|District of Uttar Pradesh|
Location of Mathura district in Uttar Pradesh
|Tehsils||3 & Gobardhan (proposed)|
|• Lok Sabha constituencies||Mathura|
|• Total||3,329.4 km2 (1,285.5 sq mi)|
Mathura District (Hindi: मथुरा ज़िला, Urdu: متھرا ضلع) situated along the banks of the river Yamuna is a district of Uttar Pradesh state of northern India. The historic town of Mathura is the district headquarters. The District is part of Agra division. Mathura is bounded on the northeast by Aligarh District, on the southeast by Hathras District, on the south by Agra District, and on the west by Rajasthan and northwest by Haryana state. Mathura district is an important pilgrimage centre of Hindus.
- 1 Historical Background
- 2 Etymology
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Language
- 5 Geography and Climate
- 6 Administration
- 7 Economy and Industry
- 8 Education
- 9 Culture and Religion
- 10 Religion
- 11 Tourism
- 12 Religious Festival
- 13 Transport
- 14 Citation
Mathura has an ancient history. According to the Archeological Survey of India plaque at the Mathura Museum, the city is mentioned in the oldest Indian epic, the Ramayana. In the epic, the Ikshwaku prince Shatrughna slays a demon called Lavanasura and claims the land. Afterwards, the place came to be known as Madhuvan as it was thickly wooded, then Madhupura and later Mathura.
In the 6th century BCE Mathura became the capital of the Surasena mahajanapada.The city was later ruled by the Maurya empire (4th to 2nd centuries BCE) and the Sunga dynasty (2nd century BCE). It may have come under the control of Indo-Greeks some time between 180 BCE and 100 BCE. It then reverted to local rule before being conquered by the Indo-Scythians during the 1st century BCE.
Mathuran art and culture reached its zenith under the Kushan dynasty which had Mathura as one of their capitals, the other being Purushapura (Peshawar). The dynasty had kings with the names of Kujula Kadphises, Kanishka, Huvishka and Vasudeva I.
The findings of ancient stone inscriptions in Maghera, a town 17 kilometres (11 mi) from Mathura, provide historical artifacts giving more details on this era of Mathura. The opening of the 3 line text of these inscriptions are in Brahmi script and were translated as: "In the 116th year of the Greek kings..."
The Mathura Lion Capital inscriptions attest that Mathura fell under the control of the Sakas. The inscriptions contain references to Kharaosta Kamuio and Aiyasi Kamuia. Yuvaraja Kharostes (Kshatrapa) was the son of Arta, as is attested by his own coins.
Arta is stated to be brother of King Moga or Maues. Princess Aiyasi Kambojaka, also called Kambojika, was the chief queen of Shaka Mahakshatrapa Rajuvula. Kamboja presence in Mathura is also verified from some verses of the epic, the Mahabharata, which are believed to have been composed around this period.
The Indo-Scythian satraps of Mathura are sometimes called the "Northern Satraps", as opposed to the "Western Satraps" ruling in Gujarat and Malwa. After Rajuvula, several successors are known to have ruled as vassals to the Kushans, such as the "Great Satrap" Kharapallana and the "Satrap" Vanaspara, who are known from an inscription discovered in Sarnath, and dated to the 3rd year of Kanishka (c 130 CE), in which they were paying allegiance to the Kushans.
Fa Xian mentions the city, as a centre of Buddhism about A.D. 400; while his successor Xuanzang, who visited the city in 634 CE, which he mentions as Mot'ulo, and said that it contained twenty Buddhist monasteries and five Brahmanical temples. Later, he went east to Thanesar, Jalandhar in the eastern Punjab, before climbing up to visit predominantly Theravada monasteries in the Kulu valley and turning southward again to Bairat and then Mathura, on the Yamuna river.
