Growth of religion
Growth of religion is the spread of religion and the increase of religious adherents around the world. The statistics are commonly measured by the absolute number of adherents, the percentage of the absolute growth per year, and the growth of the number of converts in the world. Studies show that a number of religions have been acknowledged for their largest growth in a number of nations, in terms of percentage, Islam is found to be the fastest-growing religion in the world.
World religions statistics place the Bahá'í Faith around 0.1% of the world population in recent years. The World Christian Encyclopedia estimated only 7.1 million Bahá'ís in the world in 2000, representing 218 countries, and its evolution to the World Christian Database (WCD) estimated 7.3 million in 2010 while accredited through the Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA). However the WCD stated: "The Baha'i Faith is the only religion to have grown faster in every United Nations region over the past 100 years than the general population; Baha'i(sic) was thus the fastest-growing religion between 1910 and 2010, growing at least twice as fast as the population of almost every UN region." This source's only documented flaw was to consistently have a higher estimate of Christians than in other cross-national data sets.
From its origins in the Persian and Ottoman empires of the 19th century the Bahá'í Faith was able to gain converts elsewhere in Asia, Europe, and North America by the early 20th century. John Esslemont performed the first review of the worldwide progress of the religion in 1919. `Abdu'l-Bahá, son of the founder of the religion, then set goals for the community through his Tablets of the Divine Plan shortly before his death. Shoghi Effendi then initiated systematic pioneering efforts that brought the religion to almost every country and territory of the world and converts from more than 2000 tribes and peoples. There were serious setbacks in the Soviet Union where Bahá'í communities in 38 cities across Soviet territories ceased to exist. However plans continued building to 1953 when the Bahá'ís initiated a Ten Year Crusade after plans had focused on Latin America and Europe after WWII. That last stage was largely towards parts of Africa. Wide-scale growth in the religion across Sub-Saharan Africa particularly was observed to begin in 1950s and extend in the 1960s. There was diplomatic pressure from northern arab countries against this development that was eventually overcome. Starting in the 1980s with Perestroyka the Bahá'ís began to re-organize across the Soviet Union and Eastern Bloc. While sometimes failing to meet official minimums for recognitions as a religion, communities of Bahá'ís do exist from Poland to Mongolia. The worldwide progress was such that the Encyclopedia Britannica (2002) identified the religion as the second-most geographically widespread religion after Christianity. It has established Bahá'í Houses of Worship by continental region and been the object of interest and support of diverse non-Bahá'í notable people from Leo Tolstoy to Khalil Gibran to Mohandas K. Gandhi to Desmond Tutu. See List of Bahá'ís for a list of notable Bahá'ís.
ARDA/WCD statistics place the Bahá'í Faith as currently the largest religious minority in Iran (despite significant persecution and the overall Iranian diaspora), Panama, and Belize; the second largest international religion in Bolivia, Zambia, and Papua New Guinea; and the third largest international religion in Chad and Kenya.
Buddhism is based on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha, who lived and taught in northeastern India in the 5th century BC. The majority of Buddhists live in Asia; Europe and North America also have populations exceeding 1 million. According to scholars of religious demographics, there are between 200 million and 600 million Buddhists, with 350–550 million the most widely accepted estimate.
According to Johnson and Grim there was a fast annual growth of Buddhism in Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Lebanon and several Western European countries (1910-2010). More recently (2000-2010), the countries with highest growth rates are Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, Iran and some African countries. The Australian Bureau of Statistics, through statistical analysis, held Buddhism to be the fastest-growing spiritual tradition in Australia in terms of percentage gain, with a growth of 79.1% for the period 1996 to 2001 (200,000→358,000). Buddhism is the fastest-growing religion in England's jails, with the number of followers rising eightfold over the past decade. A traditional belief among its majority Chinese population, Buddhism is the fastest-growing religion in Macau.
According to a 2005 paper submitted to a meeting of the American Political Science Association, most of Christianity's growth has occurred in non-Western countries. The paper concludes that the Pentecostalism movement is the fastest-growing religion worldwide.
The US Department of State estimates that Protestants in Vietnam may have grown by 600% over the last decade. In Nigeria, the percentage of Christians has grown from 21.4% in 1953 to 50.8% in 2010. In South Korea, Christianity has grown from 20.7% in 1985 to 29.3% in 2010. In China, a recent boom in the Christian population has been called one of the "greatest revivals in Christian history". Mainland China now has about 67 million Christians, or about 5% of the total population, despite considerable persecution under Chairman Mao. The Christian population in China is expected to reach over 400 million people by 2040, which would give China the highest Christian population of any country.
