Canton 10

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Canton 10

Hercegbosanska županija[1]
Flag of Canton 10
Flag
{{{coat_alt}}}
Coat of arms
Location of Canton 10
StatusCanton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
CapitalLivno (executive)
Tomislavgrad (legislative)
Largest cityLivno
Official languagesSerbian, Bosnian, Croatian
Ethnic groups
(2013)
76.79% Croats
12.96% Serbs
9.55% Bosniaks
GovernmentParliamentary system
• Prime Minister
Ivan Jozić (HDZ BiH)
LegislatureAssembly of the Herzeg-Bosnia County
Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
• Establishment
12 June 1996
Area
• Total
4,934.1 km2 (1,905.1 sq mi)
Population
• 2013 census
84,127
• Density
17/km2 (44.0/sq mi)
GDP (nominal)2013 estimate
• Total
BAM 420.009 million
• Per capita
BAM 4629.37
CurrencyBAM
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+2 (CEST)
Date formatdd-mm-yyy
Driving sideright
a The flag and the coat of arms are accepted by the cantonal constitution, but not by the federal.

Canton 10 or Herzeg-Bosnia County[2] (Croatian: Kanton 10/Hercegbosanska županija; Bosnian: Kanton 10; Serbian Cyrillic: Кантон 10) is the largest of the cantons of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by size and eighth by population. It mainly covers an area of the historical and geographical region of Tropolje. The local government seat is in Livno, while the assembly is in Tomislavgrad.[3]

Name and symbols[edit]

In Croatian, the term županija (county) is used, while in Bosnian and Serbian the term is kanton/кантон. The canton is officially referred by the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina as Canton 10/County 10 (Kanton 10 or Županija 10).[4] The local government refers to it as the Herzeg-Bosnia County (Hercegbosanska županija) and uses that name in the local constitution.[5][6] This name was declared unconstitutional by the Constitutional Court of the Federation because "neither part of the territory of the canton belongs to Herzegovina as a region".[4] Other names used at the national level include North Herzegovina Canton/County (Sjevernohercegovački kanton, Sjevernohercegovačka županija) and Livno Canton (Livanjski kanton), after its capital.[7][8][9]

The coat of arms of the canton under its constitution is a variant of the historical Croatian coat of arms. The flag is a horizontal tricolour of red, white and blue, with the coat of arms in the middle.[10] These symbols were used by the former Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia. The West Herzegovina Canton also uses this flag and coat of arms. Their use as the official symbols of the canton was deemed unconstitutional by the Constitutional Court of the Federation, because "they only represented one constituent nation".[4] The local government continues to use the flag and the coat of arms at plates at the official institutions.[1][11]


History[edit]

Dalmatae have long resisted the Romans.

Originally occupied by the Dalmatae, the area of the Herzeg-Bosnia County is annexed in 15 AD by the Roman Empire and forms part of the Roman province of Dalmatia. After the introduction of Christianity, Delminium (Tomislavgrad) is the seat of the bishopric.

These years also see the creation of the city of Livno. In 892 was recorder the first written appearance of the name of Livno which was the seat of one of counties of the Kingdom of Croatia. The region is attached in the 9th century to the Kingdom of the Croats and later in the 14th century to the Kingdom of Bosnia. After the death of the king of Bosnia, Tvrtko I in 1391, the power of the Kingdom of Bosnia gradually declines and the region is taken over by the Kingdom of Croatia, the state and associated to the Kingdom of Hungary by a personal union.

In the sixteenth century the region was fully integrated for four centuries within the Ottoman Empire. Under the Ottoman Empire, peasants who remained Catholic or Orthodox were hostile to Turkish officials and to islamized landowners.

Assault on Livno (15 August 1878) by Karl von Blaas.

