This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The bilateral relations between the People's Republic of China and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Chinese: 中越关系, Vietnamese: Quan hệ Trung Quốc–Việt Nam) have been turbulent, despite their common Sinospheric and socialist background. Centuries of conquest by modern China's imperial predecessor have given Vietnam an entrenched suspicion of Chinese attempts to dominate it. Though the PRC assisted North Vietnam during the Vietnam War, relations between the two nations soured following Vietnam's reunification in 1975. China and Vietnam fought a prolonged border war from 1979 to 1990, but have since worked to improve their diplomatic and economic ties. However, the two countries remain in dispute over territorial issues in the South China Sea. China and Vietnam share a 1,281-kilometre border. A 2014 survey conducted by the Pew Research Center showed 84% of Vietnamese were concerned that territorial disputes between China and neighbouring countries could lead to a military conflict.
China and Vietnam had contact since the Chinese Warring States period and the Vietnamese Thục Dynasty in the 3rd century BC, as noted in the 15th-century Vietnamese historical record Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư. Between the 1st century BC and the 15th century AD, Vietnam was subject to four separate periods of imperial Chinese domination although it successfully asserted a degree of independence after the Battle of Bạch Đằng in 938 AD.
According to the old Vietnamese historical records Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư and Khâm Định Việt Sử Thông Giám Cương Mục, An Dương Vương (Thục Phán) was a prince of the Chinese state of Shu (蜀, which shares the same Chinese character as his surname Thục), sent by his father first to explore what are now the southern Chinese provinces of Guangxi and Yunnan and then to move their people to what is now northern Vietnam during the invasion of the Qin dynasty.
Some modern Vietnamese scholars[who?] believe that Thục Phán came upon Âu Việt, which is now northernmost Vietnam, western Guangdong, and southern Guangxi Province, with its capital in what is today Cao Bằng Province). After assembling an army, he defeated King Hùng Vương XVIII, the last ruler of the Hồng Bàng Dynasty, in 258 BC. He proclaimed himself An Dương Vương ("King An Dương"), renamed his newly-acquired state from Văn Lang to Âu Lạc and established the new capital at Phong Khê (now Phú Thọ, a town in northern Vietnam), where he tried to build Cổ Loa Citadel, the spiral fortress approximately ten miles north of his new capital.
Han Chinese migration into Vietnam has been dated back to the era of the 2nd century BC, when Qin Shi Huang first placed northern Vietnam under Chinese rule, Chinese soldiers and fugitives from Central China have migrated en masse into northern Vietnam since then and introduced Chinese influences into Vietnamese culture. The Chinese military leader Zhao Tuo founded the Triệu dynasty, which ruled Nanyue in southern China and northern Vietnam. The Qin governor of Canton advised Zhao to found his own independent kingdom since the area was remote, and there were many Chinese settlers in the area. The Chinese prefect of Jiaozhi, Shi Xie, ruled Vietnam as an autonomous warlord and was posthumously defied by later Vietnamese emperors. Shi Xie was the leader of the elite ruling class of Han Chinese families that immigrated to Vietnam and played a major role in developing Vietnam's culture.
After Vietnam regained it's independence, a series of wars between China and Vietnam occurred in which the Vietnam, at its peak, invaded China once, during the Lý–Song War, which the Lý Army raided into China and even occupied what is now Guangxi and Guangdong, in China. That would be the major factor for the later conflict between China and Vietnam. The Ming dynasty invaded Vietnam and occupied it in what would be the Fourth Millennium, only to be defeated by the army of rebel leader Lê Lợi, who later founded the Later Lê Dynasty in Vietnam. The Qing dynasty had also attempted to conquer Vietnam but was defeated by Emperor Quang Trung at 1789, who had also attempted to conquer China but died before that could be carried out.
In 1884, during Vietnam's Nguyễn Dynasty, the Qing dynasty and France fought the Sino-French War, which ended in a Chinese defeat. The Treaty of Tientsin recognized French dominance in Vietnam and Indochina, spelling the end of formal Chinese influence on Vietnam and the beginning of Vietnam's French colonial period.
