List of Palestinians

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The following are lists of Palestinian people or Palestinians.

The first list consists of Palestinian people since the creation of Mandatory Palestine in 1920. They are the modern descendants of people who have lived in Palestine over the centuries and today are largely culturally and linguistically Arab.[1] This list does not include those Palestinian Jews who made up part of the population of Palestine prior to the creation of Israel, since very few identify as "Palestinian" today.

The second list consists of people who were born in the region of Palestine prior to the modern identity politics resulting from the creation of Mandatory Palestine and the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. Whilst the history of a distinct Palestinian national identity is a disputed issue amongst scholars,[2] modern Palestinians identify with the people born in the region of Palestine throughout history. According to Rashid Khalidi, the modern Palestinian identity encompasses the heritage of all ages from biblical times up to the Ottoman period.[3] According to Palestinian author Walid Khalidi: "the Palestinians considered themselves to be descended not only from Arab conquerors of the seventh century but also from indigenous peoples who had lived in the country since time immemorial."[4] and according to Palestinian anthropologist Ali Qleibo: "in their customs and manners, fossils of these ancient civilizations survived until modernity—albeit modernity camouflaged under the veneer of Islam and Arabic culture."[5] Genetic analysis suggests that a majority of the Muslims of Palestine, inclusive of Arab citizens of Israel, are descendants of Christians, Jews and other earlier inhabitants of the southern Levant whose core may reach back to prehistoric times.[6]

Mandate period and after[edit]

Name Field Speciality Place of birth Year of Birth
Khaled Al-Hassan Politics(Fatah) Political theorist, author, Fatah & PLO leader Haifa 1928
Majid Sirhan Journalist Broadcaster Halhoul 1939
Lila Abu Lughod Academia professor, anthropology, women and gender studies USA 1950s
Hasan Yahya Academia professor, sociologist, thinker and writer, Majdal Yaba 1944
Salman Abu Sitta Academia Beersheba 1938
Imad-ad-Dean Ahmad Academia academic USA 1948
Izzat Darwaza Academia historian, politician, educator Nablus 1888
Samih Farsoun Academia sociologist Haifa 1937
Ismail al-Faruqi Academia philosopher and comparative religions professor Jaffa 1921
Leila Farsakh Academia Middle East, politics Jordan 1967
Sami Hadawi Academia land specialist and researcher Jerusalem 1904
Wasif Jawhariyyeh Music Oud composer Jerusalem 1897
Rashid Khalidi Academia historian USA 1948
Walid Khalidi Academia historian Jerusalem 1925
Chaker Khazaal Arts Writer Beirut/Palestinian Refugee 1987
Salem Hanna Khamis Academia economic statistician Nazareth 1919
Laila Al-Marayati Medicine gynecologist USA 1962
Khaled Mardam-Bey Academia programmer Jordan 1968
Nur Masalha Academia academic, historian, editor Galilee 1957
Joseph Massad Academia academic Jordan 1963
Sari Nusseibeh Academia philosopher, diplomat Syria 1949
Edward Said Academia professor of comparative literature, intellectual, and Palestinian Nationalist Jerusalem 1935
Nadia Abu El Haj Academia Professor, Anthropologist USA 1962
Rosemarie Said Zahlan Academia historian Egypt 1937
Anis Sayigh Academia historian Tiberias 1931
Yezid Sayigh Academia historian USA 1955
Hashem El-Serag Medicine doctor and medical researcher Libya 1966
Hisham Sharabi Academia intellectual Jaffa 1927
Qustandi Shomali Academia Professor, Historian, Critic, Researcher Beit Sahour 1946
