Elections by country

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Elections by country gives information on elections. For each de jure and de facto sovereign state and dependent territory an article on elections in that entity has been included and information on the way the head of state and the parliament or legislature is elected. The articles include the results of the elections. For a chronological order, see the electoral calendar.

A[edit]

Country Head of state Parliament/Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Afghanistan Afghanistan Direct election Direct election Indirect election and appointments
Åland Islands Åland Direct election
Albania Albania Election by parliament Direct election
Algeria Algeria Direct election Direct election Indirect election and appointments
American Samoa American Samoa [1] Direct election Election by chiefs
Andorra Andorra Ex officio[2] Direct election
Angola Angola Direct election Direct election
Anguilla Anguilla Direct election
Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda Monarchy Direct election Appointments
Argentina Argentina Direct election Direct election Direct election
Armenia Armenia Direct election Direct election
Aruba Aruba Monarchy Direct election
Australia Australia Monarchy Direct election Direct election
Austria Austria Direct election Direct election Indirect election
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan Direct election Direct election

B[edit]

Country Head of state Parliament/Legislature
Lower house Upper house
The Bahamas Bahamas Monarchy Direct election Appointments
Bahrain Bahrain Monarchy Direct election Appointments
Bangladesh Bangladesh Election by parliament Direct election
Barbados Barbados Monarchy Direct election Appointments
Belarus Belarus Direct election Direct election Indirect election and appointments
Belgium Belgium Monarchy Direct election Indirect election
Belize Belize Monarchy Direct election Appointments
Benin Benin Direct election Direct election
Bermuda Bermuda Direct election Appointments
Bhutan Bhutan Monarchy Direct election Direct election and appointments
Bolivia Bolivia Direct election Direct election Direct election
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina Collective presidency Direct election Indirect election
Botswana Botswana Election by parliament Direct election Hereditary and appointments
Brazil Brazil Direct election Direct election Direct election
British Virgin Islands British Virgin Islands Direct election
Brunei Brunei Monarchy Appointments
Bulgaria Bulgaria Direct election Direct election
Burkina Faso Burkina Faso Direct election Direct election
Burundi Burundi Direct election Direct election Indirect election

C[edit]

Country Head of state Parliament/Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Cambodia Cambodia Monarchy Direct election
Cameroon Cameroon Direct election Direct election
Canada Canada Monarchy Direct election Appointments
Cape Verde Cape Verde Direct election Direct election
Cayman Islands Cayman Islands Monarchy Direct election
Central African Republic Central African Republic Direct election Direct election
Chad Chad Direct election Direct election
Chile Chile Direct election Direct election Direct election
China People's Republic of China Election by parliament Indirect election
Colombia Colombia Direct election Direct election Direct election
Comoros Comoros Direct election Indirect election
Republic of the Congo Congo (Brazzaville) Direct election Direct election Indirect election
Democratic Republic of the Congo Congo (Kinshasa) Direct election Direct election
Cook Islands Cook Islands Monarchy Direct election
Costa Rica Costa Rica Direct election Direct election
Ivory Coast Côte d'Ivoire Direct election Direct election
Croatia Croatia Direct election Direct election
Cuba Cuba Election by parliament Direct election
Cyprus Cyprus Direct election Direct election
Czech Republic Czech Republic Direct election Direct election Direct election

D[edit]

Country Head of state Parliament/Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Denmark Denmark Monarchy Direct election
Djibouti Djibouti Direct election Direct election
Dominica Dominica Election by parliament Direct election and appointments[3]
Dominican Republic Dominican Republic Direct election Direct election Direct election

E[edit]

Country Head of state Parliament/Legislature
Lower house Upper house
East Timor East Timor Direct election Direct election
Ecuador Ecuador Direct election Direct election
Egypt Egypt Direct election Direct election Direct election and appointments
El Salvador El Salvador Direct election Direct election
Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea Direct election Direct election
Eritrea Eritrea Self-appointment Appointment
Estonia Estonia Election by parliament (1.-3. round) / electoral college (4. round) Direct election
Ethiopia Ethiopia Election by parliament Direct election Indirect election

F[edit]

Country Head of state Parliament/Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Falkland Islands Falkland Islands Monarchy Direct election
Faroe Islands Faroe Islands Monarchy Direct election
Fiji Fiji Election by Great Council of Chiefs Direct election
Finland Finland Direct election Direct election
France France Direct election Direct election Indirect election
French Polynesia French Polynesia Direct election

G[edit]

Country Head of state Parliament/Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Gabon Gabon Direct election Direct election Indirect election
The Gambia Gambia Direct election Direct election
Georgia (country) Georgia Direct election Direct election
Germany Germany Election by electoral college Direct election Representation of state governments
Ghana Ghana Direct election Direct election
Gibraltar Gibraltar Direct election
Greece Greece Election by parliament Direct election
Greenland Greenland Direct election
Grenada Grenada Monarchy Direct election Appointments
Guam Guam [4] Direct election
Guatemala Guatemala Direct election Direct election
Guernsey Guernsey Direct election
Guinea Guinea Direct election Direct election
Guinea-Bissau Guinea-Bissau Direct election Direct election
Guyana Guyana Election by parliament Direct election

