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|Centuries:||15th century – 16th century – 17th century|
|Decades:||1550s 1560s 1570s – 1580s – 1590s 1600s 1610s|
|Years:||1577 1578 1579 – 1580 – 1581 1582 1583|
|1580 by topic|
|Arts and science|
|Lists of leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Ab urbe condita||2333|
|English Regnal year||22 Eliz. 1 – 23 Eliz. 1|
— to —庚辰年十一月廿五日
|- Vikram Samvat||1636–1637|
|- Shaka Samvat||1502–1503|
|- Kali Yuga||4681–4682|
|- Ǹrí Ìgbò||580–581|
|Japanese calendar||Tenshō 8
|Juche calendar||N/A (before 1912)|
|Julian calendar||1580 MDLXXX|
|Minguo calendar||332 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2123|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: 1580|
Year 1580 (MDLXXX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar, and a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Proleptic Gregorian calendar.
- January 31 – King Henry I of Portugal dies with no direct heirs, precipitating a Succession crisis.
- March 1 – Michel de Montaigne signs the preface to his most significant work, Essays. They are published later the same year.
- March 25 – Iberian Union: King Philip II of Spain becomes King of Portugal under the name Philip I, following the death without heirs of King Henry of Portugal, in a personal union of the crowns, thus maintaining Portuguese independence (in Europe and throughout the Portuguese Empire). The Portuguese House of Habsburg (also called the Philippine Dynasty) rule lasts until 1640.
- April 6 – Dover Straits earthquake.
- June – England signs a commercial treaty with the Ottoman Empire.
- June 11 – Juan de Garay founds Buenos Aires.
- June 25 – The Book of Concord, a collection of Lutheran confessional documents, is published.
- July 12 – The Ostrog Bible, the first complete printed Bible in a Slavic language, is published.
- August 25 – Battle of Alcântara: Spanish armies, led by Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, defending the claim of King Philip II of Spain to the Portuguese throne, defeat the armies of Portuguese claimant António, Prior of Crato.
- September 26 – Francis Drake completes the second circumnavigation of globe.
Date unknown 
- The Billy Mitchell volcano on the island of Bougainville undergoes a catastrophic eruption (VEI 6).
- The first session of the Jewish Vaad (Council of Four Lands) is held in Lublin, Poland; 70 delegates of Jewish local qahals meet to discuss taxation and other issues important to Jewish communities.
- Jesuit missionaries arrive at the court of Akbar, Ruler of the Moghul Empire.
- February – John Digby, 1st Earl of Bristol, English diplomat (d. 1653)
- April 15 – George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore, English politician and colonizer (d. 1623)
- April 18 – (baptism) Thomas Middleton, English playwright (d. 1627)
- April 24 – Vincent de Paul, French priest and saint (d. 1660)
- June 6 – Godefroy Wendelin, Flemish astronomer (d. 1667)
- June 9 – Daniel Heinsius, Dutch scholar (d. 1655)
- August 24 – John Taylor, English poet (d. 1654)
- September 15 – Charles Annibal Fabrot, French lawyer (d. 1659)
- September 14 – Francisco de Quevedo, Spanish writer (d. 1645)
- December 1 – Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc, French astronomer (d. 1637)
- December 4 – Samuel Argall, English adventurer and naval officer (d. 1626)
- date unknown
- Philip Cluwer, German geographer and historian (d. 1623)
- Dirk Hartog, Dutch ship's captain and explorer (d. 1621)
- John Smith of Jamestown, Virginia settler (d. 1631)
- Robert Killigrew, knight of Arwenack in Falmouth (d. 1633)
- Willebrord Snellius, Dutch astronomer and mathematician (d. 1626)
- Raphael Sobiehrd-Mnishovsky, Bohemian lawyer and writer (d. 1644)
- Pierre Vernier, French mathematician and instrument inventor (d. 1637)
- Krzysztof Zbaraski, Polish nobleman (d. 1627)
- January 18 – Antonio Scandello, Italian composer (b. 1517)
- January 31 – King Henry of Portugal (b. 1512)
- February 2 – Bessho Nagaharu, Japanese retainer (b. 1558)
- February 24 – Henry FitzAlan, 19th Earl of Arundel, English nobleman (b. 1511)
- February 28 – Krystyna Radziwiłł, Polish noblewoman (b. 1560)
- May 3 – Thomas Tusser, English poet and farmer (b. c. 1524)
- June 10 – Luís de Camões, Portuguese poet (b. c. 1524)
- July 9 – Zofia Odrowąż, Polish noblewoman (b. 1540)
- August 1 – Albrecht Giese, German politician and diplomat (b. 1524)
- August 19 – Andrea Palladio, Italian architect (b. 1508)
- August 20 – Jeronymo Osorio, Portuguese historian (b. 1506)
- August 30 – Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy (b. 1528)
- October 5 – Matsudaira Shigeyoshi, Japanese general (b. 1493)
- November 3 – Jeronimo Zurita y Castro, Spanish historian (b. 1512)
- November 30 – Richard Farrant, English composer (b. 1530)
- December 1 – Giovanni Morone, Italian cardinal (b. 1509)
- date unknown
- possible date
- Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 160–162. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
- Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 230–233. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
- Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
- Roberts, J. (1994). History of the World. Penguin.