Khalil Suleiman Medicine medical doctor Jenin 1943
Helga Tawil Souri Academia Professor, Media scholar & researcher, filmmaker Kuwait 1969
Ahmad Teebi Academia geneticist and dysmorphologist Beirut 1949
Ali Abunimah Literature author, journalist USA 1971
Said K. Aburish Literature author, journalist Jerusalem 1935
Mourid Barghouti Literature poet Ramallah 1944
Khalil Beidas Literature author Nazareth 1874
Jamal Dajani Literature author, journalist, producer Jerusalem 1957
Mahmoud Darwish Literature poet Al-Birwa 1941
Khaled Ennasra Poet Journalist Jenin 1927
Emile Habibi Literature author Haifa 1922
Suheir Hammad Literature poet Jordan 1973
Nadia Hijab Literature author, journalist Syria 1950s
Jabra Ibrahim Jabra Literature poet, novelist, translator and literary critic Bethlehem 1919
Emily Jacir Artist professor, filmmkaker Bethlehem 1975
Sabri Jiryis Literature author Fassuta 1938
Ghassan Kanafani Literature author Acre 1938
Hasan Karmi Literature linguist and author Tulkarm 1905
Ghada Karmi Literature author Jerusalem 1939
Sayed Kashua Literature author and journalist Tira 1975
Widad Kawar Literature author and collector Bethlehem 1932
Sahar Khalifa Literature novelist Nablus 1942
Daoud Kuttab Literature journalist, author Jerusalem 1955
Taha Muhammad Ali Literature poet Saffuriyya 1931
Salman Masalha Literature poet, writer, essayist and translator Maghar 1953
Kamal Nasser Literature poet, activist Gaza 1925
Mohammed Omer Literature journalist Rafah 1984
Samih al-Qasim Literature poet Jordan 1939
Nahid al-Rayyis Literature poet Gaza 1937
Abu Salma Literature poet Haifa 1906
Khalil al-Sakakini Literature author Jerusalem 1878
Naomi Shihab Nye Literature poet USA 1952
Serene Husseini Shahid Literature author, philanthropist, researcher and collector of Palestinian costumes Jerusalem 1920
Khaled Abu Toameh Literature journalist Tulkarm 1963
Fadwa Toukan Literature poet Nablus 1917
Ibrahim Touqan Literature poet, writer of the poem Mawtini, the current national anthem of Iraq Nablus 1905
Samir El Youssef Literature writer and critic Lebanon 1965
May Ziade Literature author Nazareth 1886
Mustafa Abu Ali Film film director, founder of Palestinian Revolutionary Cinema, eight films Malha 1940
Hany Abu-Assad Film film director Nazareth 1961
Muhammad Bakri Film film director Bi'ina 1953
Cherien Dabis Film film director, writer USA 1976
Annemarie Jacir Film film director, writer Bethlehem 1974
Michel Khleifi Film film director (Wedding in Galilee) Nazareth 1950
Clara Khoury Film actress Haifa 1976
Makram Khoury Film actor, first Arab to win (Israel Prize – 1987) Jerusalem 1945
Rashid Masharawi Film film director Gaza 1962
Mai Masri Film film director Beirut 1959
Elia Suleiman Film film director (Divine Intervention) Nazareth 1960
Hiam Abbas Film actress Nazareth 1960
Ramzi Aburedwan Music composer, viola player Bethlehem 1979
Charlie Bisharat Music Grammy-winning violinist USA 1963[7]
Belly Music Rapper Jenin 1984
Rim Banna Music singer/songwriter Nazareth 1966
Ammar Hasan Music singer Salfit 1976
Wissam Joubran Music composer and Oud player Nazareth 1983
Reem Kelani Music singer/composer/musicologist UK 1963
Shadia Mansour Music singer UK 1980s
Amal Murkus Music singer Galilee 1970s
Mohsen Subhi Music composer, arranger, oud and buzuq player Ramallah 1963
DJ Khaled Music hip-hop producer, radio personality, and DJ USA 1975
Simon Shaheen Music oud and violin virtuoso, composer Galilee 1955
Massiv Music rapper Germany 1982
Melechesh (band) Music Jerusalem 1970s
Habib Hassan Touma Music composer Nazareth 1934
Fred Wreck Music hip-hop producer USA 1972
Tamer Nafar Music rapper of DAM fame Lod 1979
Sameh Zakout Music rapper Ramle 1980s