Both China and Vietnam faced invasion and occupation by Imperial Japan during World War II, and Vietnam languished under the rule of Vichy France. In the Chinese provinces of Guangxi and Guangdong, Vietnamese revolutionaries, led by Phan Bội Châu, had arranged alliances with the Chinese Nationalists, the Kuomintang, before the war by marrying Vietnamese women to Chinese officers. Their children were at an advantage since they could speak both languages and so they worked as agents for the revolutionaries, spreading their ideologies across borders. The intermarriage between Chinese and Vietnamese was viewed with alarm by the French. Chinese merchants also married Vietnamese women and provided funds and help for revolutionary agents.
Late in the war, with Japan and Nazi Germany nearing defeat, US President Franklin Roosevelt privately decided that the French should not return in Indochina after the war was over. Roosevelt offered the Kuomintang leader, Chiang Kai-shek, all of Indochina to be under Chinese rule, but Chiang Kai-shek reportedly replied, "Under no circumstances!" In August 1943, China broke diplomatic relations with Vichy France, with the Central Daily News announcing that diplomatic relations were to be solely between the Chinese and the Vietnamese, with no French intermediary. China had planned to spread massive propaganda on the Atlantic Charter and Roosevelt's statement on Vietnamese self-determination to undermine the French authority in Indochina.
According to a 2018 study in the Journal of Conflict Resolution on Vietnam-China relations from 1365 to 1841, they could be characterized as a "hierarchic tributary system" from 1365 to 1841. The study found that "the Vietnamese court explicitly recognized its unequal status in its relations with China through a number of institutions and norms. Vietnamese rulers also displayed very little military attention to their relations with China. Rather, Vietnamese leaders were clearly more concerned with quelling chronic domestic instability and managing relations with kingdoms to their south and west." However, decades of conflicts between China and Vietnam during the era, with Vietnamese attacks on China's allies, would challenge that claim.
After the Second World War ended, a United Nations mandate, had 200,000 Chinese troops, led by General Lu Han, sent by Chiang Kai-shek to Indochina north of the 16th parallel with the aim of accepting the surrender of the Japanese occupying forces. The troops remained in Indochina until 1946. The Chinese used the VNQDD, the Vietnamese version of the Chinese Kuomintang, to increase their influence in Indochina and to put pressure on their opponents. Chiang Kai-shek threatened the French with war to force them to negotiate with the Vietminh leader Ho Chi Minh. In February 1946, Chiang forced the French colonists to surrender all of their concessions in China and to renounce their extraterritorial privileges in exchange for withdrawing from northern Indochina and for allowing French troops to reoccupy the region.
Along with the Soviet Union, Communist China was an important strategic ally of North Vietnam during the Vietnam War. The Chinese Communist Party provided arms, military training and essential supplies to help the communist North defeat capitalist South Vietnam and its ally, the United States, between 1954 and 1975. During 1964 to 1969, Communist China reportedly sent over 300,000 troops, mostly in anti-aircraft divisions to combat in Vietnam. However, the Vietnamese communists remained suspicious of China's perceived attempts to increase its influence over Vietnam.
Vietnam was an ideological battleground during the 1960s Sino-Soviet split. After the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin incident, Chinese Premier Deng Xiaoping secretly promised the North Vietnamese 1 billion yuan in military and economic aid if they refused all Soviet aid.
During the Vietnam War, the North Vietnamese and the Chinese had agreed to defer tackling their territorial issues until South Vietnam was defeated. Those issues included the lack of delineation of Vietnam's territorial waters in the Gulf of Tonkin and the question of sovereignty over the Paracel and Spratly Islands in the South China Sea. During the 1950s, half of the Paracels were controlled by China and the rest by South Vietnam. In 1958, North Vietnam accepted China's claim to the Paracels and relinquished its own claim; one year earlier, China had ceded White Dragon Tail Island to North Vietnam. The potential of offshore oil deposits in the Gulf of Tonkin heightened tensions between China and South Vietnam. In 1960, China became the first country to recognise the Viet Cong in Vietnam. In 1973, with the Vietnam War drawing to a close, North Vietnam announced its intention to allow foreign companies to explore oil deposits in disputed waters. In January 1974, a clash between Chinese and South Vietnamese forces resulted in China taking complete control of the Paracels. After its absorption of South Vietnam in 1975, North Vietnam took over the South Vietnamese-controlled portions of the Spratly Islands. The unified Vietnam then canceled its earlier renunciation of its claim to the Paracels, and both China and Vietnam claim control over all the Spratlys and actually control some of the islands.
