2015 Nigerian general election
68,833,476 registered voters
25% in each of 2/3 States + Majority votes needed to win
States won by Jonathan (in green) and Buhari (blue)
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nigerian general election, 2015.|
General elections were held in Nigeria on 28 and 29 March 2015, the fifth quadrennial election to be held since the end of military rule in 1999. Voters elected the President and members to the House of Representatives and the Senate. The incumbent president, Goodluck Jonathan sought his second and final term.
The elections were first scheduled to be held on 14 February 2015. However, the electoral commission postponed it by six weeks to 28 March, mainly due to the poor distribution of Permanent Voter Cards, and also to curb ongoing Boko Haram insurgency in certain north-eastern states. The government closed its land and sea borders from midnight on 25 March until the end of the polling date. The election was extended to 29 March due to delays and technical problems with the biometric card readers.
It was the most expensive election ever to be held on the African continent. Nigeria is the continent's most populous country, has the largest economy and is its leading oil producer. Opposition candidate Muhammadu Buhari won the presidential election by more than 2.5 million votes. Incumbent President Goodluck Jonathan conceded defeat on 31 March, before the results from all 36 states had been announced. The election marked the first time an incumbent president had lost re-election in Nigeria. The President-elect was sworn-in on 29 May 2015.
Article 134 (2) of the Nigerian Constitution stipulates that a presidential candidate will be duly elected after attaining both the highest number of votes cast, and having received at least a quarter of the votes at each of at least two-thirds of the 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT). If no candidate satisfies the requirement, a second election will be held between the two leading candidates within seven days from the pronouncement of the result.
It had long been assumed that incumbent President Goodluck Jonathan would run for re-election, as despite declining approval ratings, he was still thought to be popular and had several high-profile supporters. Jonathan officially confirmed his candidacy on 11 November at a rally in Abuja, announcing to cheering supporters:
"After seeking the face of God, and in the quiet of my family, and after listening to the clarion call of Nigerians, I have accepted to present myself to serve a second term."
Jonathan ran unopposed in the People's Democratic Party (PDP) primaries on 10 December 2014, receiving the nomination of the party. However, this was against an unwritten rule that the PDP's presidential candidacy should alternate between Muslim northerners and Christian southerners, and opposition to Jonathan's candidacy had led to the defection of dozens of PDP MPs in the House of Representatives.
Prior to the elections,[when?] the All Progressives Congress was formed as an alliance of four opposition parties, the Action Congress of Nigeria, the Congress for Progressive Change, the All Nigeria Peoples Party, and the All Progressives Grand Alliance.
Its primaries, also held on 10 December, were won by retired Major General Muhammadu Buhari, who defeated Kano State Governor Rabiu Kwankwaso, former Vice-President Atiku Abubakar, Imo State Governor Rochas Okorocha and newspaper editor Sam Nda-Isaiah. On 17 December, APC chose Professor Yemi Osinbajo as the running mate of General M. Buhari.
As of February 2015, "Though the APC's voter base is in the north, it enjoys support all over the country, unlike the opposition in 2011."
|Source: Nigerian Eye|
A presidential and Vice presidential Debate was conducted by the Nigerian media with majority of the candidates attending. The debate was attended by the then incumbent president Goodluck Jonathan, and his vice Namadi Sambo, while as predicted, the Presidential candidate of the All Progressives Congress, Muhammadu Buhari boycotted the debate while his vice presidential nominee attended. The debate which lasted for approximately an hour was watched by over 20 million people in Nigeria, with radios and the Internet conveying through other means.
Fourteen candidates contested the election.
The main opposition Goodluck Jonathan faced was from Muhammadu Buhari of the APC. While inaugurating a 250-bed Orthopaedic Hospital in Wamakko, Buhari said: "We will stop corruption and make the ordinary people, the weak and the vulnerable our top priority".
