Mewat district

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Mewat district
ضِلع ميوات
District of Haryana
Location of Mewat district in Haryana
Location of Mewat district in Haryana
Country India
State Haryana
Headquarters Nuh
Tehsils Nuh, Firozpur Jhirka, Punahana, Taoru
Government
 • Lok Sabha constituencies Gurgaon
 • Assembly seats Nuh, Ferozepur Jhirka, Punahana
Area
 • Total 1,860 km2 (720 sq mi)
Population (2011)
 • Total 10,89,406
 • Density 590/km2 (1,500/sq mi)
 • Urban 4.64%
Demographics
 • Literacy 56
 • Sex ratio 906
Major highways National Highway 71-B, State Highway 13 (Gurgaon to Alwar), KMP or Western Peripheral Expressway
Average annual precipitation 594 mm

Mewat district (Urdu: ضِلع ميوات‎) (Hindi: मेवात जिला) is one of the 21 districts of Haryana state in northern India. The district was carved as the 20th district of Haryana from erstwhile Gurgaon and Hathin Block of Faridabad districts on 4 April 2005. though Hathin sub-division was shifted to new district Palwal in 2008. It is bounded by Gurgaon district on the north, Rewari district on the west and Faridabad and Palwal districts on the east. Nuh town is the headquarters of this district. The district occupies an area of 1859.61 km². The district has a population of 10,89,406 (2011 census). Mewat is populated by the Meos, who are agriculturalists.

History[edit]

Mewat district was carved from erstwhile Gurgoan and Hathin sub-division of Faridabad district and came into existence on 4 April 2005 as the 20th district of the Haryana State. After the formation of Palwal district, Hathin sub-division was transferred to Palwal district. Nuh town is Mewat district's headquarters. The district comprises Nuh, Taoru, Nagina, Firozpur Jhirka and Punhana blocks, 431 villages and 297 panchayats. There were 512 villages and 365 panchayats in Mewat district before Hathin Block was transferred to Palwal district.

Indor Fort[edit]

The old fort of Indor, one of the strongholds of the Khanzada chiefs of Mewat, is situated on the hill range which forms the boundary between the Alwar territory and the Gurgaon district.
Inscriptions of King Bahadur Khan Nahar, Mewatpatti and Firuz Shah Tughlaq, Delhi's Emperor

The Indor Fort is a lesser known fort in a forgotten small village called Indor (not to be confused with the big city of Indore in the state of Madhya Pradesh) on border of Haryana and Rajasthan. It is technically in Haryana's Mewat district and lied near Nuh. Indor village lies in Alwar district of Rajasthan but the Indor Fort on the hill itself lies within Haryana state. But it is on other side of hill and access is from Rajasthan. It is bigger than Tughlaqabad Fort of Delhi and has marvelous breathtaking architecture. It is located here on the map.

The fort was originally built by the Nikumbh Rajputs.

During the time of Firuz Shah Tughlaq (1309-1388 AD) the Indor Fort was under the king Bahadur Nahar Khan (also known as Bahadur Nahar), is said to have received the title of Nahar (Tiger), from Firuz Shah Tughlaq of Delhi Sultanate, in recognition of him having killed a tiger single-handed.[9] Powlett, who relies heavily on the accounts of Persian historians such as Ferishta, records that Bahadur Nahar Khan was a Jadaun Rajput by birth and "the reputed founder of the Khanzada race" (converted Rajput Muslim), who had his stronghold at Fort Kotla. Powlett believes that either Bahadur Nahar Khan or his father probably was forced to convert to Islam in order to please Firuz Shah Tughlaq and thereby obtain power, since it appears that they were members of a family that had previously held royal powers but had lost them.

During Delhi Sultanate 1421 AD (824 AH), Khizr Khan of Sayyid dynasty, who had now become Sultan of Delhi, marched into Mewat, and besieged king Bahadur Khan Nhar (Iklim Khan) in Kotila. The fort was captured, but the garrison escaped to the hills. Iklim Khan Bahadur Nahar II probably died in A H. 825. There are several villages in the districts of Alwar and Gurgaon which still preserve the name of Iklim Khan.

In 1425 AD (829 AH), grandsons of Bahadur Nahar Khan, Jallu_Khan (Jalal) and Kaddu Khan (Kadar) took up a position in the hill Fort of Indor. On being driven out they retired to the hills of Alwar, but shortly afterwards they surrendered themselves and were pardoned by the Khizr Khan of Sayyid dynasty of Delhi Sultanate.

After the time of forcibly convreted Bahadur Nahar Khan, Indor Fort became the stronghold of his Khanzada descendant chiefs of Mewat. Before the time of Akbar, a young Hindu Rajput prince Gopal of Kachwaha clan accidentally committed the sin of killing a calf during a hunt and was made an outcast. The Khanzadas of Indor offered him their daughter for marriage, he became parts of Muslim Khanzada and his progency came to be known as Dehgal Meo.[1]

Indor gave its name to the Tapokra pargana mentioned in the Ain-i-Akbari - Akbar's biography. It is now almost entirely in ruins, though once one of the most important places in Mewat. The old ruined town lies in a valley of the border hills, ten miles east of Tapokra.

During the rule of Aurungzeb (1617-1807 AD), when Ikram Khan Khanzada succeeded in gaining the standard of the Governor of Tijara, but the once fractious Mewat region was generally peaceful under Mughal rule.

The fort was later occupied by a British Raj garrison, is on the hill range east of the old town, which had shrunk to an insignificant village.