Sino-Vietnamese conflicts 1979–1990
In the wake of the Vietnam War, the Cambodian–Vietnamese War caused tensions with China, which had allied itself with Democratic Kampuchea. That and Vietnam's close ties to the Soviet Union made China consider Vietnam to be a threat to its regional sphere of influence. Tensions were heightened in the 1970s by the Vietnamese government's oppression of the Hoa minority: Vietnamese of Chinese ethnicity. and the invasion of Khmer Rouge held Cambodia. At the same time, Vietnam expressed its disapproval with China strengthening ties with the United States since the Nixon-Mao Summit of 1972. By 1978, China ended its aid to Vietnam, which had signed a treaty of friendship with the Soviet Union and established extensive commercial and military ties.
On February 17, 1979, the Chinese People's Liberation Army crossed the Vietnamese border but withdrew on March 5, after a two-week campaign had devastated northern Vietnam and briefly threatened the Vietnamese capital, Hanoi. Both sides suffered relatively heavy losses, with thousands of casualties. Subsequent peace talks broke down in December 1979, and China and Vietnam began a major buildup of forces along the border. Vietnam fortified its border towns and districts and stationed as many as 600,000 troops. China stationed 400,000 troops on its side of the border. Sporadic fighting on the border occurred throughout the 1980s, and China threatened to launch another attack to force Vietnam's exit from Cambodia.
With the 1991 dissolution of the Soviet Union and Vietnam's 1990 exit from Cambodia, Sino-Vietnamese ties began to improve. Both nations planned the normalization of their relations in a secret summit in Chengdu in September 1990, and officially normalized ties in November 1991. Since 1991, the leaders and high-ranking officials of both nations have exchanged visits. China and Vietnam both recognized and supported the post-1991 government of Cambodia, and supported each other's bid to join the World Trade Organization (WTO). In 1999, the General Secretary of the Communist Party of Vietnam, Le Kha Phieu, visited Beijing, where he met General Secretary of the Communist Party of China Jiang Zemin and announced a joint 16 Word Guideline for improved bilateral relations; a Joint Statement for Comprehensive Cooperation was issued in 2000. In 2000, Vietnam and China successfully resolved longstanding disputes over their land border and maritime rights in the Gulf of Tonkin, including the cession of land surrounding the Friendship Pass to China. A joint agreement between China and ASEAN in 2002 marked out a process of peaceful resolution and guarantees against armed conflict. In 2002, Jiang Zemin made an official visit to Vietnam in which numerous agreements were signed to expand trade and co-operation and to resolve outstanding disputes.
After both sides resumed trade links in 1991, growth in annual bilateral trade increased from only US$32 million in 1991 to almost US$7.2 billion in 2004. By 2011, the trade volume had reached US$25 billion. It is predicted that China will become Vietnam's largest single trading partner, overtaking the United States, by 2030. China's transformation into a major economic power in the 21st century has led to an increase of foreign investments in the bamboo network, a network of Overseas Chinese businesses operating in the markets of Southeast Asia that share common family and cultural ties.
Vietnam's exports to China include crude oil, coal, coffee, and food, and China exports pharmaceuticals, machinery, petroleum, fertilizers, and automobile parts to Vietnam. China has become Vietnam's second-largest trading partner and the largest source of imports. Both nations are working to establish an "economic corridor" from China's Yunnan Province to Vietnam's northern provinces and cities and similar economic zones linking China's Guangxi Province with Vietnam's Lạng Sơn and Quang Ninh Provinces, and the cities of Hanoi and Haiphong. Air and sea links and a railway line have been opened between the countries, along with national-level seaports in the frontier provinces and regions of the two countries. Joint ventures have furthermore been launched, such as the Thai Nguyen Steel Complex, but the deal eventually fell through, resulting in the bankruptcy of state-owned Thai Nguyen Iron and Steel VSC and the withdrawal of the China Metallurgical Group Corporation from the project .
