JPMorgan Chase

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This article is about JPMorgan Chase & Co. For main subsidiaries, see Chase (bank) and J.P. Morgan & Co..
JPMorgan Chase & Co.
Type Public
Traded as NYSEJPM
Dow Jones Industrial Average Component
S&P 500 Component
Industry Banking, financial services
Predecessors Chase Manhattan Corporation
J.P. Morgan & Co.
Founded 2000 (2000)
Headquarters 270 Park Avenue, Manhattan,
New York, New York
, U.S.
Area served Worldwide
Key people Jamie Dimon
(Chairman, CEO & President)[1][2]
Products Asset management, brokerage services commercial banking, commodities, consumer banking, corporate banking, credit cards, finance and insurance, foreign currency exchange, global banking, investment banking, mortgage loans, private banking, retail banking, risk management, treasury and security services, underwriting, wealth management
Revenue Decrease US$ 96.60 billion (2013)[3]
Operating income Decrease US$ 25.91 billion (2013)[3]
Net income Decrease US$ 17.92 billion (2013)[3]
Total assets Increase US$ 2.515 trillion (2013)[3]
Total equity Increase US$ 211.1 billion (2013)[3]
Employees 255,041 (2013)[3]
Divisions J.P. Morgan Asset Management
Subsidiaries Chase, J.P. Morgan & Co., J.P. Morgan Cazenove, One Equity Partners
Website JPMorganChase.com
The JPMorgan Chase & Co. headquarters at 270 Park Avenue in Manhattan, New York City, New York, U.S.

JPMorgan Chase & Co. is an American multinational banking and financial services holding company. It is the largest bank in the United States, with total assets of US$2.515 trillion. It is a major provider of financial services, and according to Forbes magazine is the world's third largest public company based on a composite ranking.[4] The hedge fund unit of JPMorgan Chase is the second largest hedge fund in the United States.[5] The company was formed in 2000, when Chase Manhattan Corporation merged with J.P. Morgan & Co.[6]

The J.P. Morgan brand, historically known as Morgan, is used by the investment banking, J.P. Morgan Asset Management, private banking, private wealth management and treasury & securities services divisions. Fiduciary activity within private banking and private wealth management is done under the aegis of JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A.—the actual trustee. The Chase brand is used for credit card services in the United States and Canada, the bank's retail banking activities in the United States, and commercial banking. The corporate headquarters are in 270 Park Avenue, Midtown, Manhattan, New York City, New York, U.S.; and the retail and commercial bank is headquartered in Chase Tower, Chicago Loop, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.[6] JPMorgan Chase & Co. is considered to be a universal bank.

JPMorgan Chase is one of the Big Four banks of the United States with Bank of America, Citigroup and Wells Fargo.[7][8][9][10][11][12] According to Bloomberg, as of October 2011, JPMorgan Chase surpassed Bank of America as the largest U.S. bank by assets.[13] Its predecessor, the Bank of the Manhattan Company, was the 22nd oldest bank in the world.

History[edit]

The JPMorgan Chase logo prior to the 2008 rebranding
As of June 2008, the JPMorgan logo used for the company's Investment Banking, Asset Management, and Treasury & Securities Services units.[14]

JPMorgan Chase, in its current structure, is the result of the combination of several large U.S. banking companies since 1996, including Chase Manhattan Bank, J.P. Morgan & Co., Bank One, Bear Stearns and Washington Mutual. Going back further, its predecessors include major banking firms among which are Chemical Bank, Manufacturers Hanover, First Chicago Bank, National Bank of Detroit, Texas Commerce Bank, Providian Financial and Great Western Bank.

Chemical Banking Corporation[edit]

Main article: Chemical Bank

The New York Chemical Manufacturing Company was founded in 1823 as a maker of various chemicals. In 1824, the company amended its charter to perform banking activities and created the Chemical Bank of New York. After 1851, the bank was separated from its parent and grew organically and through a series of mergers, most notably with Corn Exchange Bank in 1954, Texas Commerce Bank (a large bank in Texas) in 1986, and Manufacturer's Hanover Trust Company in 1991 (the first major bank merger "among equals"). In the 1980s and early 1990s, Chemical emerged as one of the leaders in the financing of leveraged buyout transactions. In 1984, Chemical launched Chemical Venture Partners to invest in private equity transactions alongside various financial sponsors. By the late 1980s, Chemical developed its reputation for financing buyouts, building a syndicated leveraged finance business and related advisory businesses under the auspices of pioneering investment banker, Jimmy Lee.[15][16] At many points throughout this history, Chemical Bank was the largest bank in the United States (either in terms of assets or deposit market share).

In 1996, Chemical Bank acquired Chase Manhattan. Although Chemical was the nominal survivor, it took the better-known Chase name. To this day, JPMorgan Chase retains Chemical's pre-1996 stock price history, as well as Chemical's former headquarters at 270 Park Avenue.

