China–Iraq relations

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China-Iraqi relations
Map indicating locations of China and Iraq



China–Iraq relations is the bilateral relationship between China and Iraq. Relations between both countries still remain very close and friendly.[citation needed] Iraq is a major destination for Chinese investment in the Middle East and China is the biggest buyer of Iraqi oil.[1]


Embassy of Iraq in China

Chinese Muslims fought against Japan in World War II. In order to gain backing for China in Muslim countries, Egypt, Syria, and Turkey was visited by Hui Muslim 馬賦良[2] Ma Fuliang and Uyghur Muslim Isa Yusuf Alptekin in 1939.[3] The Hindu leaders Tagore and Gandhi and Muslim Jinnah both discussed the war with the Chinese Muslim delegation under Ma Fuliang while in Turkey İsmet İnönü met with the Chinese Muslim delegation.[4] Newspapers in China reported the visit.[5] Ma Fuliang and Isa were working for Zhu Jiahua.[6]

The bombardment of Chinese Muslims by the warplanes of the Japanese was reported in the newspapers of Syria. Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Lebanon were all toured by the delegation. The Foreign Minister, Prime Minister, and President of Turkey met with the Chinese Muslim delegation after they came via Egypt in May 1939. Gandhi and Jinnah met with the Hui Ma Fuliang and Uyghur Isa Alptekin as they denounced Japan.[7]

Ma Fuliang, Isa Alptekin, Wang Zengshan, Xue Wenbo, and Lin Zhongming all went to Egypt to denounce Japan in front of the Arab and Islamic words.[8]

Relations between Iraq and China were established after the revolution of 1958 which overthrew the monarchy and established a republic. Relations between the two countries were formally established on August 25, 1958.[9] During the 1960s relations between the two countries were strengthened as Iraq had purchased many Soviet and Chinese weapons during the Six-Day War and the Yom Kippur War with Israel. But also during this time there was chaos because the Iraqi government had gone through several military coups and attempted coups. In 1971 Iraq supported China's bid for a permanent seat in the United Nations and it voted in favour to admit Beijing and replace Taipei.[10] During the Iran–Iraq War from 1980 to 1988 China was one of the main suppliers to all sides in the war. In fact, China had played both sides during the war and had sent arms to both Iran and Iraq.[11]

During the Persian Gulf War of 1991 China had condemned Iraq's invasion of Kuwait and had strongly supported the military action by the Coalition. But after the Gulf War China was found by American officials to have violated the United Nations Resolutions on the Gulf War and that China was beginning to rearm Iraq[12]

Recent history[edit]

China had strongly opposed the 2003 Iraq War and along with France, Germany and Russia had strongly condemned the invasion and occupation and had called for a withdrawal of all forces from the country. All four countries united against the United States and the United Kingdom and had refused to contribute any troops to Iraq unless there was a United Nations mandate.[13] Despite the opposition to the U.S. invasion and occupation of the country China emerged as one of the biggest winners of Iraq's oil contracts. Chinese and Russian companies had emerged as the biggest winners in the bid for Iraq's oil. Chinese companies were willing to operate on 20 year fee based contracts, which offered lower profit margins than Western companies desired.[14]

In 2008, China's CNPC has become the first foreign company to sign an oil production deal with the Iraqi government since the 2003 U.S.-led invasion. The deal sets new terms for an agreement reached between China and Iraq under Saddam Hussein in 1997.[15] In 2009, CNPC partnered with BP, winning a service contract to develop Iraq's Rumaila oil field, the largest oilfield in Iraq.[16]

In 2013 China bought nearly half of Iraqi oil production, nearly 1.5 million barrels a day.[17]

In 2015, Iraq imported armed drone technology from China, spurred on battlefield reversals in Mosul and Ramadi to ISIL.[18]

In July 2019, UN ambassadors from 50 countries, including Iraq, signed a joint letter to the UNHRC defending China's treatment of Uyghurs and other Muslim minority groups in the Xinjiang region.[19]

In June 2020, Iraq was one of 53 countries that backed the Hong Kong national security law at the United Nations.[20]

In 2021, China signed a deal to build 1,000 schools in Iraq in exchange for Iraqi oil.[21]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Zhou, Laura (19 December 2021). "China signs deal to build 1,000 schools in Iraq as Beijing pushes for greater role in Middle East after US withdrawals". South China Morning Post.
  2. ^ Hsiao-ting Lin (13 September 2010). Modern China's Ethnic Frontiers: A Journey to the West. Routledge. pp. 126–. ISBN 978-1-136-92393-7.
  3. ^ Hsiao-ting Lin (4 August 2010). Modern China's Ethnic Frontiers: A Journey to the West. Taylor & Francis. pp. 90–. ISBN 978-0-203-84497-7.Hsiao-ting Lin (13 September 2010). Modern China's Ethnic Frontiers: A Journey to the West. Routledge. pp. 90–. ISBN 978-1-136-92392-0.Hsiao-ting Lin (13 September 2010). Modern China's Ethnic Frontiers: A Journey to the West. Routledge. pp. 90–. ISBN 978-1-136-92393-7.
  4. ^ "回族知识条目|中国回族文献库". Archived from the original on 2016-09-19. Retrieved 2016-08-24.
  5. ^ "歡迎艾沙馬賦良 暨近東各國新疆歸國學生 葉朱二氏昨舉行茶會 :: 民國38年前重要剪報資料庫". Retrieved 22 April 2018.
  6. ^ "国民党派系在青海的斗争". Archived from the original on 2016-05-13. Retrieved 2016-08-24.
  7. ^ xzbu论文网. "西北回族在抗战中的贡献". Archived from the original on 27 August 2017. Retrieved 22 April 2018.
  8. ^ xzbu论文网. "中国首批留埃学生林仲明". Retrieved 22 April 2018.
  9. ^ Energy First - China and the Middle East dictated by her thirst for oil Archived 2009-12-13 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-01-05. Retrieved 2017-07-05.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  11. ^ "The Hour - Google News Archive Search". Retrieved 22 April 2018.
  12. ^ "U.S. to China: Improve human rights to mend ties". Retrieved 22 April 2018.
  13. ^ Commentary: Will the World Pattern Change?
  14. ^ Escobar, Pepe (16 December 2009). "Iraq's oil auction hits the jackpot". Asia Times. Archived from the original on 18 December 2009. Retrieved 20 August 2014.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  15. ^ Goode, Erica; Mohammed, Riyadh (2008-08-29). "Iraq Signs Oil Deal With China Worth Up to $3 Billion". The New York Times. Retrieved 2020-01-01.
  16. ^ Rasheed, Ahmed (2009-10-03). "China's CNPC ups, BP lowers stake in Iraq oil deal". Reuters. Retrieved 2020-01-01.
  17. ^ Arango, Tim; Krauss, Clifford (2 June 2013). "China Is Reaping Biggest Benefits of Iraq Oil Boom". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 August 2014.
  18. ^ "China helps Iraq military enter drone era". BBC. 12 October 2015.
  19. ^ "The Pro-Xinjiang Contingent". Wired. 28 July 2019.
  20. ^ Lawler, Dave (2 July 2020). "The 53 countries supporting China's crackdown on Hong Kong". Axios. Retrieved 3 July 2020.
  21. ^ "China signs deal to build 1,000 model schools in Iraq". Global Construction Review. 17 December 2021.

External links[edit]