Sikander Lodhi earned the epithet of 'But Shikan', the 'Destroyer of Hindu deities'. The Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, built the city's Jami Masjid (Friday mosque) . The noteworthy fact is that the exact place of birth of Lord Krishna,according to historians,is in the place of worship of the Hindus,though the mosque was built near the birthplace of Lord Krishna. The bigger Krishna shrine, better known as Dwarkadeesh temple is a few metres away from what is believed to be the actual birthplace of Krishna, was built in 1815 by Seth Gokuldas Parikh, Treasurer of Gwalior.
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According to the 2011 census Mathura district has a population of 2,541,894, roughly equal to the nation of Kuwait or the US state of Nevada. This gives it a ranking of 167th in India (out of a total of 640). The district has a population density of 761 inhabitants per square kilometre (1,970/sq mi) . Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 22.53%. Mathura has a sex ratio of 858 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 72.65%. Mathura is a Jat dominated region with around 3 lakh Jats. Mathura receives a large number of daily visitors besides pilgrims who stay for an average of 3 days. Mathura’s urban area's floating population on normal days is between 100,000 to 125,000 per day, whereas on festive and auspicious days it is over twice the population of urban area.
People in Mathura and nearby areas speak Braj. Braj Bhasha (Devanagari: ब्रज भाषा) (Gurmukhi: ਬ੍ਰਜ ਭਾਸ਼ਾ), also called Brij Bhasha (बॄज भाषा, ਬ੍ਵਜ ਭਾਸ਼ਾ), Braj Bhakha (ब्रज भाखा, ਬ੍ਰਜ ਭਾਖਾ), or Dehaati Zabaan (देहाती ज़बान, ਦੇਹਾਤੀ ਜ਼ਬਾਨ, 'country tongue'), is a Western Hindi language closely related to Hindustani. In fact, it is usually considered to be a dialect of Western Hindi, and along with Awadhi (a variety of Eastern Hindi) was one of the two predominant literary languages of North-Central India before the switch to Hindustani (Khariboli) in the 19th century. Braj Bhasha language, also spelled Braj Bhasa, Braj Bhakha, or Brij Bhasa, language descended from Shauraseni Prakrit and commonly viewed as a western dialect of Hindi. It is spoken by some 575,000 people, primarily in India. Its purest forms are spoken in the cities of Mathura, Agra, Etah, and Aligarh.
Most speakers of Braj Bhasha worship the Hindu deity Krishna. Their bhakti (“devotion”) finds expression in the language, which has a very firm base in folk literature and songs. Almost all of the enactments of episodes from Krishna’s life that are performed during the Janmashtami festival (celebrating Krishna’s birth) are presented in Braj Bhasha.
Geography and Climate
Mathura is located at  It has an average elevation of 174 metres (570 feet). The climate of Mathura is tropical extreme with very hot summers with temperatures rising beyond 44 °C, and cold and foggy winters with temperature dipping to 5 °C. The average rainfall is 593 mm, received mostly during the monsoons from July to September..
Mathura is the home for Indian I Corps (Strike Formation) within the Indian Army's Central Command, hosting Strike I Corps headquarters in a large classified area in the outskirts of the city known as Mathura Cantonment (Central Command itself has its headquarters at Lucknow). It hosts Strike Infantry units, Air Defence units, Armoured Divisions, Engineer brigades, Aritillery Units and classified units of Strategic Nuclear Command. Corps I is primarily responsible for western borders of India. In 2007 during Exercise Ashwamedha, all the armoured, artillery and infantry divisions performed a simulation of an overall NBC (nuclear-chemical-biological) environment. The aim was to show operational ability in high intensity, short duration and 'sudden' battles.
Mathura is governed by a number of bodies, the most important being the Mathura Nagar Nigam (Municipal Corporation), which is responsible for the master planning of the city.