Chase Manhattan Bank[edit]

Main article: Chase Manhattan Bank
The logo used by Chase following the merger with the Manhattan Bank in 1954

The Chase Manhattan Bank was formed upon the 1955 purchase of Chase National Bank (established in 1877) by the Bank of the Manhattan Company (established in 1799),[17] the company's oldest predecessor institution. The Bank of the Manhattan Company was the creation of Aaron Burr, who transformed The Manhattan Company from a water carrier into a bank.

According to page 115 of An Empire of Wealth by John Steele Gordon, the origin of this strand of JPMorgan Chase's history runs as follows:

At the turn of the nineteenth century, obtaining a bank charter required an act of the state legislature. This of course injected a powerful element of politics into the process and invited what today would be called corruption but then was regarded as business as usual. Hamilton's political enemy—and eventual murderer—Aaron Burr was able to create a bank by sneaking a clause into a charter for a company, called the Manhattan Company, to provide clean water to New York City. The innocuous-looking clause allowed the company to invest surplus capital in any lawful enterprise. Within six months of the company's creation, and long before it had laid a single section of water pipe, the company opened a bank, the Bank of the Manhattan Company. Still in existence, it is today J. P. Morgan Chase, the largest bank in the United States.

Led by David Rockefeller during the 1970s and 1980s, Chase Manhattan emerged as one of the largest and most prestigious banking concerns, with leadership positions in syndicated lending, treasury and securities services, credit cards, mortgages, and retail financial services. Weakened by the real estate collapse in the early 1990s, it was acquired by Chemical Bank in 1996, retaining the Chase name. Before its merger with J.P. Morgan & Co., the new Chase expanded the investment and asset management groups through two acquisitions. In 1999, it acquired San Francisco-based Hambrecht & Quist for $1.35 billion. In April 2000, UK-based Robert Fleming & Co. was purchased by the new Chase Manhattan Bank for $7.7 billion.

J.P. Morgan & Company[edit]

Main article: J.P. Morgan & Co.
The J.P. Morgan & Co. logo before its merger with Chase Manhattan Bank in 2000
The J.P. Morgan headquarters in New York City following the September 16, 1920 bomb explosion that took the lives of 38 and injured over 400

The heritage of the House of Morgan traces its roots to the partnership of Drexel, Morgan & Co., which in 1895 was renamed J.P. Morgan & Co. (see also: J. Pierpont Morgan). Arguably the most influential financial institution of its era, J.P. Morgan & Co. financed the formation of the United States Steel Corporation, which took over the business of Andrew Carnegie and others and was the world's first billion dollar corporation. In 1895, J.P. Morgan & Co. supplied the United States government with $62 million in gold to float a bond issue and restore the treasury surplus of $100 million. In 1892, the company began to finance the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad and led it through a series of acquisitions that made it the dominant railroad transporter in New England.

Built in 1914, 23 Wall Street was known as the "House of Morgan", and for decades the bank's headquarters was the most important address in American finance. At noon, on September 16, 1920, a terrorist bomb exploded in front of the bank, injuring 400 and killing 38. Shortly before the bomb went off, a warning note was placed in a mailbox at the corner of Cedar Street and Broadway. The warning read: "Remember we will not tolerate any longer. Free the political prisoners or it will be sure death for all of you. American Anarchists Fighters." While there are many hypotheses regarding who was behind the bombing and why they did it, after 20 years of investigation the FBI rendered the case inactive without ever finding the perpetrators.

In August 1914, Henry P. Davison, a Morgan partner, traveled to the UK and made a deal with the Bank of England to make J.P. Morgan & Co. the monopoly underwriter of war bonds for the UK and France. The Bank of England became a "fiscal agent" of J.P. Morgan & Co., and vice-versa. The company also invested in the suppliers of war equipment to Britain and France. Thus, the company profited from the financing and purchasing activities of the two European governments.

In the 1930s, all of J.P. Morgan & Co. along with all integrated banking businesses in the United States, was required by the provisions of the Glass–Steagall Act to separate its investment banking from its commercial banking operations. J.P. Morgan & Co. chose to operate as a commercial bank, because at the time commercial lending was perceived as more profitable and prestigious. Additionally, many within J.P. Morgan believed that a change in political climate would eventually allow the company to resume its securities businesses but it would be nearly impossible to reconstitute the bank if it were disassembled.

In 1935, after being barred from securities business for over a year, the heads of J.P. Morgan spun off its investment-banking operations. Led by J.P. Morgan partners, Henry S. Morgan (son of Jack Morgan and grandson of J. Pierpont Morgan) and Harold Stanley, Morgan Stanley was founded on September 16, 1935, with $6.6 million of nonvoting preferred stock from J.P. Morgan partners. In order to bolster its position, in 1959, J.P. Morgan merged with the Guaranty Trust Company of New York to form the Morgan Guaranty Trust Company. The bank would continue to operate as Morgan Guaranty Trust until the 1980s, before beginning to migrate back toward the use of the J.P. Morgan brand. In 1984, the group finally purchased the Purdue National Corporation of Lafayette Indiana, uniting a history between the two figures of Salmon Portland Chase and John Purdue. In 1988, the company once again began operating exclusively as J.P. Morgan & Co.