H[edit]

Country Head of state Parliament/Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Haiti Haiti Direct election Direct election Direct election
Honduras Honduras Direct election Direct election
Hong Kong Hong Kong Election by election committee Direct election and election by functional constituencies
Hungary Hungary Election by parliament Direct election

I[edit]

Country Head of state Parliament/Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Iceland Iceland Direct election Direct election
India India Election by electoral college Direct election Indirect election
Indonesia Indonesia Direct election Direct election
Iran Iran President through direct election. Supreme Leader elected by Assembly of Experts Direct election
Iraq Iraq Election by parliament Direct election
Republic of Ireland Ireland Direct election Direct election Election by functional constituencies and appointment
Isle of Man Isle of Man Direct election Indirect election/ex officio
Israel Israel Election by parliament Direct election
Italy Italy Election by parliament Direct election Direct election

J[edit]

Country Head of state Parliament/Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Jamaica Jamaica Monarchy Direct election Appointment
Japan Japan Monarchy Direct election Direct election
Jersey Jersey Monarchy Direct election
Jordan Jordan Monarchy Direct election Appointment

K[edit]

Country Head of state Parliament/Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan Direct election Direct election Indirect election and appointments
Kenya Kenya Direct election Direct election
Kiribati Kiribati Direct election Direct election
North Korea Democratic People's Republic of Korea Hereditary[5] Direct election
South Korea Republic of Korea Direct election Direct election
Kosovo Kosovo Election by parliament Direct election
Kuwait Kuwait Monarchy Direct election
Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan Direct election Direct election

L[edit]

Country Head of state Parliament/Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Laos Laos Election by parliament Direct election
Latvia Latvia Election by parliament Direct election
Lebanon Lebanon Election by parliament Direct election
Lesotho Lesotho Monarchy Direct election Appointments
Liberia Liberia Direct election Direct election
Libya Libya Election by parliament Representatives of the Basis People's Congresses
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein Monarchy Direct election
Lithuania Lithuania Direct election Direct election
Luxembourg Luxembourg Monarchy Direct election

M[edit]

Country Head of state Parliament/Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Macau Macau Election by election committee Direct election, Election by Functional Constituencies and Appointments
Republic of Macedonia Macedonia Direct election Direct election
Madagascar Madagascar Direct election Direct election
Malawi Malawi Direct election Direct election
Malaysia Malaysia Election by the rulers of the Malay states Direct election Indirect election and appointments
Maldives Maldives Direct election Direct election
Mali Mali Direct election Direct election
Malta Malta Election by parliament Direct election
Marshall Islands Marshall Islands Direct election Direct election
Mauritania Mauritania Direct election Direct election Indirect election
Mauritius Mauritius Election by parliament Direct election
Mayotte Mayotte Direct election
Mexico Mexico Direct election Direct election Direct election
Federated States of Micronesia Federated States of Micronesia Election by parliament Direct election
Moldova Moldova Election by parliament Direct election
Monaco Monaco Monarchy Direct election
Mongolia Mongolia Direct election Direct election
Montenegro Montenegro Direct election Direct election
Montserrat Montserrat Direct election
Morocco Morocco Monarchy Direct election Indirect election and election by functional groups
Mozambique Mozambique Direct election Direct election
Burma Myanmar Election by parliament Direct election and appointments Direct election and appointments

N[edit]

Country Head of state Parliament/Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Nagorno-Karabakh Republic Nagorno Karabakh Direct election Direct election
Namibia Namibia Direct election Direct election Indirect election
Nauru Nauru Election by parliament Direct election
Nepal Nepal Election by parliament Direct election
Netherlands Netherlands Monarchy Direct election Indirect election
Netherlands Antilles Netherlands Antilles Direct election
New Caledonia New Caledonia Direct election
New Zealand New Zealand Monarchy Direct election
Nicaragua Nicaragua Direct election Direct election
Niger Niger Direct election Direct election
Nigeria Nigeria Direct election Direct election Direct election
Niue Niue Direct election
Norfolk Island Norfolk Direct election
Northern Ireland Direct election
Northern Mariana Islands Northern Marianas [6] Direct election Direct election
Norway Norway Monarchy Direct election

O[edit]

Country Head of state Parliament/Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Oman Oman Monarchy Indirect election Appointments

P[edit]