Evangelical Christian denominations are among the fastest-growing denominations in some Catholic Christian countries, such as Brazil and France. In Brazil, the total number of Protestants jumped from 16.2% in 2000 to 22.2% in 2010 (for the first time, the percentage of Catholics in Brazil is less than 70%).
The records of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints show membership growth every decade since its beginning in the 1830s and that it is among the top ten largest Christian denominations today.
The 2001 American Religious Identification Survey (ARIS) survey, which involved 50,000 participants, reported that the number of participants in the survey identifying themselves as deists grew at the rate of 717% between 1990 and 2001. If this were generalized to the US population as a whole, it would make deism the fastest-growing religious classification in the US for that period, with the reported total of 49,000 self-identified adherents representing about 0.02% of the US population at the time.
Hinduism is described as a fast-growing religion in Ghana. According to 2011 census, Hinduism has become fastest-growing religion in Australia since 2006 due to migration from India. Over 80% of the Republic of India population is Hindu, accounting for about 90% of Hindus worldwide. Their 10-year growth rate is estimated at 20% (based on the period 1991 to 2001), corresponding to a yearly growth close to 2% or a doubling time of about 38 years.[not in citation given]
In 1990, 1.1 billion people were Muslims. According to the BBC, a comprehensive American study concluded in 2009 the number stood at approximately 23% of the world population with 60% of Muslims living in Asia. From 1990 to 2010, the global Muslim population increased at an average annual rate of 2.2%. By 2030 Muslims are projected to represent about 26.4% of the global population (out of a total of 7.9 billion people). Several sources believe that this increase is due to conversion and reproduction. However, according to others, including the Guinness Book of World Records, Islam is the world’s fastest-growing religion by number of conversions each year: "Although the religion began in Arabia, by 2002 80% of all believers in Islam lived outside the Arab world. In the period 1990–2000, approximately 12.5 million more people converted to Islam than to Christianity." On the other hand, in 2010 the Pew Forum stated: "Statistical data on conversion to and from Islam are scarce. What little information is available suggests that there is no substantial net gain or loss in the number of Muslims through conversion globally; the number of people who become Muslims through conversion seems roughly equal to the number of Muslims who leave the faith. As a result, this report does not include any estimated future rate of conversions as a direct factor in the projections of Muslim population growth." The growth of Islam from 2010 to 2020 has been estimated at 1.70% due to high birthrates in Asia, the Middle East, and Europe. According to the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, the World Christian Database as of 2007 has Islam as the fastest-growing religion in the world.
There exist different views among scholars about the spread of Islam. Islam began in Arabia and from 633 AD until the late 10th century it was spread through conquests, far-reaching trade and missionary activity
According to Rodney Stark, Islam was spread after military conquests after Arab armies began overtaking Christian regions from Syria to North Africa and Spain, as well as Buddhist and Hindu regions in Central Asia, parts of South Asia and Southeast Asia via military invasions, traders and Sufi missionaries. According to some scholars, the Jizya (poll tax) was the most important factor in the mass conversion to Islam, the tax paid by all non-Muslims (Dhimmis) in Islamic empires (such as Christians under Ottoman Empire's authority, Hindus and Buddhists under regime of Muslim invaders, Coptic Christians under administration of the Muslim Arabs, Zoroastrians living under Islamic rule in ancient Persia, and also with Jewish communities in the medieval Arab world) while some scholars acknowledges that Most Muslim rulers in India never consistently collected the jizya (poll tax) from Dhimmis.
According to other scholars many converted for a whole host of reasons, the main of which was evangelisation by Muslims, though there were some instances where some were pressured to convert owing to internal conflict and friction between the Christian and Muslim communities, according to historian Philip Jenkins. However John L. Esposito, a scholar on the subject of Islam in "The Oxford History of Islam" states that the spread of Islam "was often peaceful and sometimes even received favourably by Christians". In a 2008 conference on religion at Yale University's The MacMillan Center Initiative on Religion, Politics, and Society which hosted a speech from Hugh Kennedy, he stated forced conversions played little part in the history of the spread of the faith. However, the poll tax known Jizyah may have played a part in converting people over to Islam but as Britannica notes "The rate of taxation and methods of collection varied greatly from province to province and were greatly influenced by local pre-Islamic customs" and there were even cases when Muslims had the tax levied against them, on top of Zakat. Hugh Kennedy has also discussed the Jizyah issue and stated that Muslim governments discouraged conversion but were unable to prevent it.