Bank One Corporation[edit]

Main article: Bank One Corporation
Bank One logo.png

In 2004, JPMorgan Chase merged with Chicago-based Bank One Corp., bringing on board current chairman and CEO Jamie Dimon as president and COO and designating him as CEO William B. Harrison, Jr.'s successor. Dimon's pay was pegged at 90% of Harrison's. Dimon quickly made his influence felt by embarking on a cost-cutting strategy, and replaced former JPMorgan Chase executives in key positions with Bank One executives—many of whom were with Dimon at Citigroup. Dimon became CEO in January 2006 and Chairman in December 2006.

Bank One Corporation was formed upon the 1998 merger between Banc One of Columbus, Ohio and First Chicago NBD. These two large banking companies had themselves been created through the merger of many banks. This merger was largely considered a failure until Dimon—recently ousted as President of Citigroup—took over and reformed the new firm's practices—especially its disastrous technology mishmash inherited from the many mergers prior to this one. Dimon effected changes more than sufficient to make Bank One Corporation a viable merger partner for JPMorgan Chase.

The First Chicago Bank logo

Bank One Corporation traced its roots to First Bancgroup of Ohio, founded as a holding company for City National Bank of Columbus, Ohio and several other banks in that state, all of which were renamed "Bank One" when the holding company was renamed Banc One Corporation. With the beginning of interstate banking they spread into other states, always renaming acquired banks "Bank One", though for a long time they resisted combining them into one bank. After the First Chicago NBD merger, adverse financial results led to the departure of CEO John B. McCoy, whose father and grandfather had headed Banc One and predecessors. Dimon was brought in to head the company. JPMorgan Chase completed the acquisition of Bank One in the third quarter of 2004. The former Bank One and First Chicago headquarters in Chicago serve as the headquarters of Chase, JPMorgan Chase's commercial and retail banking subsidiary.

Bear Stearns[edit]

Main article: Bear Stearns
The Bear Stearns logo

At the end of 2007, Bear Stearns & Co. Inc. was the fifth largest investment bank in the United States but its market capitalization had deteriorated through the second half of 2007. On Friday, March 14, 2008, Bear Stearns lost 47% of its equity market value to close at $30.00 per share as rumors emerged that clients were withdrawing capital from the bank. Over the following weekend it emerged that Bear Stearns might prove insolvent, and on or around March 15, 2008, the Federal Reserve engineered a deal to prevent a wider systemic crisis from the collapse of Bear Stearns.[citation needed]

On March 16, 2008, after a weekend of intense negotiations between JPMorgan, Bear, and the federal government, JPMorgan Chase announced that it had plans to acquire Bear Stearns in a stock swap worth $2.00 per share or $240 million pending shareholder approval scheduled within 90 days. In the interim, JPMorgan Chase agreed to guarantee all Bear Stearns trades and business process flows.[18] Two days later on March 18, 2008, JPMorgan Chase formally announced the acquisition of Bear Stearns for $236 million. The stock swap agreement was signed in the late-night hours of March 18, 2008, with JPMorgan agreeing to exchange 0.05473 of each of its shares upon closure of the merger for one Bear share, valuing the Bear shares at $2 each.[19]

On March 24, 2008, after considerable public discontent by Bear Stearns shareholders over the low acquisition price threatened the deal's closure, a revised offer was announced at approximately $10 per share. Under the revised terms, JPMorgan also immediately acquired a 39.5% stake in Bear Stearns (using newly issued shares) at the new offer price and gained a commitment from the board (representing another 10% of the share capital) that its members would vote in favor of the new deal. With sufficient commitments to ensure a successful shareholder vote, the merger was completed on June 2, 2008.[citation needed]

Washington Mutual[edit]

Main article: Washington Mutual
The Washington Mutual logo prior to its 2008 acquisition by JPMorgan Chase

On September 25, 2008, JPMorgan Chase bought most of the banking operations of Washington Mutual from the receivership of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. That night, the Office of Thrift Supervision, in what was by far the largest bank failure in American history, had seized Washington Mutual Bank and placed it into receivership. The FDIC sold the bank's assets, secured debt obligations and deposits to JPMorgan Chase & Co for $1.836 billion, which re-opened the bank the following day. As a result of the takeover, Washington Mutual shareholders lost all their equity.[20]

JPMorgan Chase raised $10 billion in a stock sale to cover writedowns and losses after taking on deposits and branches of Washington Mutual.[21] Through the acquisition, JPMorgan now owns the former accounts of Providian Financial, a credit card issuer WaMu acquired in 2005. The company announced plans to complete the rebranding of Washington Mutual branches to Chase by late 2009.