Member of Parliament
Lok Shabha Duration Name of the Member Political Party
First 1952–1957 Girraj Saran Singh Independent Second 1957–1962 Raja Mahendra Pratap Independent Third 1962–1967 Chaudhary Digambar Singh Indian National Congress Fourth 1967–1971 Girraj Saran Singh Independent Fifth 1971–1977 Chakleshwar Singh Indian National Congress Sixth 1977–1980 Mani Ram Bagri Bharatiya Lok Dal Seventh 1980–1984 Chaudhary Digambar Singh Janata Party (Secular) Eighth 1984–1989 Manvendra Singh Indian National Congress Ninth 1989–1991 Manvendra Singh Janata Dal Tenth 1991–1996 Swami Sakshi Ji Bharatiya Janata Party Eleventh 1996–1998 Chaudhary Tejveer Singh Bharatiya Janata Party Twelfth 1998–1999 Chaudhary Tejveer Singh Bharatiya Janata Party Thirteenth 1999–2004 Chaudhary Tejveer Singh Bharatiya Janata Party Fourteenth 2004–2009 Manvendra Singh Indian National Congress Fifteenth 2009-2014 Jayant Chaudhary Rashtriya Lok Dal Sixteenth 2014–Incumbent Hema Malini Bharatiya Janata Party
Health care facilities in Mathura are provided by Central, State and Local government facilities, besides numerous private providers.As per the recent District Level Household and Facility Survey (DLHS-3) 2007 – 2008, only 33% of currently married women are using a modern method of contraception, which is lower than the state average of 34.8%. Usage of any modern method, though, is higher in Mathura (29.4%) in comparison to the state’s average of 26.7%. The percentage of IUD, Pill and Condom usage is again below the state average. The DLHS 3 estimates unmet Family Planning need in Mathura at 38.9%: 9.8% unmet need for spacing methods and 29.1% unmet need for limiting methods. The percentage of birth of order 3 and above is quite high at 46.9%. Mathura has lesser percentage of girls marrying before 18 years of age, which is 31.6% in comparison with the state average of 33.1%. But the most alarming statistic is that of mothers who had at least 3 antenatal care visits during the last pregnancy, which is only 21% as compared to the state average of 64.4%.
Economy and Industry
One of the major contributors in the economy of Uttar Pradesh are Mathura Industries. Mathura Refinery located in the city is one of the biggest oil refineries of Asia. This oil refinery of the Indian Oil Corporation is a highly technologically advanced oil refinery. Mathura Refinery is the first in Asia and third in the world to receive the coveted ISO-14001 certification for Environment Management System in 1996.
Textile printing industry that includes both sari-printing and fabric dyeing and silver ornaments manufacturing are major industrial contributors to the region. Apart from these other industries are water tap manufacturing units and other decorative and household items. Mathura also is a big centre for production of cotton materials;prominent among them being pure white bleached cotton sarees for women and dhotis for men,and cotton niwar tapes for beds. It is also a hub for production of milk based sweet meats,prominent among them being mathura Pedas and burfis. Renowned as the place where rivers of milk flowed, Mathura till today boasts of Milk trading centres where you can buy any amount of fresh milk where rates vary every few minutes and are notified on a black board akin to stock prices.
GLA University R.K. Group of Institutions (including Rajiv Academy For Technology & Management, Rajiv Academy For Teacher's Education, Rajiv Academy For Pharmacy, K.D. Dental College & Hospital,Rajiv International School, etc.) BSA College of engineering and technology, Excel Institute of Management & Technology has been accorded as status of university). 40 engineering & management colleges had been established in Mathura up to 12-12-2009.
Mathura is home to the Uttar Pradesh Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Veterinary University, the first of its kind in the state and the fourth in the country to be made independent veterinary universities. The University is located on the Mathura-Agra road, about 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) from M.Famous Government engineering college,bharatpur is located at 35 km from mathura. Many schools like Sacred Heart, St. Dominics, Ramanlal Shorawala and Rajiv International School are also located here.
Culture and Religion
The ethos of Mathura, and in fact the whole of Braj mandal is centered on Krishna and his tales. Mathura sees heightened activities during the major festivities dedicated to Krishna.The residents or natives of Mathura are called Brijwasi. Mathura is famous for its sweets and Chaat.
The language spoken in the Braj mandal is mainly Hindi which is spoken in a different dialect. This dialect is characteristic with the Braj and known as Brajbhasha. Before Hindi and until past few centuries, Brajbhasha used to be the dominant 0in literature.