The American Religious Identification Survey gives Wicca an average annual growth of 143% for the period 1990 to 2001 (from 8,000 to 134,000 – U.S. data / similar for Canada & Australia). According to The Statesman Anne Elizabeth Wynn claims "The two most recent American Religious Identification Surveys declare Wicca, one form of paganism, as the fastest growing spiritual identification in America". The "Free Press Release Distribution Service" claims Wicca is one of the fastest-growing religions in the United States as well. Wicca, which is largely a "Pagan" religion primarily attracts followers of nature-based religions in the Southern United States.
In terms of absolute numbers, irreligion appears to be increasing (along with secularization generally). Even so, it is decreasing as a percentage of the world population, due primarily to population increases in more religious developing countries outpacing population growth (or decline) in less religious developed countries. (See the geographic distribution of atheism.)
The American Religious Identification Survey gave nonreligious groups the largest gain in terms of absolute numbers: 14.3 million (8.4% of the population) to 29.4 million (14.1% of the population) for the period 1990–2001 in the U.S. A 2012 study by the Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life reports, "The number of Americans who do not identify with any religion continues to grow at a rapid pace. One-fifth of the U.S. public – and a third of adults under 30 – are religiously unaffiliated today, the highest percentages ever in Pew Research Center polling." A similar pattern has been found in other countries such as Australia, Canada, and Mexico. According to statistics in Canada, the number of "Nones" increased by about 60% between 1985 and 2004. In Australia, census data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics give "no religion" the largest gains in absolute numbers over the 15 years from 1991 to 2006, from 2,948,888 (18.2% of the population that answered the question) to 3,706,555 (21.0% of the population that answered the question). According to INEGI, in Mexico, the number of atheists grows annually by 5.2%, while the number of Catholics grows by 1.7%. In New Zealand, 39% of the population are irreligious making it largest percentage of total population in Oceania region.
Statistics on religious adherence are difficult to gather and often contradictory; statistics for the change of religious adherence are even more so, requiring multiple surveys separated by many years using the same data gathering rules. This has only been achieved in rare cases, and then only for a particular countries, such as the American Religious Identification Survey in the United States, or census data from Australia (which has included a voluntary religious question since 1911).
The World Religion Database (WRD) is a peer-reviewed database of international religious statistics based on research conducted at the Institute on Culture, Religion & World Affairs at Boston University. It is published by Brill and is the most comprehensive database of religious demographics available to scholars, providing data for all of the world's countries. Adherence data is largely compiled from census and surveys. The database groups adherents into 18 broadly-defined categories: Agnostics, Atheists,[a] Baha'is, Buddhists, Chinese folk-religionists, Christians, Confucianists, Daoists, Ethnoreligionists, Hindus, Jains, Jews, Muslims, New Religionists, Shintoists, Sikhs, Spiritists, and Zoroastrians. The WRD is edited by demographers Todd M. Johnson and Brian J. Grim.
|Religion / Irreligion||1910||2010||Rate*|
|Chinese folk religion||390,504,000||22.2||436,258,000||6.3||0.11||0.16|
|*Rate = average annual growth rate, percent per year indicated
Source: Todd M. Johnson and Brian J. Grim
Projections of future religious adherence are based on assumptions that trends, total fertility rates, life expectancy, political climate, conversion rates, etc will continue. Such forecasts cannot be validated empirically and are contentious, but are useful for comparison.
- Atheism and agnosticism are not typically considered religions, but data about the prevalence of irreligion is useful to scholars of religious demography.
- Johnson, Todd M.; Grim, Brian J. (2013). The World's Religions in Figures: An Introduction to International Religious Demography. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 10. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
- "Fast-growing Islam winning converts in Western world". CNN. Retrieved 8 February 2014.
- Staff (May 2007). "The List: The World’s Fastest-Growing Religions". Foreign Policy (Carnegie Endowment for International Peace).
- Guinness World Records 2003. Guinness World Records. 2003. p. 142.
- "FIELD LISTING :: RELIGIONS". World Factbook. CIA=. 2013. Retrieved Sep 9, 2013.
- Barrett, David A. (2001). World Christian Encyclopedia. p. 4.
- "Most Baha'i Nations (2010)". QuickLists > Compare Nations > Religions. The Association of Religion Data Archives. 2010. Retrieved 2013-08-20.
- Johnson, Todd M.; Brian J. Grim (26 March 2013). "Global Religious Populations, 1910–2010". The World's Religions in Figures: An Introduction to International Religious Demography. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 59–62. doi:10.1002/9781118555767.ch1. ISBN 9781118555767.