Laila Bagge Wahlgren Music manager and songwriter Sweden 1972
Tarééc Music German singer Germany 1978
DAM (band) Music Palestinian rap group Lod 1970s
Fouad Awad Art Theater Director Nazareth 1956
Naji al-Ali Art cartoonist al-Shajara 1938
Nasr Abdel Aziz Eleyan Art artist Jericho 1941
Mustafa Al-Hallaj Art artist Jaffa 1938
Mona Hatoum Art sculptor Beirut 1952
Nabil Anani Art artist Halhoul 1943
Hasan Hourani Art painter Hebron 1974
Bissan Rafe Art painter and writer Kuwait 1986
Emily Jacir Art painter and photographer, artist Bethlehem 1970
Hanna Jubran Art sculptor Galilee 1952
Sliman Mansour Art painter Birzeit 1947
Sama Raena Alshaibi Art photographer, artist Iraq 1980s
Ahlam Shibli Art photographer Galilee 1970
Jafar Tukan Art architect Jerusalem 1938
Hisham Zreiq Art artist and film director (The Sons of Eialboun) Nazareth 1968
Rami Kashou Art fashion designer Ramallah 1977
Jaffa Phonix (band) Music band Kuwait 1980s
Zaman (band) Music Palestinian folk and flamenco band Acre
Yousef Beidas Business Intra Bank Jerusalem 1912
Munib al-Masri Business PADICO [8] Nablus 1934
Hasib Sabbagh Business Consolidated Contractors International Company Tiberias 1920
Naim Attallah Business Asprey, Quartet Publishing Haifa 1931
Farouk Khalil Toukan Business Toukan Enterprise, CICON Nablus 1937
Talal Abu-Ghazaleh Business Jaffa 1938
Sam Bahour Business West bank businessman USA 1964
Yasser Elshantaf Business Vice chairman of PhoenixBird, and CEO of Safadi Group Gaza 1983
Tarab Abdul Hadi Politics Activist Jenin 1910
Fu'ad Nassar Politics (PCP) Co-founded National Liberation League in Palestine Nazareth 1914
Nabil Amr Politics (Fatah) presidential aide and negotiator 1947
Yasser Arafat Politics (Fatah) First President of the PNA Cairo 1929
Hakam Balawi Politics (Fatah) former ambassador of PLO to Tunisia and Algeria Tulkarm 1939
Marwan Barghouti Politics (Fatah) founder of Tanzim and senior Fatah opposition figure Kobar 1959
Mohammed Dahlan Politics (Fatah) Head of Preventive Security Service in Gaza Gaza 1961
Saeb Erekat Politics (Fatah) presidential aide and senior negotiator Jerusalem 1955
Qadura Fares Politics (Fatah) PNA minister and aide of Barghouti
Rawhi Fattuh Politics (Fatah) former interim President of the PNA Barqa 1949
Faisal Husseini Politics (Fatah) former head of Jerusalem affairs Baghdad 1940
Farouk Kaddoumi Politics (Fatah) former head of Fatah Jinsafut 1931
Salah Khalaf Politics (Fatah) former top aide of Arafat Jaffa 1933
Ahmed Qurei Politics (Fatah) former Prime Minister of the Palestinian National Authority Jerusalem 1937
Ali Hassan Salameh Politics (PLO) Qula 1940
Nabil Shaath Politics (Fatah) former Foreign Affairs Minister Safed 1938
Khalil al-Wazir Politics (PLO) former PLO military leader and top aide of Arafat Ramla 1938
Dalal Mughrabi Other militant killed during the Coastal Road massacre Lebanon 1959
Muhammad Abu Tir Politics (Hamas) Jerusalem 1951
Mohammad Barghouti Politics (Hamas)
Mohammed Deif Politics (Hamas) Leader of Hamas' military wing 1960
Ismail Haniyeh Politics (Hamas) Gaza 1963
Ahmed al-Ja'abari Politics (Hamas) Gaza 1960
Wasfi Kabha Politics (Hamas) Prisoners' Affairs Minister
Khaled Meshaal Politics (Hamas) Secretary-General of Hamas Silwad 1956
Abdel Aziz al-Rantissi Politics (Hamas) founder and former Secretary-General of Hamas Yibna 1947
Ahmed Yassin Politics (Hamas) founder and spiritual leader Al-Jura 1937
Mahmoud al-Zahar Politics (Hamas) former Foreign Affairs Minister of the Palestinian National Authority, Hamas foreign minister Jerusalem 1945
Salah Shehade Politics (Hamas) leader of military wing of the Hamas organization Gaza 1953
Yahya Ayyash Politics (Hamas) chief bombmaker planner of the Hadera bus station suicide bombing Jerusalem 1966