Chief executive Alan H. Fishman received a $7.5 million sign-on bonus and cash severance of $11.6 million after being CEO for 17 days.[22]

2013 settlement[edit]

On November 19, 2013, the Justice Department announced that JPMorgan Chase agreed to pay $13 billion to settle investigations into its business practices pertaining to mortgage-backed securities.[23] Of that, $9 billion was penalties and fines and the remaining $4 billion was consumer relief. This was the largest corporate settlement to date. Much of the alleged wrongdoing stemmed from its 2008 acquisitions of Bear Sterns and Washington Mutual. The agreement did not settle criminal charges.[24]

Other recent acquisitions[edit]

In 2006, JPMorgan Chase purchased Collegiate Funding Services, a portfolio company of private equity firm Lightyear Capital, for $663 million. CFS was used as the foundation for the Chase Student Loans, previously known as Chase Education Finance.[25]

In April 2006, JPMorgan Chase acquired The Bank of New York Co.'s retail and small business banking network. The acquisition gave Chase access to 338 additional branches and 700,000 new customers in New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut.

In March 2008, JPMorgan acquired the UK-based carbon offsetting company ClimateCare.[26]

In November 2009, JPMorgan announced it would acquire the balance of JPMorgan Cazenove, an advisory and underwriting joint venture established in 2004 with the Cazenove Group, for GBP1 billion.[27]

Acquisition history[edit]

The following is an illustration of the company's major mergers and acquisitions and historical predecessors (this is not a comprehensive list):

JPMorgan Chase & Co.
JPMorgan Chase
(merged 2000)
Chase Manhattan Bank
(merged 1996)[28]
Chemical Bank
(merged 1991)
Chemical Bank
(reorganized 1988)

The Chemical Bank
of New York

(est. 1823)



Citizens National Bank
(est. 1851, acq. 1920)



Corn Exchange Bank
(est. 1852, acq. 1954)



New York Trust Company
(acq. 1959)



Texas Commerce Bank
(est. 1866, acq. 1986)[29]



Manufacturers Hanover
(merged 1961)

Manufacturers
Trust Company

(est. 1905)[30]



Hanover Bank
(est. 1873)




Chase Manhattan Bank
(merged 1955)

Bank of the
Manhattan Company

(est. 1799)



Chase National Bank
of the City of New York
(est. 1877)[31]




J.P. Morgan & Co.
(formerly Morgan Guaranty Trust)
(merged 1959)

Guaranty Trust Company
of New York
(est. 1866)



J.P. Morgan & Co.
("The House of Morgan")[32]
(est. 1895)[33]




Bank One
(acq. 2004)
Banc One Corp.[34]
(merged 1968)

City National Bank
& Trust Company



Farmers Saving
& Trust Company



First Chicago NBD
(merged 1995)

First Chicago Corp.
(est. 1863)



NBD Bancorp.
(formerly
National Bank of Detroit)
(est. 1933)



 

Louisiana’s First
Commerce Corp.



Bear Stearns
(est. 1923;
acq. 2008
)[35]

 


Washington Mutual
(acq. 2008)[36]
 

Washington Mutual
(founded 1889)


 

Great Western Bank
(acq. 1997)


 

H. F. Ahmanson & Co.
(acq. 1998)


 

Bank United of Texas
(acq. 2001)


 

Dime Bancorp, Inc.
(acq. 2002)


 

Providian Financial
(acq. 2005)




Structure[edit]

JPMorgan Chase & Co. owns five bank subsidiaries in the United States:[37] JPMorgan Chase Bank, National Association; Chase Bank USA, National Association; Custodial Trust Company; JPMorgan Chase Bank, Dearborn; and J.P. Morgan Bank and Trust Company, National Association.

JPMorgan Chase's activities are organized, for management reporting purposes, into five business segments:[38] corporate & investment bank, card services and consumer lending, commercial banking; personal and business banking, home lending, asset management, corporate; including private equity (One Equity Partners) and treasury and corporate functions.[citation needed] The investment banking division at J.P. Morgan is divided by teams: industry, M&A and capital markets. Industry teams include consumer and retail, healthcare, diversified industries and transportation, natural resources, financial institutions, metals and mining, real estate and technology, media and telecommunications.

JPMorgan Europe, Ltd.[edit]

The company, known previously as Chase Manhattan International Limited, was founded on September 18, 1968.[39][40]

In August 2008, the bank announced plans to construct a new European headquarters, based at Canary Wharf, London.[41] These plans were subsequently suspended in December 2010, when the bank announced the purchase of a nearby existing office tower at 25 Bank Street for use as the European headquarters of its investment bank.[42] 25 Bank Street had originally been designated as the European headquarters of Enron and was subsequently used as the headquarters of Lehman Brothers International (Europe).