In the nineteenth century, several uprisings and rebellions against Muslim authorities erupted in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Suffering under oppression by the authorities and furious after the Muslim authorities had killed the Catholic spiritual leader of this region, Lovro Karaula, Franciscan priest, the Catholics of Livno rose up against Ottoman rule on July 20, 1875. Soon, the Catholics from across the region joined this uprising. The rebel leaders were two Franciscan priests, Stjepan Krešić and Bonaventura Šarić-Drženjak. For three years, the insurgency controlled the mountainous regions of Glamoč, Livno, Kupres and Grahovo. When the Austrian army arrived in the Livno region in 1878, the insurgents handed over their arms to the Austrians. The Austro-Hungarian troops met in this region an opposition, both of the Muslim population and the Orthodox population, fighting battles in the vicinity of Livno. The region is liberated at the end of the summer of 1878.

Austria-Hungary occupies the region militarily and Bosnia and Herzegovina after the 1878 Berlin Congress. This period is marked by important changes in the region which is industrializing and westernizing. Architecturally, many public buildings were built and many Catholic religious buildings were erected that were banned during the Ottoman era.

The Constitution of the Canton of Herceg-Bosna was adopted by the Cantonal Assembly on 19 December 1996.

Geography[edit]

The total area of the County is approximately 4,934 square kilometres (1,910 sq mi), a tenth of the surface of Bosnia-Herzegovina and c. 19% of the Federation.[12] The region is located between Dalmatia to the west, Una-Sana Canton to the north, Central Bosnia Canton to the east and West Herzegovina Canton and Herzegovina-Neretva Canton to the south and southeast.

Topography[edit]

Mountainous terrain of the region is a part of the Dinaric Alps, linked from a fold and thrust belt dating from the late Jurassic period, itself part of the Alpine orogeny, extending southeast from the southern Alps. The Dinarides form part of a chain of mountains that stretch across southern Europe and isolate Pannonian Basin from the Mediterranean Sea. The highest mountain of the Tropolje Dinarides is Mount Vran, located on the border of the municipalities of Tomislavgrad and Jablanica with the peak called Veliki Vran (Great Vran) at 2,074 metres (6,804 ft).

Highest mountains of Tropolje
Mountain Peak Elevation Coordinates
Vran Veliki Vran 2,074 m (6,804 ft) 43°40′4.8″N 17°30′18″E / 43.668000°N 17.50500°E / 43.668000; 17.50500
Vran Mali Vis 2,014 m (6,608 ft) 43°40′41.34″N 17°29′57.08″E / 43.6781500°N 17.4991889°E / 43.6781500; 17.4991889
Cincar Cincar 2,006 m (6,581 ft) 43°54′08″N 17°03′46″E / 43.90222°N 17.06278°E / 43.90222; 17.06278
Vran Crno Brdo 1,966 m (6,450 ft) 43°40′52.96″N 17°29′37.3″E / 43.6813778°N 17.493694°E / 43.6813778; 17.493694
Vran Mali Vran 1,961 m (6,434 ft) 43°39′8.8″N 17°17′27″E / 43.652444°N 17.29083°E / 43.652444; 17.29083
Vran Bijela Glava 1,949 m (6,394 ft) 43°39′34″N 17°29′56″E / 43.65944°N 17.49889°E / 43.65944; 17.49889
Vitorog Veliki Vitorog 1,907 m (6,257 ft) 44°7′12″N 17°2′45″E / 44.12000°N 17.04583°E / 44.12000; 17.04583
Golija Veliki Vrh 1,886 m (6,188 ft) 43°59′12″N 16°47′21″E / 43.98667°N 16.78917°E / 43.98667; 16.78917
Vran Priorac 1,881 m (6,171 ft) 43°39′37″N 17°28′27″E / 43.66028°N 17.47417°E / 43.66028; 17.47417
Šator Veliki Šator 1,872 m (6,142 ft) 44°9′26″N 13°35′23″E / 44.15722°N 13.58972°E / 44.15722; 13.58972

Political subdivisions[edit]

Municipalities of the Canton

Canton 10 includes 6 municipalities: Drvar, Bosansko Grahovo, Glamoč, Kupres, Livno and Tomislavgrad.