Fort Kotla[edit]

The Fort Kotla near Kotla village in Nuh in Mewat district is located here.

Bahadur Nahar Khan is one of the figure who set up Mewat Patti kingdom in Mewat. In or about 1388 AD he established his capital at Kotla village near Nuh. From him Khanzadas claim their race or clan. He was Jadaun Rajput. He was given a Jagir by Firuz Shah Tughlaq (1309-1388 AD) King of Delhi. Bahadur Nahar Khan's fort was on hill near Kotla village. It was the time when Mewati plundered Delhi several times. As per gazetteer of Haryana, in 1398 AD he shifted from Delhi to Fort Kotla. Kotla village is located about 7 km towards south east of Nuh city. Village Kotla is on the foothill and the Fort Kotla is just up the hill. A Jama Masjid and Bawadi is still in existence. The tomb of Bahadur Nahar Khan built of red stone and grey quartzite is situated in ruin condition.

Geography[edit]

The soil of Mewat is light in texture, particularly sandy, sandy loam and clay loam. The upper hills are mostly barren.

Towns[edit]

Demography[edit]

According to the 2011 census Mewat District has a population of 1,089,406,[2] roughly equal to the nation of Cyprus[3] or the US state of Rhode Island.[4] This gives it a ranking of 420th in India (out of a total of 640).[2] The district has a population density of 729 inhabitants per square kilometre (1,890/sq mi) .[2] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 37.94%.[2] Mewat has a sex ratio of 906 females for every 1000 males,[2] and a literacy rate of 56.1%.[2]

According to the Census of India 2001, the total population of Mewat was 9,93,617 (including Hathin Block of district Palwal) of which 46,122 (4.64%) lived in urban areas and the major chunk 9,47,495 (95.36%) of the population lived in rural areas. Out of the total population of 9,93,617, there are 5,24,872 males and 4,68,745 females. The SC population is around 78,802. The total numbers of households are 1,42,822 out of which 1,35,253 (95%) are in rural areas and remaining 7569 (5%) are in urban areas. The total number of BPL households are 53125 including Hathin Block.

Economy[edit]

The main occupation of the people of Mewat is agriculture and allied and agro-based activities. The Meos (Muslims) are the predominant population group and are completely agriculturists. They perceive themselves as such, with a sense of pride. The agriculture in Mewat is mostly rain fed except in small pockets where canal irrigation is available. Agriculture production measured in terms of crop yield per hectare in Mewat is comparatively low to the other districts of the State. Animal husbandry, particularly dairy is the secondary source of income for people of Mewat and those who live closer to the hilly ranges of Aravali also keep a few sheep and goats. Milk yields are not so low, however, due to heavy indebtedness most of the farmers are forced to sell the milk to the lenders at lower than normal price, which drastically reduces their income from the milk. The poultry population in Mewat is much less in comparison to other districts of Haryana State.

Mewat has remained a region of backwardness even after independence. The area lags behind the rest of Haryana on almost every yardstick of development indices, even though the farthest point of Mewat is no farther than 145 km. from the National Capital of India.

Agriculture[edit]

The total population of Mewat according to the 2001 Census was 993617 of which 46122 i.e. 4.64% was urban and 947495, i.e. 95.36% was rural. The average household size in rural Mewat was 7. The Meos (Muslims) are the predominant population group and are virtually completely agriculturist. They perceive themselves as such, with a sense of pride. The agriculture in Mewat is mostly rain fed except in small pockets where canal irrigation is available. Agriculture production measured in terms of crop yield per hectare in Mewat is comparatively low.

Animal husbandry[edit]

Animal husbandry is the secondary source of income. Those who live closer to the hilly ranges of Aravali also keep sheep and goats. Milk yield is not so low, but due to heavy indebtedness the income from the' milk is much reduced, as many farmers have to sell the milk to the lender at lower than normal price. The poultry population in Mewat is much less than in rest of Haryana.

Climate[edit]

Mewat falls under the Sub-Tropical, Semi-arid climatic zone with extremely hot temperature in summer. Dryness of air is standard feature in Mewat except during the monsoon season. May and June are the hottest months of the year with the temperature ranging from 30C to 48C. January, on the other hand is the coldest month with temperature ranging between 2 °C to 25 °C. Strong dusty winds are conspicuous during summer.

Rainfall[edit]

The annual rainfall varies considerably from year to year. The maximum rainfall is experienced during the monsoon season, which reaches its peak in the month of July. The principal precipitation occurs during monsoon period from June to September when about 80% of the rainfall is received. The average rainfall varies from 336 mm to 440 mm in the district.

Humidity[edit]

Humidity is considerably low during the greater part of the year. The Mewat experiences high humidity only during the monsoon period. The period of minimum humidity (less than 20%) is between April and May.

Wind[edit]

During the monsoon, the sky is heavily clouded, and winds are strong during this period. Winds are generally light during the post-monsoon and winter months.

Region Specific Weather Phenomena[edit]

Mewat experiences a high incidence of thunderstorms and dust storms, often accompanied by violent squalls (andhar) during the period April to June. Sometimes the thunderstorms are accompanied by heavy rain and occasionally by hailstorms. In the winter months, fog sometimes appears in the district.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Indor Mewat
  2. ^ a b c d e f "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-30. 
  3. ^ US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 2011-10-01. Cyprus 1,120,489 July 2011 est. 
  4. ^ "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-09-30. Rhode Island 1,052,567 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 28°06′N 77°00′E / 28.100°N 77.000°E / 28.100; 77.000