|Allagoa Chinedu||Arabamhen Mary||Peoples Party of Nigeria||PPN|
|Ambrose Albert Owuru||Haruna Shaba||Hope Party||HOPE|
|Adebayo Musa Ayeni||Anthony Ologbosere||African Peoples Alliance||APA|
|Chekwas Okorie||Bello Umar||United Progressive Party||UPP|
|Comfort Oluremi Sonaiya||Seidu Bobboi||KOWA Party||KOWA|
|Ganiyu Galadima||Ojengbede Farida||Allied Congress Party of Nigeria||ACPN|
|Godson Okoye||Haruna Adamu||United Democratic Party||UDP|
|Goodluck Jonathan||Namadi Sambo||People's Democratic Party||PDP|
|Mani Ahmad||Obianuju Murphy-Uzohue||African Democratic Congress||ADC|
|Martin Onovo||Ibrahim Mohammed||National Conscience Party||NCP|
|Muhammadu Buhari||Yemi Osinbajo||All Progressives Congress||APC|
|Rufus Salawu||Akuchie Cliff||Alliance for Democracy||AD|
|Sam Eke||Hassana Hassan||Citizens Popular Party||CPP|
|Tunde Anifowose-Kelani||Ishaka Ofemile||Accord Alliance||AA|
After a botched governor's election in Anambra State, there were serious concerns that the election would not go smoothly. The country's election commission had promised a better election process, hoping that combating electoral fraud would prevent the violence that had plagued previous Nigerian elections. Despite this, a pre-election poll by Gallup noted that only 13% of Nigerians had confidence in the honesty of elections.
The Socialist Party of Nigeria filed for registration as a political party to contest the election, but the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) refused the registration. The SPN sued the INEC at the Federal High Court, claiming that INEC had failed to respond to their petition within 30 days as prescribed by law and that thus it would have to be registered automatically.
The presidential election was a trending topic in Nigeria on Twitter, one social media platform reflecting public opinion; although PDP/GEJ may simply have had better support on social media, which is not representative of the population as a whole. According to Impact Social, based on data from 40,000 tweets, Facebook messages, blogs, and other internet outlets that mention PDP or GEJ, 70% of public opinion toward President Jonathan is positive, but messaging on the economy has taken up 6% of election conversation and was seen as a key PDP strength. Social media support for Buhari/APC was a bit "noisier" without a single issue leveraged by the campaign to gain traction: there was general frustration that the campaign lacked consistency, content and focus on the important issues at hand.
In January 2015, the #bringbackourgirls campaign raised alarm over plans by the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) to exclude Chibok and some communities currently under the control of the Boko Haram from getting the permanent voter cards (PVCs) for the February elections. Jonathan's already controversial handling of the situation was exacerbated by the Twitter campaign that was launched in mid 2014, #BringBackJonathan2015, which was widely considered to be insensitive to the victims and their families. Jonathan eventually called for banners containing the hashtag to be taken down and asked for the hashtag to not be used.
On 8 February 2015, the Independent National Electoral Commission announced that "presidential and national assembly elections will now hold on 28 March while the governorship and state assemblies election will take place on 11 April," mainly due to the poor distribution of Permanent Voter Cards, and also the security concerns related to the Boko Haram insurgency in certain north eastern states.
The postponement was called on the grounds of the INEC failing to deliver Permanent Voters' Cards to millions (around 34%) of voters – reportedly only around 45.1mn of 68.8mn registered voters had received PVC's. Additionally, on 5 February, the National Council of State (chaired by President Jonathan) told INEC that it had just launched a major, decisive offensive against Boko Haram for six weeks. Due to the assets and resources that would go into this offensive, the military would be unable to provide security and logistics support for elections. This is a disputable claim, since election security is the primary responsibility of not the military (which should only act as support) but the police and civil defence corps. There is speculation over whether or not the postponement was motivated by politics rather than security and has raised questions over the political neutrality of the military as well as the independence of INEC.
 Sambo Dasuki, Nigerian national security advisor, told the commission "that operations against Boko Haram militants meant the military "will be unable to provide adequate security" for the 14 February vote." "Seventeen out of the 28 registered political parties" supported postponing the elections; 12 opposed, "including the leading opposition party, All Progressives Congress". By 30 January, "Boko Haram was in total occupation/complete control of 13 local governments (and other swathes of land) in Borno and 2 each in Yobe and Adamawa." Critics of the postponement view it as a political move on behalf of GEJ/PDP rather than one made in the interest of national security. GEJ/PDP are losing traction due to gains by Boko Haram in January, economic strains from the slide in global oil price (Nigeria's key export), and GEJ/PDP's slow progress on fighting corruption and improving infrastructure. According to primaries in December 2014, Buhari/APC is viewed as more equipped to fight insecurity and corruption.