Raaslilas of Mathura have become an integral part of Indian Folklore. According to popular belief, Krshnaji had danced the Raas with gopis on banks of Yamuna river.
Charkula is a traditional folk dance of the Braj. In this dance, a woman balances a column of deepikas on her head and dances to the accompaniment of Rasiya songs by the menfolk.
Mathura School of Art, style of Buddhist visual art that flourished in the Mathura, from the 2nd century bc to the 12th century A.D; its most distinctive contributions were made during the Kushan and Gupta periods (1st–6th century A.d). Images in the mottled red sandstone from the nearby Sīkri quarries are found widely distributed over north central India, attesting to Mathurā’s importance as an exporter of sculpture. The Mathura School images are related to the earlier yakṣa (male nature deity) figures, a resemblance particularly evident in the colossal standing Buddha images of the early Kushān period. In these, and in the more representative seated Buddhas, the overall effect is one of enormous energy. The shoulders are broad, the chest swells, and the legs are firmly planted with feet spaced apart.
These days, around 1,000 craftsmen are involved in making wall hangings at Holi gate and Chowk Bazaar in the pilgrim town of Mathura. These wall hangings delve on religious themes and mostly revolve around Radha and Lord Krishna seated on a swing, Lord Krishna playing flute along with Radha and Gopis, Lord Krishna with herds of cattle, Goddess Saraswati, Vaishno Devi and Lord Vishnu. Wall hangings have the gods and goddesses in highly embellished form, marking the highpoints of the Mathura School of Paintings. Once the brush work is over, the figures are adorned with colourful stars and mica pieces to make them attractive. One of the most brilliant art works of Mathura School of Paintings is Goddess Lakshmi in the midst of lotus flowers.
Sanjhee is the colourful art of decorating the ground with flowers.
Rasiya is a tradition that is integral to Mathura's culture. It is the tradition of folk-songs that describe the love of the divine couple Radha and Krshnaji. It is an inseparable part of the Holi celebrations and all other festive occasions at Mathura. (Dhulendi – Holi with drums (dholak), colours, etc. originated from Braj region hundreds of millennia before today.)
Mathura is one of the seven most holy places for Hindus in India.
Ayodhyā Mathurā Māyā Kāsi Kāñchī Avantikā I
Purī Dvārāvatī chaiva saptaitā moksadāyikāh II - Garuḍa Purāṇa I XVI .14
A Kṣetra is a sacred ground, a field of active power, a place where Moksha, final release can be obtained. The Garuda Purana enumerates seven cities as giver of Moksha, They are Ayodhya, Mathura, Māyā, Kāsi, Kāñchī, Avantikā, Puri and Dvārāvatī.
Shri Krishna Janmbhoomi is a Hindu temple complex located in heart of city of Mathura. Hindus consider it as one of the most sacred place as they believe that the temple stands on the same place where ancient Hindu god Lord Krishna was born. The complex have a Keshavdev temple where spiritual environment could be felt during morning prayer (Mangla Aarti). The temple complex have a museum, where numerous articles excavated from the site related to story of Sri Krishna’a birth are displayed.
Dwarkadish Temple, built in 1814, is a popular temple near the banks of Yamuna river in Mathura city . This temple is managed by followers of Vallabhacarya. The temple is fairly interesting architecturally. People engaged in Bhajan Kirtan inside temple before daily morning prayer (Mangla Aarti gives an impression of festival and celebration.
Gita Mandir is situated at a distance of nearly five kilometers from Mathura Junction (in way of Vrindaban from Matura city) is popular attractions of Mathura. The magnificent mandir was built by Birla, one of the leading industrial powers of India .The excellent architecture of the temple attracts tourists from all over India. The whole of Gita, the sacred book of the Hindus, is inscribed on the temple. Beautiful carvings and paintings enhance the beauty of the temple. There is a beautiful image of Lord Krishna is present in the sanctum of the Mandir.