The regional office is in London with offices in Bournemouth, Glasgow, and Edinburgh for asset management, private banking, and investment.[43]

Financial data[edit]

Financial data in $ millions
Year 2004[44] 2005[44] 2006[44] 2007[45] 2008[46] 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Revenue 43,097 54,533 61,437 71,372 67,252 100,434 102,694 97,234 97,031 96,606
EBITDA 7,140 13,740 22,218
Net Income 4,466 8,483 14,444 15,365 5,605 11,728
Employees 160,968 168,847 174,360 180,667 224,961 222,316

JPMorgan Chase[47] was the biggest bank at the end of 2008 as an individual bank. (not including subsidiaries)

Operations[edit]

Earlier in 2011 the company announced that by the use of supercomputers, the time taken to assess risk had been greatly reduced, from arriving at a conclusion within hours to what is now minutes. The banking corporation uses for this calculation Field-Programmable Gate Array technology.[48]

History[edit]

The Bank began operations in Japan in 1924,[49] in Australia during the later part of the nineteenth century,[50] and in Indonesia during the early 1920s.[51] An office of the Equitable Eastern Banking Corporation (one of J.P. Morgan's predecessors) opened a branch in China in 1921 and Chase National Bank was established there in 1923.[52] The bank has operated in Saudi Arabia[53] and India[54] since the 1930s. Chase Manhattan Bank opened an office in Korea in 1967.[55] The firm's presence in Greece dates to 1968.[56] An office of JPMorgan was opened in Taiwan in 1970,[57] in Russia (Soviet Union) in 1973,[58] and Nordic operations began during the same year.[59] Operations in Poland began in 1995.[56]

Controversies[edit]

Speculative trading[edit]

In 2012, JPMorgan Chase & Co was charged for misrepresenting and failing to disclose that the CIO had engaged in extremely risky and speculative trades that exposed JPMorgan to significant losses.[60]

Conflicts of interest on investment research[edit]

In December 2002, Chase paid fines totaling $80 million, with the amount split between the states and the federal government. The fines were part of a settlement involving charges that ten banks, including Chase, deceived investors with biased research. The total settlement with the ten banks was $1.4 billion. The settlement required that the banks separate investment banking from research, and ban any allocation of IPO shares.[61]

Enron[edit]

Chase paid out over $2 billion in fines and legal settlements for their role in financing Enron Corporation with aiding and abetting Enron Corp.'s securities fraud, which collapsed amid a financial scandal in 2001.[62] In 2003, Chase paid $160 million in fines and penalties to settle claims by the Securities and Exchange Commission and the Manhattan district attorney’s office. In 2005, Chase paid $2.2 billion to settle a lawsuit filed by investors in Enron.[63]

WorldCom[edit]

JPMorgan Chase, which helped underwrite $15.4 billion of WorldCom's bonds, agreed in March 2005 to pay $2 billion; that was 46 percent, or $630 million, more than it would have paid had it accepted an investor offer in May 2004 of $1.37 billion. J.P. Morgan was the last big lender to settle. Its payment is the second largest in the case, exceeded only by the $2.6 billion accord reached in 2004 by Citigroup.[64] In March 2005, 16 of WorldCom's 17 former underwriters reached settlements with the investors.[65][66]

Jefferson County, Alabama[edit]

In November 2009, JPMorgan Chase & Co. agreed to a $722 million settlement with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission to end a probe into sales of derivatives that helped push Alabama’s most populous county to the brink of bankruptcy. The settlement came a week after Birmingham, Alabama Mayor Larry Langford was convicted on 60 counts of bribery, money laundering, and tax evasion related to bond swaps for Jefferson County, Alabama. The SEC alleged that J.P. Morgan, which had been chosen by the county commissioners to underwrite the floating-rate sewer bond deals and provide interest-rate swaps, had made undisclosed payments to close friends of the commissioners in exchange for the deal. J.P. Morgan then allegedly made up for the costs by charging higher interest rates on the swaps.[67]

Failure to comply with client money rules in the UK[edit]

In June 2010, J.P. Morgan Securities was fined a record £33.32 million ($49.12 million) by the UK Financial Services Authority (FSA) for failing to protect an average of £5.5 billion of clients' money from 2002 to 2009.[68][69] FSA requires financial firms to keep clients' funds in separate accounts to protect the clients in case such firm becomes insolvent. The firm had failed to properly segregate client funds from corporate funds following the merger of Chase and J.P. Morgan, resulting in a violation of FSA regulations but no losses to clients. The clients' funds would have been at risk had the firm become insolvent during this period.[70] J.P. Morgan Securities reported the incident to the FSA, corrected the errors, and cooperated in the ensuing investigation, resulting in the fine being reduced 30% from an original amount of £47.6 million.[69]

Mortgage overcharge of active military personnel[edit]