Country Head of state Parliament/Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Pakistan Pakistan Indirect Election Direct election Indirect election
Palau Palau Direct election Direct election Direct election
State of Palestine Palestinian National Authority Direct election Direct election
Panama Panama Direct election Direct election
Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea Monarchy Direct election
Paraguay Paraguay Direct election Direct election Direct election
Peru Peru Direct election Direct election
Philippines Philippines Direct election
Pitcairn Islands Pitcairn Islands Indirect election
Poland Poland Direct election Direct election Direct election
Portugal Portugal Direct election
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico [7] Direct election Direct election

Q[edit]

Country Head of state Parliament/Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Qatar Qatar Monarchy Appointments

R[edit]

Country Head of state Parliament/Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Romania Romania Direct election Direct election Direct election
Russia Russia Direct election Direct election Indirect election and appointments
Rwanda Rwanda Direct election Direct election Indirect election and appointments

S[edit]

Country Head of state Parliament/Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Appointment Appointments
Saint Helena Saint Helena Direct election
Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Kitts and Nevis Monarchy Direct election and appointments
Saint Lucia Saint Lucia Monarchy Direct election Appointments
Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Pierre and Miquelon Direct election
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Monarchy Direct election and appointments
Samoa Samoa Election by parliament Direct election
San Marino San Marino Election by parliament Direct election
São Tomé and Príncipe São Tomé and Príncipe Direct election Direct election
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia Monarchy Appointments
Scotland Scotland Direct election
Senegal Senegal Direct election Direct election
Serbia Serbia Direct election Direct election
Seychelles Seychelles Direct election Direct election
Sierra Leone Sierra Leone Direct election Direct election
Singapore Singapore Direct election Direct election
Slovakia Slovakia Direct election Direct election
Slovenia Slovenia Direct election Direct election Representation of interest groups
Solomon Islands Solomon Islands Monarchy Direct election
Somalia Somalia Transition Transition
Somaliland Somaliland Direct election Direct election Traditional leaders
South Africa South Africa Election by parliament Direct election Indirect election
South Sudan South Sudan Direct election Direct election
Spain Spain Monarchy Direct election Direct and indirect election
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Direct election Direct election
Sudan Sudan Direct election Appointments due to transition Indirect election
Suriname Suriname Election by electoral college Direct election
Swaziland Swaziland Monarchy Elected by traditional local councils and appointments Elected by lower house and appointments
Sweden Sweden Monarchy Direct election
Switzerland Switzerland Election by parliament Direct election Direct election
Syria Syria Approval by referendum Direct election

T[edit]

Country Head of state Parliament/Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Taiwan Republic of China Direct election Direct election
Tajikistan Tajikistan Direct election Direct election Indirect election and appointments
Tanzania Tanzania Direct election Direct election
Thailand Thailand Monarchy Direct election Direct election and appointments
Togo Togo Direct election Direct election
Tokelau Tokelau Direct election
Tonga Tonga Monarchy Partially direct election, partially by limited suffrage, partially ex officio
Transnistria Transnistria Direct election Direct election
Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago Election by parliament Direct election Appointments
Tunisia Tunisia Direct election Direct election Indirect election and appointments
Turkey Turkey Direct election Direct election
Turkmenistan Turkmenistan Direct election Direct election
Turks and Caicos Islands Turks and Caicos Direct election
Tuvalu Tuvalu Monarchy Direct election

U[edit]

Country Head of state Parliament/Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Uganda Uganda Direct election Direct election
Ukraine Ukraine Direct election Direct election
United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates De facto monarchy Appointments and direct election
United Kingdom United Kingdom Monarchy Direct election Appointments and hereditary/indirect election
United States United States Indirect election Direct election Direct election
Uruguay Uruguay Direct election Direct election Direct election
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan Direct election Direct election Indirect election and appointments

V[edit]

Country Head of state Parliament/Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Vanuatu Vanuatu Election by parliament Direct election
Vatican City Vatican City Election by Cardinals Appointments
Venezuela Venezuela Direct election Direct election
Vietnam Vietnam Election by parliament Direct election
United States Virgin Islands Virgin Islands of the United States [8] Direct election

W[edit]

Country Head of state Parliament/Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Wales Wales Direct election
Wallis and Futuna Wallis and Futuna Direct election

Y[edit]

Country Head of state Parliament/Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Yemen Yemen Direct election Direct election

Z[edit]

Country Head of state Parliament/Legislature
Lower house Upper house
Zambia Zambia Direct election
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe Direct election

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ American Samoa elects a Governor
  2. ^ The President of France and the Bishop of Urgell are co-heads of state
  3. ^ The elected Representatives of the Dominican parliament decide whether senators are to be elected by them or appointed by the president.
  4. ^ Guam elects a Governor
  5. ^ North Korea's president Kim Il-sung died in 1994, but has since been named the "Eternal President". His successor is thus not given the title of President.
  6. ^ The Northern Marianas elect a Governor
  7. ^ Puerto Rico elects a Governor
  8. ^ The U.S. Virgin Islands elect a Governor

External links[edit]