Coat of arms Municipality Population [13] Area (km2)[13]
No coats of arms.svg Bosansko Grahovo 3,091 780.0
No coats of arms.svg Drvar 7,506 1030.0
Coat of arms of Glamoč.png Glamoč 4,038 1033.6
Coat of arms of Kupres.jpg Kupres 5,573 569.8
Livno Wappen.svg Livno 37,487 994.0
Tomislavgrad-Grb.gif Tomislavgrad 33,032 967.4

Governance[edit]

The canton is governed by the Government of Canton 10 (Croatian: Vlada Hercegbosanske županije; Bosnian: Vlada Kantona 10; Serbian Cyrillic: Влада Кантона 10). The current government is a coalition of 2 parties led by Croatian Democratic Union. President of the government is Branko Ivković.[14]

Cantonal Assembly[edit]

Cantonal Assembly in Tomislavgrad

The Cantonal Assembly (Croatian: Županijska skupština, Bosnian and Serbian: Kantonalna skupština/Кантонална скупштина) is the parliament of the Canton 10. It consists of 25 representatives elected by proportional representation for four-year terms of office.

    Political party Assembly members
2002 2006 2010 2014 2018 currently
  Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ BiH) 13 5 9 9 8
8 / 25
  Croatian Democratic Union 1990 (HDZ 1990) - 6 4 4 4
4 / 25
  Alliance of Independent Social Democrats (SNSD) 3 5 3 3 3
3 / 25
  Croatian Independent List (HNL) - - - 2 3
3 / 25
  Party of Democratic Action (SDA) 2 2 2 2 2
2 / 25
  Serbian Progressive Party (SNS) - - - - 1
1 / 25
  People's Party For Work And Betterment (NSRzB) 2 1 3 2 1
1 / 25
  Cantonal Independent List (ŽNL) - - - - 1
1 / 25
  Croatian Republican Party (HRS) - - - - 1
1 / 25
  Social Democratic Party (SDP BiH) 1 1 1 1 1
1 / 25
Sources:[15][16][17][18]

Demographics[edit]

Ethnic composition of Canton 10 in 1991. Serbs in blue, Croats in orange, Muslims in green
Ethnic composition of Canton 10 in 2013. Serbs in blue, Croats in orange, Bosniaks in green
The Serbian National Folk Dance Ensemble Kolo from Glamoč

According to the 1991 census, 115.682 people inhabited the canton. Croats comprised 51.5%, Serbs comprised 35.7% and Bosnian Muslims comprised 10.4% of the population. Croats overwhelmingly lived in the southeastern part of the canton (Livno, Kupres, Tomislavgrad), while Serbs lived in northwestern (Grahovo, Glamoč, Drvar). There was a significant population migration during the war (1992–95). In 1992, Serb forces captured Kupres and the surrounding area, pushing away most of the non-Serb population. Croats returned at the end of 1994, after their forces have retaken Kupres. After Croat forces captured Grahovo, Glamoč and Drvar in the summer and fall of 1995, most of the Serb population fled. Refugee Croats from other parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina (fleeing Serb or Bosniak forces) settled in the abandoned area previously inhabited by the Serbs. After the war, under UN and peace implementation forces' pressure, Serb refugees returned to their homes.

In 2013, Canton's population included 76.79% Croats, 12.96% Serbs and 9.55% Bosniaks. Canton 10 had the largest share of ethnic Serbs in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. However, their number has steadily decreased since the war.

1991 Census[edit]

Municipality Nationality
Total
Croats
%
Serbs
%
Bosniaks
%
Other
%
Livno 29,324 72.22 3,913 9.63 5,793 14.26 1,570 3.87 40,600
Tomislavgrad 25,976 86.56 576 1.91 3,148 10.49 309 1.02 30,009
Glamoč 184 1.46 9,951 79.02 2,257 17.92 201 1.58 12,593
Kupres 3,812 43.19 4,081 46.23 802 9.08 131 1.47 8,826
Bosansko Grahovo 226 2.71 7,888 94.91 12 0.14 185 2.22 8,311
Drvar 31 0.20 14,846 96.76 29 0.18 437 2.86 15,343
Canton 59,553 51.48 41,255 35.66 12,041 10.41 2,833 2.45 115,682