- Hsu, Becky; Amy Reynolds; Conrad Hackett; James Gibbon (2008). "Estimating the Religious Composition of All Nations: An Empirical Assessment of the World Christian Database". Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 47 (4): 691–692. doi:10.1111/j.1468-5906.2008.00435.x. Retrieved 2012-01-27.
- Moomen, Moojan (2004). Smith, Peter, ed. Bahá'ís in the West. Kalimat Press. pp. 63–106; Esslemont's Survey of the Baha'i World 1919–1920. ISBN 1-890688-11-8.
- Momen, Moojan (1994). "Turkmenistan". draft of "A Short Encyclopedia of the Baha'i Faith". Bahá'í Library Online. Retrieved 2008-05-21.[dead link]
- "Notes on the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions in Russia and its Territories", by Graham Hassall, Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 5.3 (Sept.-Dec. 1993)
- Hassall, Graham (c. 2000). "Egypt: Baha'i history". Asia Pacific Bahá'í Studies: Bahá'í Communities by country. Bahá'í Online Library. Retrieved 2009-05-24.
- Cameron, G.; Momen, W. (1996). A Basic Bahá'í Chronology. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. ISBN 0-85398-404-2.
- "Overview Of World Religions". General Essay on the Religions of Sub-Saharan Africa. Division of Religion and Philosophy, University of Cumbria. Retrieved 2008-04-16.
- Smith, Peter; Momen, Moojan (1989). "The Baha'i Faith 1957-1988: A Survey of Contemporary Developments". Religion 19 (01): 63–91. doi:10.1016/0048-721X(89)90077-8.
- Encyclopædia Britannica (2002). "Worldwide Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-2002". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica.
- Collins, William P.; Jasion T. Jan (1991). "Lev Tolstoy and the Báb’i and Bahá'i Religions: A Bibliography". The Journal of Bahá'i Studies 3 (3): 1–10. Retrieved Sep 9, 2013.
- Bushrui, Suheil B.; Jenkins, Joe (1998). Kahlil Gibran, Man and Poet: a New Biography. Oneworld Publications. p. 55. ISBN 978-1851682676.
- Mahatma Gandhi and the Bahá'ís -Striving towards a Nonviolent Civilization, by M. V. Gandhimohan, Copyright © 2000, Bahá'í Publishing Trust of India, New Delhi, ISBN 81-86953-82-5
- Tutu, Desmond; Ramos-Horta, José (September 26, 2011). "Iran's War Against Knowledge – An Open Letter to the International Academic Community". Huffington Post. Retrieved March 12, 2012.
- International Federation for Human Rights (August 1, 2003). "Discrimination against religious minorities in Iran" (PDF). fdih.org. Archived from the original on October 31, 2006. Retrieved October 20, 2006.
- "Panama". National Profiles > > Regions > Central America >. Association of Religion Data Archives. 2010. Retrieved 2012-09-21.
- "Belize". National Profiles > > Regions > Central America >. Association of Religion Data Archives. 2010. Retrieved 2012-09-21.
- "Bolivia". National Profiles > > Regions > Central America >. Association of Religion Data Archives. 2010. Retrieved 2012-09-21.
- "Zambia". National Profiles > > Regions > Eastern Africa >. Association of Religion Data Archives. 2010. Retrieved 2012-09-21.
- "Papua New Guinea". National Profiles > > Regions > Melanesia >. Association of Religion Data Archives. 2010. Retrieved 2012-10-21.
- "Most Baha'i Nations (2005)". QuickLists > Compare Nations > Religions >. The Association of Religion Data Archives. 2005. Retrieved 2009-07-04.
- "Kenya". National Profiles > > Regions > Eastern Africa >. Association of Religion Data Archives. 2010. Retrieved 2012-09-21.
- Dr. Rabbani, Ahang; Department of Statistics at the Bahá'í World Centre in Haifa, Israel (July 1987). "Achievements of the Seven Year Plan". Bahá'í News (Bahá'í World Center, Haifa: Bahá'í International Community). pp. 2–7. Retrieved October 4, 2009.
- International Community, Bahá'í (1992). "How many Bahá'ís are there?". The Bahá'ís. p. 14.
- Bahá'í International Community (2010). "Statistics". Bahá'í International Community. Retrieved March 5, 2010.