Bassam Abu Sharif Politics (PFLP) former spokesperson of PFLP and PLO 1946
George Habash Politics (PFLP) founder and former Secretary-General of PFLP Lod 1926
Abu Ali Mustafa Politics (PFLP) former Secretary-General of PFLP Jenin 1938
Leila Khaled Politics (PFLP) former PFLP militant and activist Haifa 1944
Ahmed Saadat Politics (PFLP) current Secretary-General of PFLP al-Bireh 1953
Riyad al-Malki Politics (PFLP) current Foreign Affairs Minister of PNA 1955
Wadie Haddad Politics (PFLP) former PFLP militant and founder Safed 1927
Abu Qatada Politics al-Qaeda Muslim religious preacher and militant Bethlehem 1959
Abu Muthana Politics spokesman for the Palestinian Army of Islam
Awni Abd al-Hadi Politics Palestinian political figure Nablus 1889
Haidar Abdel-Shafi Politics independent, head of Palestinian delegation to Madrid Peace Conference of 1991 Gaza 1919
Salah Abdel-Shafi Politics independent, economist, Palestinian Ambassador to Sweden, Germany, Austria, and UNOV Gaza 1962
Muhammad Zaidan Politics PLF Syria 1948
Musa Alami Politics Jerusalem 1897
Hanan Ashrawi Politics Third Way Nablus 1946
Mustafa Barghouti Politics doctor and leader of the Palestinian National Initiative Jerusalem 1954
Nayef Hawatmeh Politics DFLP Jordan 1935
Ahmed Jibril Politics PFLP-GC Jaffa 1938
Karimeh Abbud Art photographer Shefa 'Amr 1896
Nimr al-Khatib Politics political leader, Haifa Haifa 1918
Jabra Nicola Politics Trotskyist leader Haifa 1912
Abu Nidal Politics Abu Nidal Organization Jaffa 1937
Nahid al-Rayyis Politics Justice Minister of the Palestinian National Authority Gaza 1937
Afif Safieh Politics Palestine's Ambassador to the Russian Federation jerusalem 1950
Hasan Tahboub Politics former Head of the Supreme Islamic Council Hebron 1923
Ruhi al-Khatib Politics (local) Mayor of East Jerusalem from 1957 to 1994; titular Jerusalem 1914
Fahmi al-Abboushi Politics (local) appointed Mayor of Jenin in 1935 Jenin 1895
Hussein Al-Araj Politics (local) former mayor of Nablus
Ramiz Jaraisy Politics (local) Mayor of Nazareth 1951
Omar Hammayil Politics (local) mayor of al-Bireh 1976
Mohammed Milhim Politics (local) former mayor of Halhul 1929
Hadem Rida Politics (local) mayor of Jenin
Bassam Shaka Politics (local) former mayor of Nablus 1930
Ghassan Shakaa Politics (local) former mayor of Nablus 1943
Adly Yaish Politics (local) mayor of Nablus
Adel Zawati Politics (local) former mayor of Jenin, Nablus, Hebron, Ruler of Yafa, Ramleh Nablus 1920
Ahmad Tibi Politics (Israel) member of Israeli Knesset from the Ta'al party,former political advisor to Palestinian Authority President Yasser Arafat Tayibe 1958
Azmi Bishara Politics (Israel) ormer member of Israeli Knesset, from the Balad party Nazareth 1956
Jamal Zahalka Politics (Israel) member of Israeli Knesset, from the Balad party Kafr Qara 1955
Hana Sweid Politics (Israel) member of Israeli Knesset with Hadash and mayor of Eilabun Eilabun 1955
Tawfiq Ziad Politics (PCP) a poet, a former mayor of Nazareth and a former Hadash member of Israeli Knesset Nazareth 1929
Ibrahim Sarsur Politics (Israel) Kneseet member Israel from the United Arab List party Kafr Qara 1959
Taleb el-Sana Politics (Israel) Kneseet member Israel from the United Arab List party Tel Arad 1960
Mohammad Barakeh Politics (Israel) member of Israeli Knesset, from Hadash party Shefa-'Amr 1955
Haneen Zoabi Politics (Israel) First Arab woman elected to the Knesset on an Arab party Nazareth 1969
Rania of Jordan Politics (Foreign) Queen of Jordan, wife of King Abdullah II Kuwait 1970
Alia al Hussein Politics (Foreign) late Queen of Jordan, 3rd wife of King Hussein Cairo 1948