Rangaji Temple, built in 1851 is dedicated to Lord Ranganatha or Rangaji depicted as Lord Vishnu in his sheshashayi pose, resting on the coils of the sacred Shesha-nag. The temple built in the Dravidian style has a tall gopuram (gateway) of six storeys and a gold - plated Dhwaja stambha, 50 feet high. A water tank and a picturesque garden lie within the temple enclosure. The annual festival of Jal Vihar of the presiding deity is performed with great pomp and splendour at the tank. The temple is also famous for its `Brahmotsdav' celebration during the month of Chaitra (March - April), more popularly known as the `Rath ka Mela'. The ten-day-long celebrations are marked by the pulling of the rath (the chariot car) by the devotees from the temple to the adjoining gardens.
Jugal Kishor Temple was built in the 17th century after Emperor Akbar's visit to Vridaban in the year 1570, he ordered four temples to be built by the Gaudya Vaisnavas, which were Madana-mohana, Govindaji, Gopinatha and Jugal Kisore. The temple is located near Kesi Ghat in Vrindaban and also called as Kesi temple.
Radharaman Temple is another name of ancient Hindu god Lord Krishna which means "one who gives pleasure to Radha". The seva puja of Radharamana was established in 1542, after the Deity self-manifested from a saligram-sila. Also kept in this temple is the wooden sitting place (hoki) and shawl (chaddar) or Lord Chaitanya, that he gave as a gift to Gopala Bhatta Gosvami who built the temple. There is no deity of Radharani in this temple, but a crown is kept next to Krishna signifying her presence.
Jaipur Temple which was built by Sawai Madhav Singh, the Maharaja of Jaipur in 1917, is a richly embellished and opulent temple located in Vrindaban. The fine hand - carved sandstone is of unparalleled workmanship. The temple is dedicated to Shri Radha Madhav.
Shahji Temple, another popular temple at Vrindavan, was designed and built in 1876 by a wealthy jeweller, Shah Kundan Lal of Lucknow. The deities at the temple are popularly known as the Chhote Radha Raman. Noted for its magnificent architecture and beautiful marble sculpture, the temple has twelve spiral columns each 15 feet high. The `Basanti Kamra' - the darbar hall is famed for its Belgian glass chandeliers and fine paintings.
Vrindavan Chandrodaya Mandir is the world's tallest temple under-construction at Mathura. At cost of ₹300 crore (US$48 million) it will be one of the most expensively built temple in world by ISKCON.
Prem Mandir is the most beautiful and clean, religious and spiritual complex situated on a 54-acre site on the outskirts of Vrindavan, is one of the newest temples dedicated to Shri Krishna. The temple structure was established by spiritual guru Kripalu Maharaj. The main structure built in marble looks incredibly beautiful and is an educational monument that reflects the true history of Sanatana Dharma. Figures of Shri Krishna and his followers depicting important events surrounding the Lord’s existence cover the main temple.
Sri Vrindavan-Chandra Mandir (HKM Vrindavan), located in Vrindavan, is a replica of that supreme Goloka Vrindavana in the spiritual sky. It was inaugurated in 2006 on the most auspicious day of Sri Rama Navami day. The temple is housed in an ultra-modern geodesic structure with a traditional gopuram based on khajuraho style of architecture, greeting pilgrims at the entrance. The major festivals of the temple are Sri Krishna Janmashtami, Sri Radhashtami, Kartik Fest (7-day festival during Govardhan Puja time) and Gaura Purnima. Grand abhishekas are performed for Sri Sri Radha Vrindavan-chandra during festivals such as Radhashtami and Janmashtami.