2013 Census[edit]

Municipality Nationality
Total
Croats
%
Serbs
%
Bosniaks
%
Other
%
Livno 29,273 85.76 438 1.28 4,047 11.85 216 0.63 34,133
Tomislavgrad 29,006 91.81 22 0.06 2,467 7.80 30 0.09 31,592
Glamoč 906 23.47 1,679 43.49 1,251 32.40 13 0.33 3,860
Kupres 4,474 88.47 318 6.28 255 5.04 5 0.09 5,057
Bosansko Grahovo 393 16.04 2,028 82.80 6 0.24 10 0.40 2,449
Drvar 552 7.08 6,420 91.24 11 0.15 24 0.34 7,036
Canton 64,604 76.79 10,905 12.96 8,037 9.55 298 0.35 84,127

Economy[edit]

Touristic map of the canton 10

The canton has significant natural resources, with large reserves of coal and timber, as well as hydro & wind power. Due to economic reasons (insufficient county revenues compared to expenses) unification with West Herzegovina County has been proposed.[19][20]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Naslovna - Ministarstvo unutranjih poslova Kantona 10". mupk10livno.com (in Croatian and Bosnian). Ministarstvo unutranjih poslova K10. Retrieved 19 July 2018.
  2. ^ "Ustav Hercegbosanske županije" (PDF) (in Croatian). Government of the Herzeg-Bosnia County. 23 December 1996. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-12-18. Retrieved 28 July 2012.
  3. ^ www.skupstinahbz.com. "Skupština Hercegbosanske županije". www.skupstinahbz.com. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
  4. ^ a b c "U-11/97". Archived from the original on 2008-04-19. Retrieved 2009-06-08.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  5. ^ "hbzup.com". www.hbzup.com. Archived from the original on 2007-07-16. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
  6. ^ "Vlada Hercegbosanske županije". www.vladahbz.com. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
  7. ^ "Utopio se pijan plivajući u Buškom jezeru". sarajevo-x.com. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
  8. ^ "mediainfo.ba - Livanjski kanton: Do 2010. godine biće izgrađene prve vjetrenjače". mediainfo.ba. Archived from the original on 2009-02-01. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
  9. ^ "24sata.info - Livanjski kanton: Ministar zdravlja Darko Horvat lomio po kafani!". 24sata.info. Archived from the original on 2011-07-28. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
  10. ^ "Ustav - Vlada Hercegbosanske županije" (PDF). Vlada Hercegbosanske županije. 12 October 2005. p. 3.
  11. ^ "Sporna obilježja na grbovima BiH". Al Jazeera Balkans. 23 April 2015.
  12. ^ http://www.fzs.ba/Podaci/OSNOVNE%2520INFO%252010b.htm
  13. ^ a b (in Bosnian)(in Croatian) "PRELIMINARY RESULTS Of the 2013 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in Bosnia and Herzegovina" (PDF). www.bhas.ba/. Agency for Statistics of Bosnia and Herzegovina. 5 November 2013. Retrieved 28 January 2014.
  14. ^ "Government of Herzeg-Bosnia County". vladahbz.com (in Croatian). Government of Canton 10. Archived from the original on 7 December 2013. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  15. ^ "Verified results of the 2010 general elections: The Cantonal Assemblies in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Canton 10". izbori.ba. Central Election Commission of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Archived from the original on 5 November 2010. Retrieved 30 May 2013.
  16. ^ "210-Skupština kantona 10 (210-Assembly of Canton 10)". izbori.ba (in Bosnian). Central Election Commission of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Retrieved 30 May 2013.
  17. ^ "Opći izbori-konačni rezultati (General elections-final results)" (PDF). izbori.ba (in Croatian). Central Election Commission of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Retrieved 30 May 2013.
  18. ^ "Opći izbori-konačni rezultati (General elections-final results)". izbori.ba. Central Election Commission of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Retrieved 24 October 2018.
  19. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-07-06. Retrieved 2009-07-28.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  20. ^ Monitor - portal za svaki dan - Offline

External links[edit]