Antonio Saca Politics (Foreign) former president of El Salvador El Salvador 1965
Shafik Handal Politics (Foreign) El Salvador politician El Salvador 1930
Carlos Flores Facussé Politics (Foreign) president of Honduras Honduras 1950
Said Musa Politics (Foreign) Prime Minister of Belize Belize 1944
Pierre de Bané Politics (Foreign) Canadian Haifa 1938
Naser Khader Politics (Foreign) member of the Parliament of Denmark Syria 1963
Joe Hockey Politics (Foreign) Australian cabinet minister Australia 1965
John H. Sununu Politics (Foreign) former Chief of Staff Pres. George H. Bush Administration Cuba 1939
John E. Sununu Politics (Foreign) Senator New Hampshire USA 1954
Huwaida Arraf Politics co-founder of ISM USA 1976
Mubarak Awad Politics advocate of nonviolent resistance Jerusalem 1943
Abdullah Yusuf Azzam Religion (Islam) Islamist scholar & activist Jenin 1941
Bulus Farah Politics trade unionist Haifa 1910
Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni Politics nationalist leader Jerusalem 1907
Archbishop Theodosios (Hanna) of Sebastia Religion (Christianity) current Archbishop of Sebastia for the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem Galilee 1965
Riah Abu Assal Religion (Christianity) current Anglican Bishop of Jerusalem Nazareth 1937
Naim Ateek Religion (Christianity) founder of Sabeel Beit She'an 1937
Elias Chacour Religion (Christianity) Archbishop of Galilee, of the Melkite Greek Catholic Church Galilee 1939
Michel Sabah Religion (Christianity) current Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem Nazareth 1933
Munib Younan Religion (Christianity) Lutheran bishop Jerusalem 1950
Rifat Odeh Kassis Politics human rights and community activist Beit Sahour
Mitri Raheb Religion (Christianity) Lutheran minister and author Bethlehem 1962
Benny Hinn Religion (Christianity) evangelical preacher Jaffa 1952
Anis Shorrosh Religion (Christianity) Evangelical preacher and debater Nazareth 1930s
Amin al-Husayni Politics former Mufti of Jerusalem Jerusalem 1895
Ekrima Sa'id Sabri Religion (Islam) former Mufti of Jerusalem
Ahmad Abu Laban Religion (Islam) Imam in Denmark Jaffa 1946
Raed Salah Religion (Islam) leader of the Northern branch of the Islamic Movement 1958
Sheikh Taissir Tamimi Religion (Islam) Head of Islamic court in Palestinian territories Hebron
Omar Sheika Sport Professional Boxer USA 1977
Salim Tuama Sport soccer player Lod 1979
Ramsey Nijem Sport MMA fighter, The Ultimate Fighter: Team Lesnar vs. Team dos Santos runner up USA 1988
Walid Badir Sport soccer player, Israeli team, Captain of Hapoel Tel Aviv Kafr Qasim 1974
Muhammad al-Durrah Other 12-year old boy shot under disputed circumstances Gaza 1988
Fatma Omar An-Najar Other 64-year old grandmother and oldest Palestinian suicide bomber 1942
Faris Odeh Other teenage boy shot while throwing stones Gaza 1985
Rana Raslan other 1999 Miss Israel contest winner Haifa 1977
Saeed Hotari other suicide bomber of the Dolphinarium discotheque suicide bombing
Mahmoud Abbas Politics (Fatah) President of the PNA Safed 1935
Tawfiq Canaan Academic Doctor and academic Beit Jala 1881
Ahmad Shukeiri Politics (PLO) First chairman of the PLO Lebanon 1908
Wael Zwaiter Other translator, assassinated Nablus 1930s
Omar Barghouti Politics political activist and analyst PACBI Qatar 1964
Asma Agbarieh Politics, journalism journalist, leader of Organization for Democratic Action Jaffa 1974
Muin Bseiso Literature Poet Gaza 1926
Eyad al-Sarraj Medicine Psychiatrist and human rights activist Beersheba 1944
Fadi Elsalameen Politics political commentator and analyst USA 1983


Name Field Speciality Place of birth Year of Birth
Jesus Religion (Judaism) Founder of Christianity Nazareth c.30
