Highlights of Kozarska Dubica
Location of Dubica within Bosnia and Herzegovina
|Country||Bosnia and Herzegovina|
|• Mayor||Radenko Reljić (SNSD)|
|• Total||499,01 km2 (19,267 sq mi)|
|Elevation||104 m (341 ft)|
|Population (2013 census)|
|• Density||46,2/km2 (1,200/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
Kozarska Dubica (Cyrillic: Козарска Дубица), also alternatively Bosanska Dubica (Cyrillic: Босанска Дубица),[dead link] is a town and municipality located in northern Bosnia and Herzegovina and is administratively part of the Republika Srpska entity. Dubica, for short, is situated in the eastern part of Bosanska Krajina region. The municipality of Hrvatska Dubica lies to the north, in Croatia. Dubica is situated 26 kilometres (16 miles) from the Zagreb–Belgrade Highway. The town and its suburbs border the Republic of Croatia to the north, the town of Gradiška to the east, the town of Kostajnica to the west, and the town of Prijedor to the south. The land area of Dubica is 499 square kilometres (193 sq mi) and the population is about 23,000 (2013 census).
The town is originally known as "Bosanska Dubica" (Bosnian Dubica) but was renamed "Kozarska Dubica" (Козарска Дубица in Serbian Cyrillic) in ideologically motivated decision by the authorities of the Republika Srpska, following the Bosnian War, which was part of a broad political resolution to purge out all Bosnian prefixes on a territory of this Bosnian and Herzegovinian entity.
Dubica was built in 930. However, the first mentioning of Dubica dates from 1197. Babonići-Vodički were in charge of the town until the 12th century. Dubica became an important fort during the Ottoman Empire due to its geographic positioning. It became a vital and important border crossing for many years. The last Austrian-Turkish war was the so-called Dubica War (1788–91) and was fought in this area. During the war in Dubica in the 1780s, the town, which was described at the time as having only a few houses and a mosque, was completely razed. The town fell under Ottoman occupation in 1538. Bosanska Dubica encountered many different rulers during the Ottoman Empire and the later Austro-Hungarian Empire.
From 1929 to 1941, Bosanska Dubica was part of the Vrbas Banovina of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. According to Serb historian Dragoje Lukic, as many as 14.287 residents (or 53% of the pre-war population), predominantly Serbs, were killed by the Ustashe and Germans during World War II, more than anywhere else on the territory of Yugoslavia.[better source needed] During the 1970s Bosanska Dubica experienced a great improvement in its economy. During the 1980s there was a boom in construction and renovation which was halted by the outbreak of yet another war.
The Serbian Orthodox Moštanica Monastery (Manastir Moštanica) appears on the Coat of arms of Bosanska Dubica/Kozarska Dubica.
During the Bosnian War (1992–95) entire traditional Bosniak population of town (more than 6,000) were expelled from their homes with many civilian killed, while proximate number of Serbs from Croatia were settled in Bosanska Dubica/Kozarska Dubica often in Bosniak homes, who themselves now resides outside of Bosnia and Herzegovina. This happened mostly at the beginning of the war, during the period July–September 1992, when all three town's mosques, Gradska Džamija, Čaršijska Džamija and Puhalska Džamija, were completely destroyed. Main town's mosque Gradska Džamija (literally Town's Mosque) was rebuilt in 2003, and its Harem courtyard declared national monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The bridge between Bosanska Dubica and Hrvatska Dubica was destroyed on the Bosnian side. During the war the city was under siege by the Croatian Defence Council in failed operation called Operacija Una 95. On 18 September 1995, the Croatian army made a descent across the Una river and took control of some parts of Dubica. The next day, on 19 September, Serb units from other parts of the front line forced the Croat army to retreat back over the river, with Serb planes from the Banja Luka airport attacked in the vicinity of village Živaja and Šaš in Croatia.
According to the 1910 census, the absolute majority in the Bosanska Dubica municipality were Orthodox Christians (82.94%).
- Serbs - 23,989 (78.95%)
- Bosniaks - 5,114 (16.83%)
- Croats - 717 (2.35%)
- Yugoslavs - 403 (1.32%)
- Others - 161 (0.55%)
According to the 1991 census, the population of the Bosanska Dubica municipality was 31,577, including:
- 21 728 (68,75%) Serbs
- 6 470 (20,38%) Bosniaks
- 1 851 (5,856%) Yugoslavs
- 1 099 (3,477%) others
- 488 (1,544%) Croats
The town proper itself had slight Bosniak (at the time Bosnian Muslims) majority:
- 6 084 (44,47%) Bosniaks
- 5 540 (40,50%) Serbs
- 1 329 (9,715%) Yugoslavs
- 439 (3,209%) others
- 288 (2,105%) Croats
However, during the Bosnian war from 1992 to 1995 this ethnic outlook significantly changed, with around 6,000 people, mostly Bosniaks, forced to leave the town and municipality, while a similar number of Serb refugees from Croatia (and/or other Bosnian towns), found shelter and settled in Dubica.