Critics have pointed out that even with the postponement, the Nigerian government is unlikely to re-establish control in all the affected areas by the date of the election. Distribution of the Permanent Voters' Card (PVC) has begun in camps for internally displaced persons (IDPs) from the three affected states. Estimates of the number of IDPs range from 868,235 to 1.5 million people, and is not yet clear how successful efforts will be to organise elections under these circumstances. Key Government officials in Nigeria are publicly stating their opposition to the postponement. Senator Chris Ngige, for example, has accused the PDP of pressuring INEC to postpone the general elections.
In addition to growing criticism within Nigeria, on 8 February Vanguard reported that "the United States said it was 'deeply disappointed' by the delay." US Secretary of State John Kerry, who had urged that elections be held on time, "[warned] the Nigerian government against using 'security concerns as a pretext for impeding the democratic process.'" Additionally, the British Foreign Secretary, Philip Hammond, has revealed that he, too, is disgruntled by the news: "The security situation should not be used as a reason to deny the Nigerian people from exercising their democratic rights. It is vital that the elections are kept on track and held as soon as possible". Deutsche Welle reported that "The postponement has been seen by critics as a ploy by President Goodluck Jonathan and the ruling People's Democratic Party (PDP) to buy time to sway support from the popular main opposition candidate and former military dictator, Muhammadu Buhari."
By 7 February 2015, threats of post-election violence from both sides remained a concern, given that hundreds of people died in the rioting that followed the 2011 Nigerian presidential election, and rhetoric was running high. It was reported that "the Council of Imams and Ulamas in Kaduna State ... told the Niger Delta militants threatening chaos if President Goodluck Jonathan loses the presidential election that they stand to lose if there is a war." The GMB Volunteers, a group described as a "frontline voluntary organization made up of professionals, ethnic and religious groups," has criticised hate advertisements directed against APC candidate General Muhammadu Buhari.
On 9 February, although "Nigerian civil society" was "in uproar" over the postponement, the north east remained calm, and voters there appeared willing to wait.
Groups such as the Nigeria Stability and Reconciliation Programme (NSRP) have "advised political parties to stop making hate speeches against opponents."
The Nigeria Women Platform for Peaceful Election (NWPPE) is collaborating with United Nations Women to hold training sessions for journalists on gender-based violence and gender sensitive reporting. A "women situation room", similar to a "civil society situation room" is planned for monitoring violence against women during the elections.
Senator Abubakar Bukola Saraki, who has called the postponement "an obstruction of democracy", nonetheless released a statement saying "I charge Nigerians to be calm, non-violent and steadfast. We must be determined to make sure postponement does not demoralize or disenfranchise us. We must see this as a challenge for us to remain resolute in yearning for a new democratic government; one that will not see itself as above the people."
On 31 January, a concert was held in Owerri, Imo State, as part of the RSVP concert series, urging young people to RSVP – Register, Select, Vote and Protect. "Register – pick your Permanent Voters' card-PVC, Select (select your candidates), and Vote – vote not Fight, and Protect – protect your mandate." A second RSVP concert was planned for Lagos on 8 February.
According to the Nigerian Constitution, the presidential election must be held by 28 April. As Section 25 of the 2010 Electoral Act states, the date is to be no later than 30 days before the expiration of the previous office holder's term of office.
Buhari was supported by The Economist "with a heavy heart" as "the least awful" option; the newspaper was scathing about the repression and economic policy of Buhari's previous regime, but praised his subsequent adherence to democratic process, anti-corruption stance, and the legitimacy he held in the Muslim North as a stronger platform with which to combat Boko Haram.
Voting was extended due to technical problems with electronic card readers. The technology was introduced to prevent voter fraud, but was opposed by President Goodluck Jonathan who called it a "huge national embarrassment" when problems caused a delay. President Jonathan himself failed to be accredited by the card reader, which was shown live on national television.
The Jos Forum Inter-communal Dialogue Process was established to serve as a sustainable and impartial dialogue mechanism to be used by the communities to handle disputes. In 2015, the Jos Peace Dialogue Forum has already served as a platform for various political parties to discuss challenges and commit to peaceful elections in 2015.