Chinese investments in Vietnam have been rising since 2015, reaching US$2.17 billion in 2017.
In 2018, protesters went on the streets in Vietnam against government plans to open new special economic zones, including one in Quang Ninh, near the Chinese border, which would allow 99-year land leases, citing concerns about Chinese dominance.
Rekindled tensions over maritime territory
In June 2011, Vietnam announced that its military would conduct new exercises in the South China Sea. China had previously voiced its disagreement over Vietnamese oil exploration in the area, stating that the Spratly Islands and the surrounding waters were its sovereign territory. Defense of the South China Sea was cited as one of the possible missions of the first Chinese aircraft carrier, the Liaoning, which entered service in September 2012.
In October 2011, Nguyễn Phú Trọng, the General Secretary of the Communist Party of Vietnam, made an official visit to China at the invitation of General Secretary of the Communist Party of China Hu Jintao with the aim of improving relations in the wake of the border disputes. However, on 21 June 2012, Vietnam passed a law entitled the "Law on the Sea", which placed both the Spratly Islands and the Paracel Islands under Vietnamese jurisdiction, prompting China to label the move as "illegal and invalid." Simultaneously, China passed a law establishing the prefecture of Sansha City, which encompassed the Xisha (Paracel), Zhongsha, and Nansha (Spratly) Islands and the surrounding waters. Vietnam proceeded to a strong opposion to the measure and the reaffirmation of its sovereignty over the islands. Other countries surrounding the South China Sea have claims to the two island chains, including Taiwan, Brunei, Malaysia, and the Philippines, but the conflict remains predominantly between Vietnam and China.
In May 2013 Vietnam accused China of hitting one of its fishing boats, and in May 2014, Vietnam accused China of ramming and sinking a fishing boat. Indeed, in recent years, Beijing oversaw the replacement of traditional Chinese wooden fishing vessels with steel-hulled trawlers, fitted with modern communication and high-tech navigation systems. The better-equipped boats sailed into the disputed waters as a state-directed effort to extend Chinese sovereignty, while in Vietnam, private citizens, not the government, would donate to Vietnamese fishermen to maintain their position in the South China Sea and to defend national sovereignty. That dynamic continues to be a major source of tension between the two countries.
In June 2014, China declared there would be no military conflict with Vietnam as the two were sparring over an oil rig in disputed territory in the South China Sea. China then had 71 ships in the disputed area, and Vietnam had 61.
In 2017, Beijing warned Hanoi that it would attack Vietnamese bases in the Spratly Islands if gas drilling continued in the area. Hanoi then ordered Spain's Repsol, whose subsidiary was conducting the drilling, to stop drilling.
- List of ambassadors of China to Vietnam
- List of ambassadors of Vietnam to China
- History of China
- History of Vietnam
- Sino-Vietnamese Wars (disambiguation)
- Poland–Russia relations, sometimes regarded as a close analogy to Sino–Vietnamese relations
- "Vietnam - China". U.S. Library of Congress. Retrieved 3 June 2008.
- Forbes, Andrew. "Why Vietnam Loves and Hates China". Asia Times. 26 April 2007. Retrieved 15 March 2013.
- "China: The Country to the North". Forbes, Andrew, and Henley, David (2012). Vietnam Past and Present: The North. Chiang Mai: Cognoscenti Books. ASIN: B006DCCM9Q.
- "Q&A: South China Sea dispute". BBC. 22 January 2013. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
- "Chapter 4: How Asians View Each Other". Pew Research Center. 2014-07-14. Retrieved 10 October 2015.
- Taylor, K.W. (1991). The Birth of Vietnam. University of California Press. p. 19. ISBN 9780520074170. Retrieved 12 May 2015.