- "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Major Religious Groups as of 2010". Buddhists. Washington, D.C.: Pew Research Center. December 18, 2012. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
- Maguire, Jack (2001). Essential Buddhism: A Complete Guide to Beliefs and Practices. New York, NY: Atria Books. p. 1. ISBN 9780671041885. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
- "The Global Religious Landscape: Buddhists". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. Washington, D.C.: Pew Research Center. December 18, 2012. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
- "The World Factbook". Washington, D.C.: Central Intelligence Agency. 2013. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
- Johnson, Todd M.; Grim, Brian J. (2013). The World's Religions in Figures: An Introduction to International Religious Demography. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 34–37. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
- Harvey, Peter (2013). An Introduction to Buddhism: Teachings, History and Practices (2nd ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 5. ISBN 9780521676748. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
- Keown, Damien (2005). Buddhist Ethics: A Very Short Introduction. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195678703. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
- Morgan, Diane (2010). Essential Buddhism: A Comprehensive Guide to Belief and Practice. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. p. x. ISBN 9780313384523. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
- Bailey, Lee Worth; Taitz, Emily, eds. (2006). Introduction to the World's Major Religions 3. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. p. 119. ISBN 9780313336348. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
- Johnson, Todd M.; Grim, Brian J. (2013). The World's Religions in Figures: An Introduction to International Religious Demography. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 34–36. Retrieved 2 September 2013. See table 1.32, p. 36
- Year Book Australia, 2003 Australian Bureau of Statistics
- Beckford, Martin (2009-08-05). "Buddhism is fastest-growing religion in English jails over past decade". The Daily Telegraph (London).
- Religion in Macau - Freedom of Religion and Belief - China culture
- Barker, Isabelle V. (2005). "Engendering Charismatic Economies: Pentecostalism, Global Political Economy, and the Crisis of Social Reproduction". American Political Science Association. pp. 2, 8 and footnote 14 on page 8. Retrieved March 25, 2010.[dead link]
- "Annual Report on International Religious Freedom for 2005 – Vietnam". U.S. Department of State. 2005-06-30. Retrieved 2007-03-11.
- "Global Christianity: Regional Distribution of Christians". Pew Research Center. December 19, 2011. Retrieved August 11, 2013.
- China: the future of Christianity? | Antonio Weiss | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk
- Millions of Brazilians march for Jesus | Deseret News
- French Evangelicals through an American lens[dead link]
- (Portuguese) Percent of Brazilian Catholics is below 70% for the first time
- Stark, Rodney (1998). "The Rise of a New World Faith". Latter-day Saint Social Life: Social Research on the LDS Church and its Members (Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University): 1–8. Retrieved December 30, 2013.
- Yeakley, Richard (February 15, 2011). "Growth stalls, falls for largest U.S. churches". USA Today. (Religion News Service).
- American Religious Identification Survey, Key Findings[dead link] The Graduate Center of the City University of New York
- Rev. Abamfo Ofori Atiemo, Returning to Our Spiritual Roots': African Hindus in Ghana Negotiating Religious Space and Identity, public lecture at the University of Ghana
- "Religion on the Move!: New Dynamics of Religious Expansion in a Globalizing World", BRILL, 21-Nov-2012, Afe Adogame, Shobana Shankar, 2012, page 135 
- Australian Bureau of Statistics (21 June 2012). 2011 Census reveals Hinduism
- Mercer, Phil (June 23, 2012). "Immigrants Change Australia's Cultural Identity". Voice of America. Retrieved 19 May 2014.
- P D'Souza, Stephen. "Hinduism: Australia's Fastest Growing Religion". Daijiworld Media. Retrieved 19 May 2014.
- "Census of India.". Census of India. Census Data 2001: India at a glance: Religious Composition. Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 2008-11-26. The data is "unadjusted" (without excluding Assam and Jammu and Kashmir); 1981 census was not conducted in Assam and 1991 census was not conducted in Jammu and Kashmir.
- "The Future of the Global Muslim Population". Pew Research. Retrieved 16 April 2014.
- "2.2 Billion: World’s Muslim Population Doubles". Time (magazine). 27 January 2011. Retrieved 16 April 2014.
- "One in four is Muslim, study says". BBC News Website. 2009-10-08.
- "The Future of Global Muslim Population: Projections from 2010 to 2013" Accessed July 2013.
- Huntington, Samuel. "The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order," Touchstone Books, 1998, p. 65-66.
- Robinson, B. A. , Religious Tolerence.org, “Numbers of adherents; names of houses of worship; names of leaders; rates of growth...”, 1997-2009, accessed May 5, 2011.