Acacius of Caesarea Academia Philosophy and the Arian controversy Caesarea Palestinae c.310
Rabbi Jochanan Religion (Judaism) Talmudic rabbi Tzippori c.220[9]
Eleazar ben Pedat Religion (Judaism) Talmudic rabbi c.350
Judah the Prince Religion (Judaism) Talmudic rabbi 135
Pope Evaristus Religion (Christianity) Pope Bethlehem c.50
Shimon ben Lakish Religion (Judaism) Talmudic rabbi Bosra c.200
Rabbi Isaac the smith Religion (Judaism) Talmudic rabbi Galilee
Rabbi Assi Religion (Judaism) Talmudic rabbi Babylonia c.270
Rav Zeira Religion (Judaism) Talmudic rabbi Babylonia c.220
Antiochus of Ascalon Academia Philosophy Ascalon c.125 BCE
Eutocius of Ascalon Academia Mathematics Ascalon c.480
Pope Theodore I Religion (Christianity) Pope Jerusalem c.642
Sozomen Academia Historian Gaza c.400
Eusebius Academia and Religion (Christianity) "Father of Church History" Caesarea Palestinae c.263
Romanus of Caesarea Religion (Christianity) Martyr Caesarea Palestinae c.270
Theophilus, bishop of Caesarea Religion (Christianity) Bishop Caesarea Palestinae c.150
Gelasius of Caesarea Religion (Christianity) Bishop Caesarea Palestinae c.340
Agapius of Caesarea Religion (Christianity) Bishop Caesarea Palestinae c.270
Hesychius of Jerusalem Religion (Christianity) Biblical exegesis Jerusalem c.400
Hegesippus (chronicler) Religion (Christianity) Early chronicler Jerusalem c.110
Aristo of Pella Religion (Christianity) Early chronicler Pella c.100
Meleager of Gadara Literature Poet Gadara c.120 BCE
Timotheus of Gaza Academia Grammarian Gaza c.460
Choricius of Gaza Academia Philosophy Gaza c.460
Procopius of Caesarea Academia Historian Caesarea Palaestina c.500
Dorotheus of Gaza Religion (Christianity) Saint Gaza c.505
Procopius of Gaza Academia Philosophy Gaza c.465
Aeneas of Gaza Academia Philosophy Gaza c.460
Saint Agapius of Palestine Religion (Christianity) Martyr Gaza c.270
Angelus of Jerusalem Religion (Christianity) Saint Jerusalem c.1185
Peter Apselamus Religion (Christianity) Martyr Eleutheropolis c.280
Cyril of Jerusalem Religion (Christianity) Early Christian writings Caesarea Palestinae c.313
Maximus the Confessor Religion (Christianity) Monk, theologian, scholar c.580
Hilarion Religion (Christianity) Monk Gaza c.291
Epiphanius of Salamis Religion (Christianity) Church father Eleutheropolis c.310
Justin Martyr Religion (Christianity) Martyr Nablus c.100
Procopius of Scythopolis Religion (Christianity) Martyr Jerusalem c.270
Saint Reparata Religion (Christianity) Martyr Caesarea Palestinae c.250
Stephen the Sabaite Religion (Christianity) Monk Gaza c.725
Theodorus and Theophanes Religion (Christianity) Monks Jerusalem c.775
Vitalis of Gaza Religion (Christianity) Monk Gaza c.550
Zayya Religion (Christianity) Preaching c.309
Muhammad ibn Idris ash-Shafi`i Religion (Islam) founder of the Shafi fiqh of Sunni Islam Gaza c.767
al-Muqaddasi Academia medieval geographer Jerusalem c.946
Ibn Qudamah Religion (Islam) Hanbali jurist c.1147
Khayr al-Din al-Ramli Religion (Islam) Hanbali jurist c.1585
Mujir al-Din al-'Ulaymi History of Palestine historian Jerusalem c.1456
Daher el-Omar Politics 18th century ruler of the Galilee Tiberias area c.1690
Ahmad Agha Duzdar Politics 19th century mayor of Jerusalem c.1800s
Yousef Al-Khalidi Politics Ottoman parliament representative Jerusalem c.1829
Mariam Baouardy Religion (Christianity) Modern saint / miracle I'billin 1846


  1. ^ Dowty, Alan (2008). Israel/Palestine. London, UK: Polity. p. 221. ISBN 978-0-7456-4243-7. Palestinians are the descendants of all the indigenous peoples who lived in Palestine over the centuries; since the seventh century, they have been predominantly Muslim in religion and almost completely Arab in language and culture. 