- Chapuis, O. (1995). A History of Vietnam: From Hong Bang to Tu Duc. Greenwood Press. p. 13. ISBN 9780313296222. Retrieved 12 May 2015.
- Long Le (February 8, 2008). "Chinese Colonial Diasporas (207 B.C.-939 A.D.)". University of Houston Bauer The Global Viet. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
- Long Le (January 30, 2008). "Colonial Diasporas & Traditional Vietnamese Society". University of Houston Bauer The Global Viet. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
- Taylor, K.W. (1991). The Birth of Vietnam. University of California Press. p. 23. ISBN 9780520074170. Retrieved 12 May 2015.
- Taylor, K.W. (1991). The Birth of Vietnam. University of California Press. p. 70. ISBN 9780520074170. Retrieved 12 May 2015.
- Christopher E. Goscha (1999). Thailand and the Southeast Asian networks of the Vietnamese revolution, 1885-1954. Psychology Press. p. 39. ISBN 0-7007-0622-4.
- Barbara Wertheim Tuchman (1985). The march of folly: from Troy to Vietnam. Random House, Inc. p. 235. ISBN 0-345-30823-9.
- Liu, Xiaoyuan (2010). "Recast China's Role in Vietnam". Recast All Under Heaven: Revolution, War, Diplomacy, and Frontier China in the 20th Century. Continuum. pp. 66, 69, 74, 78.
- Kang, David C.; Nguyen, Dat X.; Fu, Ronan Tse-min; Shaw, Meredith (2019). "War, Rebellion, and Intervention under Hierarchy: Vietnam–China Relations, 1365 to 1841". Journal of Conflict Resolution. 63 (4): 896–922. doi:10.1177/0022002718772345.
- Larry H. Addington (2000). America's war in Vietnam: a short narrative history. Indiana University Press. p. 30. ISBN 0-253-21360-6.
- Peter Neville (2007). Britain in Vietnam: prelude to disaster, 1945-6. Psychology Press. p. 119. ISBN 978-0-415-35848-4.
- Van Nguyen Duong (2008). The tragedy of the Vietnam War: a South Vietnamese officer's analysis. McFarland. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-7864-3285-1.
- Stein Tønnesson (2010). Vietnam 1946: how the war began. University of California Press. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-520-25602-6.
- Elizabeth Jane Errington (1990). The Vietnam War as history: edited by Elizabeth Jane Errington and B.J.C. McKercher. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 63. ISBN 0-275-93560-4.
- "The Vietnam War: Seeds of Conflict 1945–1960". The History Place. 1999. Retrieved 10 November 2012.
- "China-Vietnam Bilateral Relations". Sina.com. 28 August 2005. Retrieved 3 June 2008.
- "CHINA ADMITS COMBAT IN VIETNAM WAR". Washington Post. 17 May 1989. Retrieved 2 October 2018.
- Cole, Bernard D (2012). The Great Wall at Sea: China's Navy in the Twenty-First Century (2 ed.). Naval Institute Press. p. 27.
- Frivel, M. Taylor. "Offshore Island Disputes". Strong Borders, Secure Nation: Cooperation and Conflict in China's Territorial Disputes. Princeton University Press. pp. 267–299.
- Womack, Brantly (2006). China and Vietnam: Politics of Asymmetry. Cambridge University Press. pp. 26–28. ISBN 0-521-85320-6.
- "Chinese invasion of Vietnam". Global Security.org. Retrieved 3 June 2008.
- "In Westminster, an Internet Bid to Restore Viet Land". latimes. Retrieved 27 June 2015.
- "China, Vietnam find love". Asia Times. 21 July 2005. Retrieved 3 June 2008.
- "China, Vietnam Seek Ways to Improve Bilateral Relations". China Radio International. 5 October 2011. Retrieved 1 January 2013.
- "China to become Viet Nam's largest trading partner". Viet Nam News. 29 March 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
- Quinlan, Joe (November 13, 2007). "Insight: China's capital targets Asia's bamboo network". Financial Times.