Election observer missions [EOM] were deployed from the African Union (AU), Commonwealth of Nations, Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and the European Union (EU); and were led by Amos Sawyer, Bakili Muluzi, John Kufuor, and Santiago Fisas respectively.
UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon congratulated the citizens and the government for conducting a peaceful and orderly election. The AUEOM concluded that the elections were conducted in a "peaceful atmosphere" and met the "continental and regional principles of democratic elections". ECOWAS EOM said that it met the "criteria of being free and transparent" despite "pockets of incidents and logistical challenges." The Commonwealth EOM described the conduct as "generally peaceful and transparent."
|Poll source||Date||Sample size||Undecided||Buhari
|Sahara Reporters||15 October 2014||15,435||N/A||79%||21%||24-hour online poll|
|Buildup Nigeria||16 October 2014||26,595||2.29%||48.41%||49.3%||The poll was conducted by Reno Omokri, who serves as President Jonathan's Special Assistant on New Media.|
|Afrobarometer||5–27 December 2014||2,400||11%||42%||42%||Margin of error of +/-2%|
|Nigerian FM||22 December 2014||54%||48%|
|WorldStage Newsonline||27 March 2015||1,886||N/A||35.53%||64.48%|
|NigerianEye||20 January 2015||7,043||N/A||72%||25%||The remaining 3% voted for other candidates|
|Muhammadu Buhari||All Progressives Congress||15,424,921||53.96|
|Goodluck Jonathan||People's Democratic Party||12,853,162||44.96|
|Adebayo Ayeni||African Peoples Alliance||53,537||0.19|
|Ganiyu Galadima||Allied Congress Party of Nigeria||40,311||0.14|
|Sam Eke||Citizens Popular Party||36,300||0.13|
|Rufus Salau||Alliance for Democracy||30,673||0.11|
|Mani Ahmad||African Democratic Congress||29,666||0.10|
|Allagoa Chinedu||Peoples Party of Nigeria||24,475||0.09|
|Martin Onovo||National Conscience Party||24,455||0.09|
|Tunde Anifowose-Kelani||Accord Alliance||22,125||0.08|
|Chekwas Okorie||United Progressive Party||18,220||0.06|
|Comfort Sonaiya||KOWA Party||13,076||0.05|
|Godson Okoye||United Democratic Party||9,208||0.03|
|Ambrose Albert Owuru||Hope Party||7,435||0.03|
House of Representatives
|All Progressives Congress||212|
|People's Democratic Party||140|
|All Progressives Grand Alliance||5|
|Social Democratic Party||1|
|All Progressives Congress||60||19|
|People's Democratic Party||49||15|
- "Publication of the Register of Voters for the 2015 General Elections" (PDF). Independent National Electoral Commission. 13 January 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 April 2015. Retrieved 12 February 2015.
- "Approved Guidelines and Regulations for the Conduct of 2015 General Elections" (PDF). Abuja: Independent National Electoral Commission. January 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 January 2015. Retrieved 21 January 2015.
- "Voter turnout data for Nigeria". International IDEA. International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance. Archived from the original on 5 May 2015. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
- Nigeria IFES.
- "Nigeria delays elections over Boko Haram threat". Independent. 7 February 2015. Retrieved 7 February 2015.
- "Citing security concerns, Nigeria closes border ahead of election". Aljazeera. 25 March 2015. Retrieved 30 March 2015.
- "Nigeria election extended to Sunday after delays".
- "Nigeria elections: Nation split in Jonathan-Buhari contest". BBC News. 26 March 2015. Retrieved 30 March 2015.
- Schneider, James (31 March 2015). "Buhari Wins, Jonathan concedes". NewAfrican. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
- "Nigeria election: Muhammadu Buhari wins". BBC News. 31 March 2015. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
- "Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria" (PDF). World Intellectual Property Organization. 1999. Article 134 (2). Retrieved 29 January 2015.
- Diwomo, Dawn (14 February 2014). "What to Watch as Nigeria's 2015 Showdown Brews". Think Africa Press. Archived from the original on 3 September 2014. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
- Felix Onuah (11 November 2014). "UPDATE 1-Nigeria's Jonathan seeks second term, vows to beat Boko Haram". Reuters. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
- Nigeria Election: Jonathan V. Muhammadu Buhari ABC News, 11 December 2014.
- "Nigeria opposition parties merge". BBC News. 7 February 2013. Retrieved 23 May 2020.