In January 2011, JPMorgan Chase admitted that it wrongly overcharged several thousand military families for their mortgages, including active duty personnel in Afghanistan. The bank also admitted it improperly foreclosed on more than a dozen military families; both actions were in clear violation of the Servicemembers Civil Relief Act which automatically lowers mortgage rates to 6 percent, and bars foreclosure proceedings of active duty personnel. The overcharges may have never come to light were it not for legal action taken by Captain Jonathan Rowles. Both Captain Rowles and his spouse Julia accused Chase of violating the law and harassing the couple for nonpayment. An official stated that the situation was "grim", and Chase initially stated it would be refunding up to $2,000,000 to those who were overcharged, and that families improperly foreclosed on have gotten or will get their homes back.[71] Chase has acknowledged that as many as 6,000 active duty military personnel were illegally overcharged, and more than 18 military families homes were wrongly foreclosed. In April, Chase agreed to pay a total of $27 million in compensation to settle the class-action suit.[72] At the company's 2011 shareholders' meeting, Dimon apologized for the error and said the bank would forgive the loans of any active-duty personnel whose property had been foreclosed. In June 2011, lending chief Dave Lowman was forced out over the scandal.[73][74]

Truth in Lending Act litigation[edit]

In 2008 and 2009, 14 lawsuits were filed against JPMorgan Chase in various district courts on behalf of Chase credit card holders claiming the bank violated the Truth in Lending Act, breached its contract with the consumers and committed a breach of implied covenant of good faith and fair dealing. The consumers contended that Chase, with little or no notice, increased minimum monthly payments from 2% to 5% on loan balances that were transferred to consumers' credit cards based on the promise of a fixed interest rate. In May 2011, the United States District Court for the Northern District of California certified the class action lawsuit. On July 23, 2012, Chase agreed to pay $100 million to settle the claim.[75]

Alleged manipulation of energy market[edit]

In July 2013, The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) approved a stipulation and consent agreement under which JPMorgan Ventures Energy Corporation (JPMVEC), a subsidiary of JPMorgan Chase & Co., agreed to pay $410 million in penalties and disgorgement to ratepayers for allegations of market manipulation stemming from the company’s bidding activities in electricity markets in California and the Midwest from September 2010 through November 2012. JPMVEC agreed to pay a civil penalty of $285 million to the U.S. Treasury and to disgorge $125 million in unjust profits. JPMVEC admitted the facts set forth in the agreement, but neither admitted nor denied the violations.[76]

The case stemmed from multiple referrals to FERC from market monitors in 2011 and 2012 regarding JPMVEC’s bidding practices. FERC investigators determined that JPMVEC engaged in 12 manipulative bidding strategies designed to make profits from power plants that were usually out of the money in the marketplace. In each of them, the company made bids designed to create artificial conditions that forced California and Midcontinent Independent System Operators (ISOs) to pay JPMVEC outside the market at premium rates.[76]

FERC investigators further determined that JPMVEC knew that the California ISO and Midcontinent ISO received no benefit from making inflated payments to the company, thereby defrauding the ISOs by obtaining payments for benefits that the company did not deliver beyond the routine provision of energy. FERC investigators also determined that JPMVEC's bids displaced other generation and altered day ahead and real-time prices from the prices that would have resulted had the company not submitted the bids.[76]

Under the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Congress directed FERC to detect, prevent and appropriately sanction the gaming of energy markets. According to FERC, the Commission approved the settlement as in the public interest.[76]

Criminal investigation into obstruction of justice[edit]

FERC's investigation of energy market manipulations led to a subsequent investigation into possible obstruction of justice by employees of JPMorgan Chase.[77] Various newspapers reported in September 2013 that the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and US Attorney's Office in Manhattan were investigating whether employees withheld information or made false statements during the FERC investigation.[77] The reported impetus for the investigation was a letter from Massachusetts Senators Elizabeth Warren and Edward Markey, in which they asked FERC why no action was taken against people who impeded the FERC investigation.[77] At the time of the FBI investigation, the Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations was also looking into whether JPMorgan Chase employees impeded the FERC investigation.[77] Reuters reported that JPMorgan Chase was facing over a dozen investigations at the time.[77]

Sanctions violations[edit]

On August 25, 2011, JPMorgan Chase agreed to settle fines with regard to violations of the sanctions under the Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) regime. The U.S. Department of Treasury released the following civil penalties information under the heading: "JPMorgan Chase Bank N.A. Settles Apparent Violations of Multiple Sanctions Programs":

JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A, New York, NY ("JPMC") has agreed to remit $88,300,000 to settle potential civil liability for apparent violations of: the Cuban Assets Control Regulations ("CACR"), 31 C.F.R. part 515; the Weapons of Mass Destruction Proliferators Sanctions Regulations ("WMDPSR"), 31 C.F.R. part 544; Executive Order 13382, "Blocking Property of Weapons of Mass Destruction Proliferators and Their Supporters;" the Global Terrorism Sanctions Regulations ("GTSR"), 31 C.F.R. part 594; the Iranian Transactions Regulations ("ITR"), 31 C.F.R. part 560; the Sudanese Sanctions Regulations ("SSR"), 31 C.F.R. part 538; the Former Liberian Regime of Charles Taylor Sanctions Regulations ("FLRCTSR"), 31 C.F.R. part 593; and the Reporting, Procedures, and Penalties Regulations ("RPPR"), 31 C.F.R. part 501, that occurred between December 15, 2005, and March 1, 2011.