- Murray L Weidenbaum (1 January 1996). The Bamboo Network: How Expatriate Chinese Entrepreneurs are Creating a New Economic Superpower in Asia. Martin Kessler Books, Free Press. pp. 4–8. ISBN 978-0-684-82289-1.
- email@example.com. "State owned Thai Nguyen Iron and Steel faces bankruptcy in Vietnam". SteelGuru India. Retrieved 2020-02-10.
- Nguyen T.H.K.; et al. (May 26, 2018). "The "same bed, different dreams" of Vietnam and China: how (mis)trust could make or break it". Thanh Tay University. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
- Editorial, Reuters (2018-06-10). "Vietnam police halt protests against new economic zones". Reuters.
- "Vietnamese see special economic zones as assault from China". 2018-06-07.
- AP via Chron.com. "Vietnam Plans Live-fire Drill after China Dispute". 10 June 2011. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
- "China’s Navy passes first aircraft-carrier into service" Archived 2012-09-30 at the Wayback Machine. Voice of Russia. 25 September 2012. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
- "Vietnam slams 'absurd' China protest over islands". gulfnews.com. 23 June 2012. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
- "China announces creating Sansha city". ChinaBeijing.org. 24 June 2012. Archived from the original on 14 April 2013. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
- "Vietnam breaks up anti-China protests". BBC. 9 December 2012. Retrieved 9 December 2012.
- "Vietnam Accuses Chinese Vessel of Hitting Its Fishing Boat". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
- "Hanoi Says Chinese Ships Ram, Sink Vietnamese Fishing Boat". Vietnam Tribune. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
- Roszko, Edyta (December 2016). "Fishers and Territorial Anxieties in China and Vietnam: Narratives of the South China Sea Beyond the Frame of the Nation" (PDF). Cross-Currents: East Asian History and Culture Review. 21: 25.
- "China rebuts Vietnam charge of it forcing territorial dispute". China News. Net. Retrieved 13 June 2014.
- Chandran, Nyshka (July 24, 2017). "China reportedly threatens Vietnam into ending energy exploration in South China Sea". CNBC.
- Hayton, Bill (July 24, 2017). "Vietnam halts South China Sea drilling". BBC News – via www.bbc.com.
- "A China-Vietnam Military Clash". Council on Foreign Relations.
|Library resources about |
- Andaya, Barbara Watson. (2006). The Flaming Womb: Repositioning Women in Early Modern Southeast Asia (illustrated ed.). University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0824829557. Retrieved 7 August 2013.
- Cardenal, Juan Pablo; Araújo, Heriberto (2011). La silenciosa conquista china (in Spanish). Barcelona: Crítica. pp. 230–232, 258ff. ISBN 9788498922578.
- Cœdès, George. (1966). The Making of South East Asia (illustrated, reprint ed.). University of California Press. ISBN 0520050614. Retrieved 7 August 2013.
- Dardess, John W. (2012). Ming China, 1368-1644: A Concise History of a Resilient Empire. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 1442204907. Retrieved 7 August 2013.
- Hall, Kenneth R., ed. (2008). Secondary Cities and Urban Networking in the Indian Ocean Realm, C. 1400-1800. Volume 1 of Comparative urban studies. Lexington Books. ISBN 0739128353. Retrieved 7 August 2013.
- Le Hong Hiep (December 2013). "Vietnam's Hedging Strategy against China since Normalization". Contemporary Southeast Asia. 35 (3): 333–368. doi:10.1355/cs35-3b.
- Taylor, K. W. (2013). A History of the Vietnamese (illustrated ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521875862. Retrieved 7 August 2013.
- Taylor, Keith Weller. (1983). The Birth of Vietnam (illustrated, reprint ed.). University of California Press. ISBN 0520074173. Retrieved 7 August 2013.
- Tsai, Shih-shan Henry. (1996). The Eunuchs in the Ming Dynasty (illustrated ed.). SUNY Press. ISBN 1438422369. Retrieved 7 August 2013.
- Zhang, Xiaoming. Deng Xiaoping's Long War : The Military Conflict Between China and Vietnam, 1979-1991 (U of North Carolina Press 2015)