- "Buhari wins APC presidential primaries". Vanguard News. 11 December 2014. Retrieved 12 March 2020.
- Owete, Festus (11 December 2014). "Buhari wins APC presidential ticket - Premium Times Nigeria". Retrieved 12 March 2020.
- Adoyi, Ali. "Buhari wins APC presidential primaries". Retrieved 12 March 2020.
- Breaking News: Buhari wins APC Presidential Ticket with 3430 votes Nigerian Eye, 11 December 2014.
- Thurston, Alexander. "Background to Nigeria's 2015 Elections" (PDF). Retrieved 25 May 2020.
- "Buhari formally presents Osinbajo as APC presidential running mate - Premium Times Nigeria". 17 December 2014. Retrieved 30 May 2020.
- "John Campbell: CPM Update: Nigeria's 2015 Presidential Election: Contingency Planning Memorandum Update". Council on Foreign Relations. February 2015. Retrieved 16 March 2015.
- "INEC releases full list of Presidential aspirants". Pulse. 13 January 2015. Retrieved 21 January 2015.
- Bamidele, Yetunde. "APC Will End Corruption in Nigeria – Buhari". Retrieved 11 February 2015.
- Dele Fanimo and Laolu Adeyemi (27 March 2015). "Nigeria: 12 Candidates, One Nation, One President". allAfrica.com: TheGuardian. Retrieved 27 March 2015.
- Loschky, Jay (13 January 2015). Ahead of Poll, Few Nigerians Trust in Elections. Gallup World Polling.
- "Socialist group sues INEC over failure to register party Archived 29 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Punch. Retrieved 21 November 2014.
- "Social Media Analysis of the Nigerian Presidential Election". Crisis Group. 8 February 2015. Archived from the original on 12 February 2015. Retrieved 12 February 2015.
- Chika Mefor; Ejike Ejike (8 January 2015). "allAfrica.com: Nigeria: Elections – BBOG Group Raises the Alarm Over Plans to Exclude Chibok From Voting". Leadership (Abuja) - allAfrica.com. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- Patel, Alpa (11 September 2014). "Nigeria election slogan hashtag sparks controversy". BBC News. Retrieved 12 February 2015.
- Alechenu, John. "Nigeria elections postponed until 28 March". Africa – News and Analysis. Retrieved 9 February 2015.
- "Nigeria's Election a Perilous Postponement". Crisis Group. 12 February 2015. Archived from the original on 13 February 2015. Retrieved 12 February 2015.
- Sani Tukur (7 February 2015). "Nigeria: INEC Postpones 2015 General Elections". Premium Times – AllAfrica. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
- "Nigeria Plans to Postpone Elections Due to Lack of Security". Deutsche Welle - allAfrica.com. 7 February 2015. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
- Festus Owete (7 February 2015). "Nigeria: 17 Parties Demand Poll Shift At Meeting With INEC". Premium Times – AllAfrica. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
- Idayat Hassan (30 January 2015). "Nigeria Forum – IDPs, Boko Haram and Elections Likely to Be Settled By the Courts". African Arguments - allAfrica.com. Retrieved 10 February 2015.
- Eniathan-Matthews, Timothy (10 February 2015). "PDP pressured INEC to avoid defeat – Ngige". Retrieved 11 February 2015.
- "Nigeria: Election Postponement – U.S. Deeply Disappointed – Kerry". Vanguard: allAfrica.com. 8 February 2015. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
- "West criticises Nigerian election delay". www.theguardian.com. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
- Maryam Ahmadu-Suka (6 February 2015). "Nigeria: You Will Lose If There Is War, Clerics Tell Ex-Militants". Daily Trust - allAfrica.com. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
- Hussein Yahaya (9 February 2015). "Nigeria: 2015 – Group Decries Hate Adverts On Buhari". Daily Trust - allAfrica.com. Retrieved 10 February 2015.
- Obinna Anyadike (9 February 2015). "Nigeria's North Sanguine After Elections Postponed". IRIN - allAfrica.com. Retrieved 10 February 2015.
- Nasir Imam (6 February 2015). "Nigeria: NSRP Decries Hate Speech in Election Campaigns". Daily Trust - allAfrica.com. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
- Itunu Ajayi (9 February 2015). "Nigeria: Building Capacity to Protect Women Against Electoral Violence". The Guardian - allAfrica.com. Retrieved 10 February 2015.