—U.S. Department of the Treasury Resource Center, OFAC Recent Actions. Retrieved June 18, 2013.[78]

Mortgage-backed securities sales[edit]

In August 2013, JPMorgan Chase announced that it is being investigated by the United States Department of Justice over its offerings of mortgage-backed securities leading up to the financial crisis of 2007–08. The company said that the Department of justice had preliminarily concluded that the firm violated federal securities laws in offerings of subprime and Alt-A residential mortgage securities during the period 2005 to 2007.[79]

"Sons and Daughters" hiring program[edit]

In 2013, the SEC began an investigation of the bank's hiring practices in China. The bank allegedly made a practice of hiring the children of the Chinese ruling elite. Spreadsheets kept a record of how the hires led to business deals. The bank viewed this as a gateway to doing deals with state-owned companies.[80] The practice is felt to be widespread in the banking industry.[81]

Madoff fraud[edit]

Further information: Madoff investment scandal

JPMorgan Chase and its predecessor, Chemical Bank, had a relationship with Bernard Madoff from 1986 to 2008 when Madoff revealed to the FBI that his investment advisory business was a Ponzi scheme. JPMorgan (and its predecessors) was Madoff's primary bank in the later years of the fraud.[citation needed]

In 2010, Irving Picard, the trustee charged with recovering the money stolen by Madoff, sued JPMorgan for failing to prevent Madoff from defrauding his customers. According to the suit, Chase knew or should have known that Madoff's wealth management business was a fraud. However, Chase did not report its concerns to regulators or law enforcement until October 2008 when it told the UK Serious Organised Crime Agency that the performance of Madoff's investments was "too good to be true." The suit also claimed that Chase bankers were making profitable deals with Madoff even as risk management executives expressed concern about the nature of Madoff's business. Almost as seriously, Picard charged that Chemical/Chase's retail bankers failed to perform even basic oversight of Madoff's banking activities, despite several transactions dating as far back as the 1990s that raised the appearance of money laundering or check kiting. Picard argued that even a cursory glance at Madoff's account activity at Chase would have revealed his business could not possibly have been legitimate. He also argued that even after Chase reported its concerns about Madoff's performance to UK officials, it did not put any restrictions on Madoff's banking activities until his arrest two months later.[82]

In the fall of 2013, JPMorgan began talks with prosecutors and regulators to settle charges that it turned a blind eye to Madoff's actions. On January 7, 2014, JPMorgan agreed to pay a total of $2.05 billion in fines and penalties to settle civil and criminal charges related to its role in the Madoff scandal. The bank signed a deferred prosecution agreement – the first ever imposed on a major New York City bank – with United States Attorney for the Southern District of New York Preet Bharara. In the agreement, JPMorgan admitted that it and its predecessors failed to report illegal activities on Madoff's part as required by the Bank Secrecy Act as early as 1994. Bharara filed a two-count criminal information charging JPMorgan with Bank Secrecy Act violations, but the charges will be dismissed within two years provided that JPMorgan reforms its anti-money laundering procedures and cooperates with the government in its investigation. The bank agreed to forfeit $1.7 billion – the largest forfeiture ever imposed on a bank in American history. The government will use that money to help make Madoff's victims whole.

JPMorgan also agreed to pay a $350 million fine to the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency and settle the suit filed against it by Picard for $543 million.[83][84][85][86]

Corruption investigation in Asia[edit]

On 26 March 2014, the Hong Kong Independent Commission Against Corruption seized computer records and documents after searching the office of Fang, the company’s outgoing chief executive officer for China investment banking.[87]

Offices[edit]

Although the old Chase Manhattan Bank's headquarters were located at One Chase Manhattan Plaza in downtown Manhattan, the current world headquarters for JPMorgan Chase & Co. are located at 270 Park Avenue, Chemical Bank's former headquarters.

The bulk of North American operations take place in four buildings located adjacent to each other on Park Avenue in New York City: the former Union Carbide Building at 270 Park Avenue, the hub of sales and trading operations, and the original Chemical Bank building at 277 Park Avenue, where most investment banking activity took place. Asset and wealth management groups are located at 245 Park Avenue and 345 Park Avenue. Other groups are located in the former Bear Stearns building at 383 Madison Avenue.

Chase, the U.S. and Canada, retail, commercial, and credit card bank is headquartered in Chicago at the Chase Tower, Chicago, Illinois.[6]

The Asia Pacific headquarters for JPMorgan is located in Hong Kong at Chater House.

Approximately 11,050 employees are located in Columbus at the McCoy Center, the former Bank One offices.

The bank moved some of its operations to the JPMorgan Chase Tower in Houston, when it purchased Texas Commerce Bank.

The Global Corporate Bank leverages the wider firm's operations in 100 countries to provide corporate banking solutions to clients in the locations in which they operate. The main headquarters are in London, with regional headquarters in Hong Kong, New York and Sao Paulo.[88]

The Card Services division has its headquarters in Wilmington, Delaware, with Card Services offices in Elgin, Illinois; Springfield, Missouri; San Antonio, Texas; Mumbai, India; and Cebu, Philippines.