Shree Radha Ras Bihari Ashta Sakhi Temple: In Vrindavan, the "Lila Sthan" (the place of the divine passion play) of Lord Krishna, lies the temple that is a must visit destination for devotees completing the 84 kosh Vraj Parikrama Yatra. The temple is centuries old and is the first Indian temple that is dedicated to the divine couple and their Ashta Sakhi’s - the eight "companions" of Radha who were intimately involved in her love play with the Lord Krishna. The Ashta Sakhis are mentioned in the ancient texts of Puranas and the Bhagavata Purana. The temple is called Shree Radha Ras Bihari Ashta Sakhi Mandir and it is home to the divine Rasa Lila of Lord Krishna and Radharani. It is located in close proximity to the Banke Bihari Temple. Legend has it that the Shree Radha Rasa Behari Ashta Sakhi Mandir is one of the two places in Mathura, Vrindavan where the Lord Krishna actually indulges in the Rasa Lila with his beloved Radha and her sakhis. On these nights, devotees have reported hearing the sound of the anklets, beating in tune to a divine melody.
Govind Deo Temple was once a magnificent seven storeyed structure built in the form of a Greek cross. It is said that the Emperor Akbar donated some of the red sandstone that had been brought for the Red Fort at Agra, for the construction of this temple. Built at the astronomical cost of one crore rupees in 1590 by his general Man Singh, the temple combines western, Hindu and Muslim architectural elements in its structure.
Krishna-Balaram Mandir is a Gaudiya Vaishnava temple in the holy city of Vrindavan. It is one of the main ISKCON temples in India and internationally. Krishna-Balaram Mandir was built in 1975 on the orders of Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, the founder-acharya of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON).
Vishram Ghat is a ghat, a bath and worship place, on the banks of river Yamuna. It is the main ghat of Mathura city and is central to 25 other ghats. The traditional parikrama starts and ends at Vishram Ghat. Lord Krishna is said to have rested at this place after killing Kansa.
Some notable places in Mathura District:
- Mathura - the town
Krishna Janmashtami is celebrated on the eighth day (Ashtami) of the Krishna Paksha (dark fortnight) of the month of Shraavana (August–September) in the Hindu calendar. Rasa lila dramatic enactments of the life of Krishna, are a special feature in Mathura. There is a huge arati at 12 midnight in temples all over Vrindavana.
Guru Purnima is an Hindu festival dedicated to spiritual and academic teachers.This festival takes place in the month of Asadha (June–July). It is customary to worship the spiritual master on this day. Millions of people visit Mathura on Guru Purnima because of the presence of thousands of spiritual Gurus in Mathura. On this day many devotees gather at Manasi Ganga and do Govardhana parikrama.
Braj Parikrama is a pilgrimage of all the places in Braj that associated with Shri Krishna, is undertaken. Traditionally, the Chaurasi kos (84 kos) pilgrimage of Braj Mandal, with its 12 vanas (forests), 24 upvanas (groves), sacred hill Govardhan, divine River Yamuna and numerous holy places along its banks, is undertaken annually by lakhs of devotees from all over the country. The Yatra extends to Kotban to the north of Mathura, to Nandgaon, Barsana and the Govardhan Hill to the west and South-west of the city and to the banks of the Yamuna to the east, where the Baldeo Temple is located. Colourful melas and performances of the Raaslila (a depiction of the exploits of Shri Krishna) in Braj Parikrama are distinctive to rainy month of Bhadon, the month when the Lord Krishna was born, is a time of colourful celebrations.
Radhastami is the appearance day of Radharani. This festival falls on the eighth day, of the bright fort-night in the month of Bhadra (August-Sept), 15 days after the appearance of Lord Krishna. This festival is very joyously celebrated in whole Mathura region with its centre in Varsana. There is an all night kirtana held the night before Radhastami at the Larila Lal Temple in Varsana, ending with an ecstatic mangala arati. Many people go to Varsana on this day.
Vasant Panchami, a festival that marks the commencement of spring season, is widely celebrated in Mathura. The festival marks the beginning of celebrations of Holi in Mathura. Special religious programs are organised in other temples of across the district, like in Bankey Bihari Temple of Vrindaban pilgrims celebrate the occasion by tossing rose powder.
Lath mar Holi
Lath mar Holi is a local celebration of the Hindu festival of Holi. It takes place well before the actual Holi in the town of Barsana. The name means "that Holi in which [people] hit with sticks". In the sprawling compound of the Radha Rani temple in Barsana, thousands gather to witness the Lath mar Holi when women beat up men with sticks (laṭh) as those on the sidelines become hysterical, sing Holi Songs and shout Sri Radhey or Sri Krishna.