- "allAfrica.com: Nigeria: Postponement of Elections, An Obstruction of Democracy by President Jonathan". Office of Senator Bukola Saraki (Ilorin). 9 February 2015. Retrieved 10 February 2015.
- Open Society Initiative for West Africa (Dakar) (6 February 2015). "Nigeria: Driving Change Through the RSVP – Register, Select, Vote Not Fight, Protect Your Vote Concert". allAfrica.com. Retrieved 10 February 2015.
- "Audio: John Campbell on Security and Democratic Governance in Nigeria". Council on Foreign Relations. 26 February 2015. Archived from the original on 18 March 2015. Retrieved 16 March 2015.
- "TIME TABLE AND SCHEDULE OF ACTIVITIES FOR GENERAL ELECTIONS, 2015". Independent National Electoral Commission. Archived from the original on 25 June 2014. Retrieved 12 February 2015.
- "Nigeria's election: The least awful". The Economist. 7 February 2015. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- "INEC website hacked". Premium Times. 28 March 2015. Retrieved 30 March 2015.
- "Nigeria election: Voting continues after extension". BBC. 28 March 2015.
- "Jonathan failed card reader verification". 4 February 2015.[permanent dead link]
- "Nigerian Elections Hit by Technical Glitches and Violence". Wall Street Journal. 28 March 2015.
- "Voting extended as Nigeria election marred by violence". Aljazeera. 29 March 2015.
- "Gunmen kill 15 in Nigeria during tense election". Reuters. 28 March 2015.
- "Boko Haram kills 41, prevents hundreds voting in Nigeria". Associated Press. 28 March 2015.
- "Jos Bombings: Terrorism cannot break us apart: Plateau residents". View Point Nigeria. 4 July 2014. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
- "Plateau: Ethnic Communities, Stakeholders Pledge Violence-free Polls | Nigerian News from Leadership News". Nigerian News from Leadership News. Leadership. 1 February 2015. Archived from the original on 31 July 2015. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
- "Release of AUEOM Preliminary Statement on Nigeria Elections". African Union. 29 March 2015. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 30 March 2015.
- "Nigeria elections 2015: arrival statement by Commonwealth Observer Group". TheCommonwealth. 23 March 2015. Retrieved 30 March 2015.
- "ECOWAS poll observation mission says Nigeria's 28 March elections free, transparent despite some hitches". ECOWAS. 30 March 2015. Retrieved 30 March 2015.
- "EU EOM Nigeria 2015". EU Election Observation Mission. Retrieved 30 March 2015.
- "Statement attributable to the Spokesman for the Secretary-General on the conduct of peaceful elections in Nigeria". New York: UN. 28 March 2015. Retrieved 30 March 2015.
- "Nigeria elections 2015: interim statement by Commonwealth Observer Group". Abuja: TheCommonwealth. 30 March 2015. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
- Tukur, Sani (18 October 2014). "2015 Election: Buhari leads Jonathan in poll organized by presidential aide". Premium Times. Retrieved 28 January 2015.
- "Sahara Reporters: 2015 Nigerian Election Poll". epoll.me. Retrieved 28 January 2015.
- "BuildUp Nigeria Poll: 2015 Presidential Elections". buildupnigeria.com. 16 October 2014. Archived from the original on 3 February 2015. Retrieved 28 January 2015.
- Tukur, Sani (19 October 2015). "Presidential Aide Abruptly Closes Online Poll As Jonathan Marginally Overtakes Buhari". Sahara Reporters. Retrieved 28 January 2015.
- "Nigeria heads for closest election on record, survey shows" (PDF) (Press release). Lagos: Afrobarometer. 27 January 2015. p. 37. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 February 2015. Retrieved 28 January 2015.
- "NFR Poll: Buhari Opens wide margin lead against Jonathan, the Osibanjo Factor". Nigerian FM. Retrieved 28 January 2015.
- "WorldStage hosts opinion poll on Jonathan, Buhari". /worldstagegroup.com. 18 January 2015. Retrieved 28 January 2015.
- "NIGERIANEYE OPINION POLL: Who Will Win The February 14 Presidential Elections?". NigerianEya. 20 January 2015. Retrieved 28 January 2015.