Additional large operation centers are located in Phoenix, Arizona; Los Angeles, California, Newark, Delaware; Orlando, Florida; Tampa, Florida; Indianapolis, Indiana; Louisville, Kentucky; Brooklyn, New York; Rochester, New York; Columbus, Ohio; Dallas, Texas; Fort Worth, Texas; and Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Operation centers in Canada are located in Burlington, Ontario; and Toronto, Ontario.

Operations centers in the United Kingdom are located in Bournemouth, Glasgow, London, Liverpool, and Swindon. The London location also serves as the European headquarters.

Additional offices and technology operations are located in in Manila, Philippines; Cebu, Philippines; Mumbai, India; Bangalore, India; Hyderabad, India; New Delhi, India; Buenos Aires, Argentina; Sao Paulo, Brazil; Mexico City, Mexico, and Jerusalem, Israel.

Credit derivatives[edit]

The derivatives team at JPMorgan (including Blythe Masters) was a pioneer in the invention of credit derivatives such as the credit default swap. The first CDS was created to allow Exxon to borrow money from JPMorgan while JPMorgan transferred the risk to the European Bank of Reconstruction and Development. JPMorgan's team later created the 'BISTRO', a bundle of credit default swaps that was the progenitor of the Synthetic CDO.[89][90] JPMorgan currently has the largest credit default swap and credit derivatives portfolio by total notional amount of any US bank.[91][92]

Multibillion-dollar trading loss[edit]

In April 2012, hedge fund insiders became aware that the market in credit default swaps was possibly being affected by the activities of Bruno Iksil, a trader for J.P. Morgan Chase & Co., referred to as "the London whale" in reference to the huge positions he was taking. Heavy opposing bets to his positions are known to have been made by traders, including another branch of J.P. Morgan, who purchased the derivatives offered by J.P. Morgan in such high volume.[93][94] Early reports were denied and minimized by the firm in an attempt to minimize exposure.[95] Major losses, $2 billion, were reported by the firm in May 2012, in relation to these trades and updated to $4.4 billion on July 13, 2012.[96] The disclosure, which resulted in headlines in the media, did not disclose the exact nature of the trading involved, which remains in progress and as of June 28, 2012, was continuing to produce losses which could total as much as $9 billion under worst-case scenarios.[97][98] The item traded, possibly related to CDX IG 9, an index based on the default risk of major U.S. corporations,[99][100] has been described as a "derivative of a derivative".[101][102] On the company's emergency conference call, JPMorgan Chase CEO Jamie Dimon said the strategy was "flawed, complex, poorly reviewed, poorly executed, and poorly monitored".[103] The episode is being investigated by the Federal Reserve, the SEC, and the FBI.[104]

Fines levied regarding the 2012 JPMorgan Chase trading loss[105]
Regulator Nation Fine
Office of the Comptroller of the Currency US $300m
Securities and Exchange Commission $200m
Federal Reserve $200m
Financial Conduct Authority UK £138m ($221m US)

On September 18, 2013, JPMorgan Chase agreed to pay a total of $920 million in fines and penalties to American and UK regulators for violations related to the trading loss and other incidents. The fine was part of a multiagency and multinational settlement with the Federal Reserve, Office of the Comptroller of the Currency and the Securities and Exchange Commission in the United States and the Financial Conduct Authority in the UK. The company also admitted breaking American securities law.[106] The fines amounted to the third biggest banking fine levied by US regulators, and the second largest by UK authorities.[105] As of September 19, 2013, two traders face criminal proceedings.[105] It is also the first time in several years that a major American financial institution has publicly admitted breaking the securities laws.[107]

A report by the SEC was critical of the level of oversight from senior management on traders, and the FCA said the incident demonstrated "flaws permeating all levels of the firm: from portfolio level right up to senior management."[105]

On the day of the fine, the BBC reported from the New York Stock Exchange that the fines "barely registered" with traders there, the news having been an expected development and the company having prepared for the financial hit.[105]

Art collection[edit]

The collection was begun in 1959 by David Rockefeller,[108] and comprises over 30,000 objects, of which over 6,000 are photographic-based,[109] as of 2012 containing more than one hundred works by Middle Eastern and North African artists.[110] One Chase Manhattan Plaza building was the original location at the start of collection by the Chase Manhattan Bank, the current collection containing both this and also those works that the First National Bank of Chicago had acquired prior to assimilation into the J.P.Morgan Chase organisation.[111] L. K. Erf has been the director of acquisitions of works since 2004 for the bank,[112] whose art program staff is completed by an additional three full-time members and one registrar.[113] The advisory committee at the time of the Rockefeller initiation included A. H. Barr, and D. Miller, and also J. J. Sweeney, R. Hale, P. Rathbone and G. Bunshaft.[114]

Major sponsorships[edit]

Notable former employees[edit]

Business[edit]

Politics and public service[edit]

Other[edit]

See also[edit]

Index products[edit]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]