/* 1991 */
Aginci • Babinac • Bačvani • Bijakovac • Bjelajci • Božići • Brekinja • Čelebinci • Čitluk • Čuklinac • Demirovac • Dizdarlije • Donja Jutrogošta • Donja Slabinja • Donji Jelovac • Draksenić • Dubica • Furde • Gornja Gradina • Gornjoselci • Gradina Donja • Gunjevci • Hadžibajir • Hajderovci • Jasenje • Johova • Jošik • Kadin Jelovac • Klekovci • Knežica • Komlenac • Košuća • Koturovi • Kriva Rijeka • Maglajci • Malo Dvorište • Međeđa • Međuvođe • Mirkovac • Mlječanica • Mrazovci • Murati • Novoselci • Odžinci • Parnice • Pobrđani • Pucari • Rakovica • Sjeverovci • Sključani • Sreflije • Strigova • Suvaja • Ševarlije • Tuključani • Ušivac • Veliko Dvorište • Verija • Vlaškovci • Vojskova i Vrioci.
Situated in the valley of the rivers, the Municipality of Dubica has more than 316.09 square kilometres (122.04 sq mi) of arable land, thanks to which agriculture is an important development factor. Agricultural production is focused on land cultivation, cattle breeding industry, raising of industrial crops, and lately there has been the start of the development of fruit and wine growing.
Most of the economy comes from the livestock. The largest milk production company is the Mlijekoprodukt located near the town of Dubica. It continues its tradition of growing fruits in the area. The climate of Dubica is great for the cultivation of different kinds of vegetables.
Dubica also has an important construction company. It is called IGP "UNA". The company was established in 1962. All of the workers are completely qualified to work with different modern machines. Some important complexes that the company has built are: Zepter, the local hospital, the local high school, and the restoration of the severely damaged bridge.
Prior to the war there was a sugar factory operating as well.
Hunting is a traditional sport of the Municipality of Dubica. One hunting organization is called 'Jele' (Deer) The area used for hunting is around 500 square kilometres (193 sq mi). Hunting is extravagant in Dubica since it has two big mountains Kozara and Prosara. The hunting area is filled with rich forests. Hunting ranges from deer to smaller animals such as wild ducks. Every April the international competition with dog hunting occurs in Dubica.
Spa Mlječanica is the center for physiatrics, rehabilitation, and health located in Dubica. It is in the northwest slopes of the mountain Kozara. The modern, specialized institution for physiatrics and rehabilitation, provides all the conditions for a successful recovery and rest for the clients.
Fishing is highly important in Dubica. Since, Dubica is located right on the Una River, fishing has developed into a long time tradition. People from different areas come to fish. Also the Sava is located not far from Dubica at Jasenovac, where the Una enters the Sava.
Dubica has an old tradition in sports that dates back to the early 20th century. In the 1930s Bosanska Dubica establishes a football club SK Una. After World War II, Dubica has an upsurge of different sport organizations. In 1962 the handball club Borac was established. Then on February 11, 1973, the basketball club BK Una was created. In 1982 the Karate Club Knešpolje was founded. Even today the different sports remain an important part of Dubica. There are both male and female teams for handball. Also there are a couple of karate clubs and chess clubs.
Every year outside Bosnia and Herzegovina, the annual Bosansko Dubičko Veče is held. It is a celebration that brings together displaced Bosnians (of all ethnicities) from Bosanska Dubica. The cities that hold the celebration in the United States are: Chicago and St. Louis. In Chicago it is always held on the Saturday before Memorial Day. It is hosted at the Rumija Cultural Center. Sydney, Australia, also holds the same celebration in order to gather Bosnians of Bosanska Dubica from different Australian and New Zealand areas. These are year-to-year celebrations that bring together Bosnians from Bosanska Dubica. There is work on creating a congress that would meet once every two years, in order to help young children, born outside Bosanska Dubica, retain the traditions and culture. The celebrations attract many Bosniaks, however, many Croats and Serbs too come to show their respect towards their heritage and town Bosanska Dubica, and reunite with former neighbors.
- "Systemic census of municipalities and populated places of Bosnia and Herzegovina" (PDF). Sarajevo: Agency for Statistics of Bosnia and Herzegovina. 2013. p. 7. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
- "Preliminary results of the 2013 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in Bosnia and Herzegovina" (PDF). bhas.ba. Sarajevo: Agency for Statistics of Bosnia and Herzegovina. 5 November 2013. p. 9. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
- Mitja Velikonja (2003). Religious Separation and Political Intolerance in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Texas A&M University Press. p. 259.
- "VI BILANS ZLOČINA NAD DJECOM KOZARE". Retrieved 11 January 2014.
- "Harem Gradske džamije u Bosanskoj Dubici, proglašava se nacionalnim spomenikom Bosne i Hercegovine". old.kons.gov.ba (in Bosnian). Komisija za očuvanje nacionalnih spomenika. Retrieved 31 December 2016.
- Eduard Šoštarić (14 August 2006). "Otvorena istraga zbog akcije 'Una'" [Inquiry into the Operation Una commenced] (in Croatian). Nacional (weekly). Archived from the original on 7 July 2012. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
- "Ethnic outlook of Republik of Bosnia and Herzegovina according to 1991 census (Bosanska Dubica pg. 19/20)" (PDF). fzs.ba. Retrieved 19 December 2016.