This is the swing festival at the Ranganatha temple. At night the temple tank is lit up. This festival is on the 11th day of the month of Bhadra (Aug-Sept).
Jhulan Yatra Mahotsava
This festival lasts for 13 days. It starts on the Tritya (third day) of the bright fortnight of Sravana (July-Aug) and lasts until the full moon night of the month. During this festival the Radha-Krishna Deities in the temples are swung on a swing. This is one of the biggest festivals of the year and Vrindavana is very crowded at this time. Often the swings are gold and silver. Some of the main temples that this festival is celebrated at are the Banke Bihari Temple and the Radha-Raman Temple in Vrindavana, the Dwarkadish temple in Mathura, and the Larily Lal Temple in Varsana.
Mathura is on the main lines of the Central Railways and is connected with all the important cities of Uttar Pradesh and India such as Delhi, Agra, Lucknow, Mumbai, Jaipur, Gwalior, Kolkata, Hyderabad and Chennai. The Nearest airport is Kheria (Agra), 62 km away from Mathura. Mathura is also well connected by motorable roads to important cities in the region.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mathura district.|
- "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
- Megasthenes, fragment 23 "The Surasenians, an Indian tribe, with two great cities, Methora and Clisobora; the navigable river Iomanes flows through their territory" quoted in Arrian Indica 8.5. Also "The river Jomanes (Yamuna) flows through the Palibothri into the Ganges between the towns Methora and Carisobora." in FRAGM. LVI. Plin. Hist. Nat. VI. 21. 8-23. 11.
- Bratindra Nath Mukherjee. Kushāṇa studies: new perspectives. Firma KLM. p. 13. ISBN 81-7102-109-3.
- Osmund Bopearachchi; Wilfried Pieper (1998). Ancient Indian coins. Brepols. ISBN 2-503-50730-1.
- Kshatrapasa pra Kharaostasa Artasa putrasa. See: Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p 398, Dr H. C. Raychaudhury, Dr B. N. Mukerjee; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, p 307, Dr J. L. Kamboj; Ancient India, 1956, pp 220–221, Dr R. K. Mukerjee; Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, p 168, S Kirpal Singh.
- Ancient India, pp 220–221, Dr R. k. Mukerjee; Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, pp 168–169, S Kirpal Singh; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, pp 306–09, Dr J. L. Kamboj; Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum, Vol II, Part 1, p 36, D S Konow
- Dr Jayaswal writes:"Mathura was under outlandish people like the Yavanas and Kambojas... who had a special mode of fighting" (Manu and Yajnavalkya, Dr K. P. Jayswal); See also: Indian Historical Quarterly, XXVI-2, p 124. Prof Shashi Asthana comments: "Epic Mahabharata refers to the siege of Mathura by the Yavanas and Kambojas (see: History and Archaeology of India's Contacts with Other Countries, from Earliest Times to 300 B.C., 1976, p. 153, Shashi Asthana). Dr Buddha Prakash observes: "Along with the Sakas, the Kambojas had also entered Indian mainland and spread into whole of North India, especially in Panjab and Uttar Pradesh. The Mahabharata contains references to Yavanas and Kambojas having conquered Mathura (12/105/5)....There is also a reference to the Kambojas in the Mathura Lion Capital inscriptions of Saka Satrap (Kshatrapa) Rajuvula found in Mathura " (India and the World, p. 154, Dr Buddha Parkash); cf: Ancient India, 1956, p 220, Dr R. K. Mukerjee
- A Catalogue of the Indian Coins in the British Museum. Andhras etc.... Rapson, p. ciii.
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- Hsuan Tsang This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press..
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- Lathmar Holi Festival Lane Turner, Boston.com, (March 5, 2012)
||Mewat district, Haryana||Khair||Aligarh district|
|Bharatpur district, Rajasthan||Hathras district|