- "The Future of the Global Muslim Population, Related Factors: Conversion", The Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life, January 27, 2011
- David B. Barrett, George Thomas Kurian, Todd M. Johnson, ed. (February 15, 2001). World Christian Encyclopedia. Oxford University Press USA. ISBN 0195079639.
- "The Spread of Islam". Yale University Press. Retrieved 16 April 2014.
- "The Spread Of Islam". www.history-world.org. Retrieved 16 April 2014.
- Stark, Rodney. “God’s Battalions: The Case for the Crusades.” Harper Collins, 2009, p.15,93
- International World History Project – Islam From The Beginning To 1300
- History Today – Arab Invasions: The First Islamic Empire, by Eamonn Gearon
- BBC – Religions – Early rise of Islam (632–700)
- Maps of Wars – History of Religion
- McLeod, John, "The History of India", Greenwood Press (2002), ISBN 0-313-31459-4, pp. 41–42.
- Levy, Robert I. Mesocosm: Hinduism and the Organization of a Traditional Newar City in Nepal. Berkeley: University of California Press, c1990 1990.
- University of Calgary - The Islamisation of Bosnia, the fourth text paragraph[dead link]
- BBC – Charting major events in Africa's history across millenia, 717 – Heavy taxation moves large numbers of Coptic Christians to convert to Islam
- H. Patrick Glenn, Legal Traditions of the World. Oxford University Press, 2007, pp. 218–219.
- The Spread of Islam: The Contributing Factors, by Abū al-Fazl ʻIzzatī (p. 321-322)
- Bülent Özdemir – Political Use of Conversion in the Nineteenth Century – Ottoman Context: Some Cases From Salonica
- The Islamic World: Abbasid-Historian by John L. Esposito, page 19 (Albania)
- The Mellah Society: Jewish Community Life in Sherifian Morocco by Shlomo Deshen, page 63
- Jenkins, Philip. “The Lost History of Christianity.” Harper Collins, New York, 2008, p. 118-119
- School of Foreign Service Georgetown University John L. Esposito Founding Director of the Prince Alwaleed Bin Talal Center for Muslim-Christian Understanding (27 December 1999). The Oxford History of Islam. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-977100-4. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
- Conference on Religion and Violence. 16 February 2008. His speech can be found here: "The nature of the early Muslim conquests in the Middle East made forcible conversion almost impossible (Page 4)"
- "Jizya". Britiannica. 2013.
- Conference on Religion and Violence. 16 February 2008. His speech can be found here: "There were...clear reasons why Muslim governments would not want to encourage conversion to Islam. They were in most cases effectively unable to prevent conversion but they were certainly not going to use force to achieve it. (Page 5)"
- American Religious Identification Survey, Full PDF Document The Graduate Center of the City University of New York
- (Elizabeth) Wynn, Anne. "Our year-long exploration of religions ends with Unitarianian Universalism and paganism". The Statesman.com. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
- "Wicca: What's the Fascination?". Christian Broadcasting Network. Retrieved 16 April 2014.
- "PRLog (Press Release) "Wicca"- The Fastest Growing Belief System In The World Today!". PRLog. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
- Puffer, Nancy. "Rise in paganism in Southeast Valley mirrors U.S. trend". azcentral.com. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
- "American Nones: The Profile of the No Religion Population". American Religious Identification Survey. 2008. Retrieved 19 October 2012.
- "'No Religion' on the Rise: One-in-Five Adults Have No Religious Affiliation". Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. 9 October 2012. Retrieved 19 October 2012.
- http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/11-008-x/2006001/9181-eng.htm#decline StatsCan, "Who is Religious?" by Warren Clark and Grant Schellenberg
- 2006 Census Table : Australia
- México sigue siendo católico… pero crece el número de ateos
- Catholic News Agency
- "International Religious Freedom Report 2012 – New Zealand". U.S. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
- "2006 Census Tables : Australia".
- Todd M. Johnson, Brian J. Grim, International religious demographic statistics and sources World Religion Database, International religious demographic statistics and sources
- Dekker, Jennifer (2010). "World Religion Database". The Charleston Advisor 11 (3): 57–60. ISSN 1525-4003. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
- World Religion Database, WRD Methodology
- Todd M. Johnson
- Brian J. Grim
- Johnson, Todd M.; Grim, Brian J. (2013). The World's Religions in Figures: An Introduction to International Religious Demography. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 10. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
- Todd M. Johnson, Religious Projections for the Next 200 Years from World Network of Religious Futurists