Colonial empires first emerged with a race of exploration between the then most advanced European maritime powers, Portugal and Spain, during the 15th century. The initial impulse behind these dispersed maritime empires and those that followed was trade, driven by the new ideas and the capitalism that grew out of the European Renaissance. Agreements were also made to divide the world up between them in 1479, 1493, and 1494. European imperialism was born out of competition between European Christians and Ottoman Muslims, the latter of which rose up quickly in the 14th century and forced the Spanish and Portuguese to seek new trade routes to India, and to a lesser extent, China.
Although colonies existed in classical antiquity, especially amongst the Phoenicians and the Ancient Greeks who settled many islands and coasts of the Mediterranean Sea, these colonies were politically independent from the city-states they originated from, and thus did not constitute a colonial empire.
European colonial empires
Portugal began establishing the first global trade network and empire under the leadership of Henry the Navigator. The empire spread throughout a vast number of territories distributed across the globe (especially at one time in the 16th century) that are now parts of 60 different sovereign states. Portugal would eventually control Brazil, territories such as what is now Uruguay and some fishing ports in north, in the Americas; Angola, Mozambique, Portuguese Guinea, and São Tomé and Príncipe (among other territories and bases) in the North and the Subsaharan Africa; cities, forts or territories in all the Asian Subcontinents, as Muscat, Ormus and Bahrain (amongst other bases) in the Persian Gulf; Goa, Bombay and Daman and Diu (amongst other coastal cities) in India; Portuguese Ceylon; Malacca, bases in Southeast Asia and Oceania, as Makassar, Solor, Banda, Ambon and others in the Moluccas, Portuguese Timor; and the granted entrepôt-base of Macau and the entrepôt-enclave of Dejima (Nagasaki) in East Asia, amongst other smaller or short-lived possessions.
During its Siglo de Oro, the Spanish Empire had possession of the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Italy, parts of Germany, parts of France, and many colonies in the Americas, Africa, and Asia. With the conquest of inland Mexico (Cortez), South America (Pizarro), and the Philippines in the 16th century, Spain established overseas dominions on a scale that had never been approached by its predecessors (the Mongol Empire had been larger but was restricted to Eurasia), and with the Iberian Union (1580), reached the widest scale in history until then in world distribution. Possessions in Europe, Africa, the Atlantic Ocean, the Americas, the Pacific Ocean, and East Asia qualified the Spanish Empire as attaining a global presence.
From 1580 to 1640 the Portuguese Empire and the Spanish Empire were conjoined in a personal union of its Habsburg monarchs during the period of the Iberian Union, but beneath the highest level of government, their separate administrations were maintained.
Subsequent colonial empires included the French, English, Dutch and Japanese empires. By the mid-17th century, the Tsardom of Russia, continued later as the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union, became the largest contiguous state in the world, and the modern Russian Federation continues to be so to this day. Russia today has nine time zones, stretching across about half of the world's longitude.
The British Empire, consolidated during the period of British maritime hegemony in the 19th century, became the largest empire in history by virtue of the improved transportation technologies of the time. At its height, the British Empire covered a quarter of the Earth's land area and comprised a quarter of its population. During the New Imperialism, Italy and Germany also built their colonial empires in Africa.
After the Boxer Rebellion in 1901, Imperial China made concessions to the Eight-Nation Alliance (all the Great Powers of the time). By the end of the 20th century most of the previous colonial empires had been decolonized.
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The chart below shows the span of some European colonial empires.
- Black lines mark the year of the empires largest territorial extent of land area.
- Red represents the empire is a monarchy.
- Blue represents the empire is a republic.
List of colonial empires
- Belgian Empire (1885–1962)
- British Empire (1707–1997/present)
- Evolution of the British Empire
- British colonization of the Americas
- East India Company and British Raj
- Territories and mandates under Australian administration (1901–present)
- Realm of New Zealand (1907–present)
- The New Zealand dominion, itself a colony that gradually increased its independence in 1907, 1947 and 1986, was tasked with the government of multiple other British colonies and territories and the mandate of Samoa. It was also nominal co-trustee of the mandate of Nauru. The remaining non-self-governing New Zealand territory is Tokelau.
- Mandates under South African administration (1915–1990)
- Danish Empire (1536–1953)
- Dutch Empire (1602–1975/present)
- English colonial empire (1585–1707)
- French colonial Empire (1534–1980/present)
- Kingdom of France (1534–1792)
- First French Empire of Napoleon I (1804–1814 or 1815)
- Second French Empire of Napoleon III (1852–1870)
- French colonization of the Americas
- List of colonies and possessions of France
- German empire (1884–1918)
- Italian Empire (1885–1960)
- Portuguese Empire (1415–1999)
- Evolution of the Portuguese Empire
- Portuguese colonization of the Americas
- Colonial Brazil (1500–1815)
- Portuguese India (1505–1961)
- Portuguese Timor (1702–1975)
- Portuguese Malacca (1511–1641)
- Portuguese Macau (1577–1999)
- Portuguese Africa
- Russian Empire (1721–1917)
- Spanish Empire (1492–1975)
- Spanish colonization of the Americas
- Spanish East Indies (1565–1898)
- Spanish Guinea (1778–1968)
- Spanish Sahara (1884–1975)
- Spanish protectorate in Morocco (1912–1956)
- Ifni (1476-1524/1859-1969).
- Swedish Empire (1638–1663 and 1784–1878)
- Japanese Empire (1868–1945)
- Ottoman Empire (1453–1922)
Other colonial empires:
- American Empire (1817–present)
- Colonies of the Habsburg Monarchy and Austria-Hungary Empire (1719–1750, 1778–1783, 1901–1917)
- Duchy of Courland and Semigallia (a vassal of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, 1637-1690)
- German colonial initiatives (1683–1721)
- Knights Hospitaller (Malta, a vassal of the Kingdom of Sicily; 1651–1665)
- Kingdom of Scotland (1621–1707)
- Kingdom of Morocco (1975–present)
- Muscat and Oman (1652–1892)
- Tsardom of Russia, Russian Empire, Soviet Union, and Russian Federation (1547–1721) (1721-1917) (1917–1991) (1991-present)
- Chinese Empire, Qing dynasty and People's Republic of China
- Chinese imperialism
- Spratly Islands
- Kingdom of Siam
- Empire of Brazil, Brazil
Norwegian Empire, with Greenland not visible
Couronian settlements in Americas (New Courland on Tobago)
- Colonial troops
- The empire on which the sun never sets
- History of Western civilization
- Great Divergence
- List of largest empires that existed in India
- Middle Eastern Empires
- Impact of Western European colonialism and colonisation
Notes and references
- Encarta-encyclopedie Winkler Prins (1993–2002) s.v. "kolonie [geschiedenis]. §1.2 De moderne koloniale expansie". Microsoft Corporation/Het Spectrum.
- Encarta, s.v. "kolonie [geschiedenis]. §1.1 Oudheid.
- part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain before 1821.
- .part of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata before 1810.
- Part of the Holy Roman Empire realm before 1804.
- part of the Holy Roman Empire before 1736
- The dependencies of Norway are uninhabited, thus as end date is taken the latest date of full Norwegian sovereignty extension to such territory, instead of the date of decolonization or integration in the administrative structures of the mainland.
Bouvet Island claimed in 1927, under Norway sovereignty since 1930.
Peter I Island claimed in 1929, under Norway sovereignty since 1933.
Queen Maud Land claimed in 1938, under Norway sovereignty since 1957.
Peter I Island and Queen Maud Land fall under the scope of the Antarctic Treaty System since 1961.