|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
|Trade names||Ancef, Kefzol|
|Pregnancy cat.||B1 (AU) B (US)|
|Legal status||℞ Prescription only|
|Half-life||1.8 hours (given IV)
2 hours (given IM)
|ATC code||J01 QJ51|
|Mol. mass||454.51 g/mol|
| (what is this?)
The drug is usually administered by either intramuscular injection (injection into a large muscle) or intravenous infusion (intravenous fluid into a vein).
Cefazolin is mainly used to treat bacterial infections of the skin. It can also be used to treat moderately severe bacterial infections involving the lung, bone, joint, stomach, blood, heart valve, and urinary tract. It is clinically effective against infections caused by staphylococci and streptococci of Gram-positive bacteria. These organisms are common on normal human skin. Resistance to cefazolin is seen in several species of bacteria. Cefazolin is extensively used as prophylaxis antibiotic before wide range of surgical operations.
Spectrum of bacterial susceptibility and resistance
Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes are generally susceptible to cefazolin, while Bacteroides fragilis, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter and Proteus mirabilis are resistant to it. Escherichia coli, Fusobacterium and Peptostreptococcus have developed resistance to cefazolin to varying degrees. For detailed information of minimum inhibition concentration of cefazolin, please refer to Cefazolin Susceptibility and Resistance Data sheet.
Like those of several other cephalosporins, the chemical structure of cefazolin contains an N-methylthiodiazole (NMTD or 1-MTD) side-chain. As the antibiotic is broken down in the body, it releases free NMTD, which can cause hypoprothrombinemia (likely due to inhibition of the enzyme vitamin K epoxide reductase) and a reaction with ethanol similar to that produced by disulfiram (Antabuse), due to inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenase.
Cefazolin is marketed under the following brand names: Ancef, Cefacidal, Cefamezin, Cefrina, Elzogram, Faxilen, Gramaxin, Kefazol, Kefol, Kefzolan, Kezolin, Novaporin, Reflin, Zinol and Zolicef.
- "Cefazolin Susceptibility and Resistance Data". Retrieved 15 August 2013.
- Stork CM (2006). "Antibiotics, antifungals, and antivirals". In Nelson LH, Flomenbaum N, Goldfrank LR, Hoffman RL, Howland MD, Lewin NA (eds.). Goldfrank's toxicologic emergencies. New York: McGraw-Hill. p. 847. ISBN 0-07-143763-0. Retrieved 2009-07-03.