Flag of South Carolina
|Use||Civil and state flag|
|Adopted||January 28, 1861|
|Design||White palmetto tree on an indigo field. The canton contains a white crescent.|
The flag of the state of South Carolina has, in some form, existed since 1775, being based on one of the first Revolutionary War flags. South Carolina's flag was ranked as the 10th best designed state or provincial flag in North America by the North American Vexillological Association in 2001.
The Moultrie Flag
In 1775, Colonel William Moultrie was asked by the Revolutionary Council of Safety to design a flag for the South Carolina troops to use during the American Revolutionary War. Moultrie's design had the blue of the militia's uniforms and the crescent. It was first flown at Fort Johnson.
This flag was flown in the defense of a new fortress on Sullivan's Island, when Moultrie faced off against a British fleet that hadn't lost a battle in a century.
In the 16 hour battle on June 28, 1776, the flag was shot down, but Sergeant William Jasper ran out into the open, raising it and rallying the troops until it could be mounted again. This gesture was so heroic, saving Charleston, South Carolina, from conquest for four years, that the flag came to be the symbol of the Revolution, and liberty, in the state and the new nation.
Soon popularly known as either the Moultrie Flag or Liberty Flag, it became the standard of the South Carolina militia, and was presented in Charleston, by Major General Nathanael Greene,when that city was liberated at the end of the war. Greene described it as having been the first American flag to fly over the South.
The palmetto tree was added in 1861, also a reference to Moultrie's defense of Sullivan Island; the fortress he'd constructed had survived largely because the palmetto trees, laid over sand walls, were able to withstand British cannons.
After considering many designs for the Republic of South Carolina flag, it was decided that the existing state flag with an upward facing gorget and blue background could be modified for a national flag. On January 26, 1861, the South Carolina General Assembly adopted a new flag by adding a golden palmetto tree encircled with a white background. However, this flag has become known as the "2-day flag" because the golden palmetto tree was changed on January 28 to a simple white palmetto tree on the blue background. Less than three months later, a variation of the palmetto flag unfurled over Fort Sumter on April 14, 1861, the day it was surrendered to Confederate General Beauregard, making it likely the first Confederate flag flown over captured United States' territory. The flag consisted of a palmetto tree on an entirely white background with a red star in the upper left quadrant, and is commonly known as "The Palmetto Guard Flag"
The top left corner bears a crescent moon. Mrs Mattingley came up with the idea after noticing the gleam of the crescent moon on the ocean.
However, there is much debate about the significance of the crescent. In 1775 Colonel William Moultrie was asked by the 'Revolutionary Council of Safety' to design a flag for the South Carolina troops. In his memoirs, Colonel Wiliam Moultrie tells us: "A little time after we were in possession of Fort Johnson, it was thought necessary to have a flag for the purpose of signals: (as there was no national or state flag at that time) I was desired by the council of safety to have one made, upon which, as the state troops were clothed in blue, and the fort was garrisoned by the first and second regiments, who wore a silver crescent on the front of their caps; I had a large blue flag made with a crescent in the dexter corner, to be in uniform with the troops...."
The Sovereignty flag was never recognized as an official flag in South Carolina. But there are also claims that it was flown for a short period of time in South Carolina after its secession on December 20, 1860. Another significant flag, not pictured here is the "South Carolina Seccession Flag", the day after South Carolina seceded a red flag, with two tails, a large white star and an upside down crescent moon at the top by the flag staff was raised over the Charleston Custom House. It then spread to other cities as a symbol of secession.
Shirts, belts, shoes, wallets, koozies, holiday decorations and other accessories featuring the flag's palmetto tree and crescent are popular[examples needed] throughout South Carolina and other southeastern states as a symbol of the state's long-standing heritage. It is also customary[clarification needed] for alumni and supporters of the state's main universities (the University of South Carolina, Clemson University, Francis Marion University, the College of Charleston, and The Citadel) to display the state flag in their school colors.
- State of South Carolina
- Symbols of the state of South Carolina
- Great Seal of the State of South Carolina
- NAVA 2001 Flag Survey
- "Fort Johnson/Powder Magazine, Charleston County (James Island)". National Register Properties in South Carolina. South Carolina Department of Archives and History. Retrieved 2014-08-01.
- "South Carolina State, and Secession Flags".
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