Zomepirac

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Zomepirac
Zomepirac.png
Systematic (IUPAC) name
2-[5-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-1,4-dimethyl-pyrrol-2-yl]acetic acid
Clinical data
Legal status
  • withdrawn
Routes oral
Identifiers
CAS number 33369-31-2 N
ATC code M01AB04
PubChem CID 5733
DrugBank DB04828
ChemSpider 5531 YesY
UNII 822G987U9J YesY
ChEBI CHEBI:35859 YesY
ChEMBL CHEMBL19490 YesY
Chemical data
Formula C15H14ClNO3 
Mol. mass 291.729 g/mol
 N (what is this?)  (verify)

Zomepirac is an orally effective NSAID that has antipyretic actions. It was developed by McNeil Pharmaceutical and approved by the FDA in 1980 and sold as the sodium salt, zomepirac sodium, under the brand name Zomax. Due to its clinical effectiveness, it was preferred by doctors in many situations and obtained a large share of the analgesics market; however, it was subsequently withdrawn in March 1983 due to its tendency to cause serious anaphylaxis in an unpredictable subset of the patient population.[1][2]

Indications[edit]

Zomepirac was indicated for the management of mild to severe pain.[3] Multiple clinical trials demonstrated zomepirac to be more effective than aspirin or codeine alone and to be as effective as analgesic combinations containing codeine or other opioids.[4][5][6][7][8][9][10] Zomepirac provided analgesia comparable with usual intramuscular doses of morphine in postoperative pain and that with long-term use, neither tolerance to its analgesic effect nor psychological or physical dependence had been demonstrated.[3][11]

Chemical structure[edit]

Zomepirac is the sodium salt of 5-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-1,4 dimethyl-1H-pyrrole-2-acetate dihydrate. It is a pyrrole-acetic acid which is structurally related to tolmetin.

Mechanism of action[edit]

It is a prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor.[12]

Toxicity[edit]

Zomepirac does not cause anaphylaxis directly, but it is metabolised by UGT to a reactive glucuronide, which binds irreversibly to plasma albumin.[13]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Peter H. Rheinstein, Reporting of adverse drug events: a key to postmarketing drug safety, American Family Physician, Sept, 1992
  2. ^ Mark P. Grillo and Fengmei Hua, IDENTIFICATION OF ZOMEPIRAC-S-ACYL-GLUTATHIONE IN VITRO IN INCUBATIONS WITH RAT HEPATOCYTES AND IN VIVO IN RAT BILE, Drug Metabolism and Disposition, August 19, 2003
  3. ^ a b Lewis JR (1981). "Zomepirac sodium. A new nonaddicting analgesic". JAMA 246 (4): 377–9. doi:10.1001/jama.246.4.377. PMID 7241789. 
  4. ^ Steele CE, Jefferson WL (1983). "A multi-centre study of zomepirac in painful conditions: an analysis of clinical data for 15,484 patients". Current medical research and opinion 8 (6): 382–91. doi:10.1185/03007998309111743. PMID 6221886. 
  5. ^ Mehlisch DR, Joy ED (1981). "Zomepirac sodium vs APC with codeine for oral surgery pain". Journal of oral surgery (American Dental Association : 1965) 39 (6): 426–9. PMID 7014804. 
  6. ^ Stambaugh JE, Sarajian C (1981). "Analgesic efficacy of zomepirac sodium in patients with pain due to cancer". Journal of clinical pharmacology 21 (11–12 Pt 1): 501–7. PMID 7037868. 
  7. ^ Evans PJ, McQuay HJ, Rolfe M, O'Sullivan G, Bullingham RE, Moore RA (1982). "Zomepirac, placebo and paracetamol/dextropropoxyphene combination compared in orthopaedic postoperative pain". British journal of anaesthesia 54 (9): 927–33. doi:10.1093/bja/54.9.927. PMID 7052110. 
  8. ^ Baird WM, Turek D (1980). "Comparison of zomepirac, APC with codeine, codeine and placebo in the treatment of moderate and severe postoperative pain". Journal of clinical pharmacology 20 (4 Pt 2): 243–9. PMID 6991540. 
  9. ^ Mehlisch DR, Joy ED, Moore TE, Porter K, Stumpf AJ, Wolfe SH (1980). "Clinical comparison of zomepirac with APC/codeine combination in the treatment of pain following oral surgery". Journal of clinical pharmacology 20 (4 Pt 2): 271–8. PMID 6991544. 
  10. ^ Diamond S, Medina JL (1981). "A double-blind study of zomepirac sodium and placebo in the treatment of muscle contraction headache". Headache 21 (2): 45–8. doi:10.1111/j.1526-4610.1981.hed2102045.x. PMID 7016809. 
  11. ^ Wallenstein SL, Rogers A, Kaiko RF, Heidrich G, Houde RW (1980). "Relative analgesic potency of oral zomepirac and intramuscular morphine in cancer patients with postoperative pain". Journal of clinical pharmacology 20 (4 Pt 2): 250–8. PMID 6991541. 
  12. ^ DC McLeod, Zomepirac (Zomax, McNeil Pharmaceutical), Drug Intelligence & Clinical Pharmacy: Vol. 15, No. 7, pp. 522-530.
  13. ^ Smith PC, McDonagh AF, Benet LZ (1986). "Irreversible binding of zomepirac to plasma protein in vitro and in vivo". Journal of clinical investigation 77 (3): 934–939. doi:10.1172/JCI112392. PMC 423485. PMID 3949982.