 
- Queen Elizabeth grants rest and refreshment to pilgrims and travellers who pass by the Holy Well Spring, Malvern.
- January or February – Hendrik Goltzius, Dutch painter (d. 1617)
- July 11 – Robert Greene, English dramatist (d. 1592)
- August 19 – François de Bourbon, prince de Conti (d. 1614)
- September 9 – Philippe Emmanuel, Duke of Mercoeur, French soldier (d. 1602)
- October 12 – Archduke Maximilian III of Austria (d. 1618)
- November 3 – Thomas Kyd, author of The Spanish Tragedy (d. 1594)
- date unknown
- Meir Lublin, Polish rabbi (d. 1616)
- Kōriki Masanaga, Japanese military commander (d. 1599)
- Bessho Nagaharu, Japanese nobleman (d. 1580)
- Olivier van Noort, first Dutchman to circumnavigate the world (d. 1627)
- Chidiock Tichborne, English conspirator and poet (d. 1586)
- Mihai Viteazul, Prince of Wallachia (1593–1601)
- probable - Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Mons, French merchant (d. 1628)
- February 25 – Eleonore of Austria, Queen of Portugal and France (b. 1498)
- March 24 – Anna of Egmond, Countess of Egmond and Buren (b. c. 1533)
- March 25 – Marcos de Niza, French Franciscan explorer (b. c. 1495)
- April 18 – Roxelana, wife of Suleiman the Magnificent (b. c. 1500)
- April 20 – Johannes Bugenhagen, German reformer (b. 1485)
- April 26 – Jean Fernel, French physician (b. 1497)
- May 17 – Francisco de Sa de Miranda, Portuguese poet (b. 1485)
- May 31 – Philip Hoby, English politician (b. 1505)
- September 21 – Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (b. 1500)
- October – Mellin de Saint-Gelais, French poet (b. c. 1491)
- October 18 – Maria of Austria, queen of Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia (b. 1505)
- October 21 – J.C. Scaliger, Italian scholar (b. 1484)
- November – Hugh Aston, English composer (b. 1485)
- November 17
- December 15 – Thomas Cheney, Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports (b. c. 1485)
- December 28 – Hermann Finck, German composer (b. 1527)
- date unknown