  2. ^ Likhovski, Assaf (2006). Law and identity in mandate Palestine. The University of North Carolina Press. p. 174. ISBN 978-0-8078-3017-8. 
  3. ^ Rashid Khalidi, Palestinian identity: the construction of modern national consciousness, Columbia University Press, 2009 p.18.
  4. ^ "(With reference to Palestinians in Ottoman times) Although proud of their Arab heritage and ancestry, the Palestinians considered themselves to be descended not only from Arab conquerors of the seventh century but also from indigenous peoples who had lived in the country since time immemorial, including the ancient Hebrews and the Canaanites before them. Acutely aware of the distinctiveness of Palestinian history, the Palestinians saw themselves as the heirs of its rich associations."
  5. ^ "Throughout history a great diversity of peoples has moved into the region and made Palestine their homeland: Canaanites, Jebusites, Philistines from Crete, Anatolian and Lydian Greeks, Hebrews, Amorites, Edomites, Nabateans, Arameans, Romans, Arabs, and European crusaders, to name a few. Each of them appropriated different regions that overlapped in time and competed for sovereignty and land. Others, such as Ancient Egyptians, Hittites, Persians, Babylonians, and Mongols, were historical 'events' whose successive occupations were as ravaging as the effects of major earthquakes ... Like shooting stars, the various cultures shine for a brief moment before they fade out of official historical and cultural records of Palestine. The people, however, survive. In their customs and manners, fossils of these ancient civilizations survived until modernity—albeit modernity camouflaged under the veneer of Islam and Arabic culture."
  6. ^ Gibbons, Ann (October 30, 2000). "Jews and Arabs Share Recent Ancestry". ScienceNOW. American Academy for the Advancement of Science. . Studies cited are: M. F. Hammer et al. (2000). "Jewish and Middle Eastern non-Jewish populations share a common pool of Y-chromosome biallelic haplotypes". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 97 (12): 6769–6774. doi:10.1073/pnas.100115997. PMC 18733. PMID 10801975.  and Almut Nebel et al. (2000). "High-resolution Y chromosome haplotypes of Israeli and Palestinian Arabs reveal geographic substructure and substantial overlap with haplotypes of Jews". Human Genetics 107 (6): 630–641. doi:10.1007/s004390000426. PMID 11153918.  Another study says; "Our recent study of high-resolution microsatellite haplotypes demonstrated that a substantial portion of Y chromosomes of Jews (70%) and of Palestinian Muslim Arabs (82%) belonged to the same chromosome pool." "Almut Nebel, Dvora Filon, Bernd Brinkmann, Partha P. Majumder, Marina Faerman, and Ariella Oppenheim,'The Y Chromosome Pool of Jews as Part of the Genetic Landscape of the Middle East,' American Journal of Human Genetics, November 2001; 69(5): 1095–1112. 10.1086/324070,PMCID: PMC1274378.
  7. ^
  8. ^ [1]
  9. ^ Jeffrey L. Rubenstein (27 June 2002). Rabbinic stories. Paulist Press. p. 109. ISBN 978-0-8091-4024-4. Retrieved 2 August 2011.

External links[edit]

Riad Hassan Professor of Arabic at Bunker Hill College in Boston