Demographics of the Philippines

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Demographics of Philippines
Population

92,337,852 (2010 census)

101,697,200 today
Growth rate 2.04% (2011 est.)
Birth rate 24.62 births/1,000 population
(2013 est.)
Death rate 4.95 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Life expectancy 71.66 years
 • male 68.72 years
 • female 74.74 years (2011 est.)
Fertility rate 3.06 children born/woman (2014 est.)
Infant mortality rate 19.34 deaths/1,000 live births
Net migration rate -1.29 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
Age structure
0–14 years 0-14 years: 34.6%
(male 17,999,279/female 17,285,040)
65 and over 4.3%
(male 1,876,805/female 2,471,644) (2011 est.)
Sex ratio
Total 1 male(s)/female
At birth 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 1.04 male(s)/female
15–64 years 1 male(s)/female
65 and over 0.76 male(s)/female
Nationality
Nationality Filipinos
Major ethnic Visayan (Cebuano, Waray, Hiligaynon/Ilonggo, Karay-a, Aklanon, Masbatenyo, Romblomanon) 31.6%, Tagalog 28.1% (2000 census)
Minor ethnic Ilocano 9%, Bikol 6%, Kapampangan 3%, Pangasinan 2%, Zamboangueño 1.5% & others 23.3% (2000 census)
Language
Official Tagalog and English[1]
Spoken twelve auxiliary regional languages - Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilokano, Hiligaynon, Bikolano, Waray, Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Mëranao, Maguindanao, Zamboangueño Chavacano and Tausug

Demographics of the Philippines are records of human population in the country, including its population density, ethnicity, education level, health, economic status, religious affiliations, and other aspects of the population. The Philippines has a population growth rate of 2.04%, one of the highest in Asia.[2] According to the 2010 Census, the population of the Philippines was 92,337,852.[3] The population of the Philippines was first estimated in 1830 with 2.5 million people.[4] As of July 27, 2014, it had reached more than 100 million.[5]

The majority of Filipinos are made up of various ethnolinguistic Austronesian ethnic groups, while the Agtas, an indigenous dark-skinned people form a minority. The indigenous population is closely related to indigenous Malaysians and Indonesians. Ethnic groups that have been in the Philippines for centuries before European and American colonial rule have assimilated, such as various Japanese people, Han Chinese, Indian people, etc., and form a large part of the population.[6][7] [8]

The most commonly spoken language is Filipino, which is based on the Tagalog language. Filipino and English are the official languages. Additionally, there are between 120 to 170 distinct indigenous Philippine languages (depending on their classification), a dozen of which have over one million speakers and are recognized as official regional languages. Spanish and Arabic are recognized as voluntary and optional languages in the Philippine constitution.[1] Christianity is the main religion, with Roman Catholicism making up the majority of the population. Other religions include Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, and those with no religion.[9] The people of the Philippines are known as Filipinos.

Population history[edit]

Philippines population density Map per province as of 2009 per square kilometer:
  0-50
  51-100
  101-200
  201-300
  301-400
  401-800
  801-1600

The first census in the Philippines was founded in 1591, based on tributes collected. Based on this tribute counting, there were about 666,712 people in the islands. Thus, during this era, the Philippines was among the most sparsely populated lands in Asia. In contrast, Japan during that era (1500s) already had a population of 8 Million or Mexico had a population of 4 million, which was huge compared to the Philippine's mere 600,000. In 1600, the method of population counting was revamped by the Spanish officials, who then based the counting of the population through church records. In 1798, the population of Luzon or Luconia was estimated to be around 600,000 with the other islands, unknown. In 1799, Friar Manuel Buzeta estimated the population count of all Philippine islands as 1,502,574. However, the first official census was conducted only in 1878, when the population as of midnight on December 31, 1877 was counted. This was followed by two more censuses, namely, the 1887 census, and the 1898 census. The 1887 census yielded a count of 6,984,727,[10] while that of 1898 yielded 7,832,719 inhabitants.[11]

1903 census[edit]

In 1903 the population of the Philippines was recounted by American authorities to fulfill Act 467. The survey yielded 7,635,426 people, including 56,138 who were foreign-born.[12]

1920 census[edit]

According to the 1920 United States Census, there were 10,314,310 people in the Philippines.[13] 99 percent were Filipino; 51,751 were either Chinese or Japanese; 34,563 were of mixed race; 12,577 were White; and 7,523 were Black.[13]

1939[edit]

The 1939 census was undertaken in conformity with Section 1 of Commonwealth Act 170.[14] The Philippine population figure was 16,000,303.[15]

1941[edit]

In 1941 the estimated population of the Philippines reached 17,000,000.[16] Manila's population was 684,000.[citation needed]

By then, some 27% of the population could speak English as a second language, while the number of Spanish speakers as first language had further fallen to 3% from 10-14% at the beginning of the century. However, Spanish as a second language continued to be spoken and understood at varying levels of expertise, far more than English. In 1936, Tagalog was selected to be the basis for a national language.[10][unreliable source]]] In 1987, the Tagalog-based Filipino language was designated the national language.[17]

Philippine census surveys[edit]

Main article: Philippines census

In 1960, the government of the Philippines conducted a survey on both population, and housing. The population was pegged at 27,087,685. Successive surveys were again conducted on 1970, 1975, 1980, and 1990, which gave the population as 36,684,948, 42,070,660, 48,098,460, and 60,703,206 respectively. On 1995, the POPCEN was launched, undertaken at the month of September, The data provided the bases for the Internal Revenue Allocation to local government units, and for the creation of new legislative areas. The count was made official by then President Fidel Ramos by Proclamation No, 849 on August 14, 1995, The population was 68,616,536.

According to the executive director of the Commission on Population Tomas Osias, the population of the Philippines may reach 101.2 million by 2014. Attempts to introduce a reproductive health law to bring down the population growth rate has been consistently opposed by several religious groups, one of them prominently the Roman Catholic Church, the dominant religion of the country.[2]

1960 1970 1975 1980 1990 1995 2000 2007 2010
27,087,685 36,684,948 42,070,660 48,098,460 60,703,206 68,616,536 76,504,077 88,574,614 92,337,852

Vital statistics[edit]

UN estimates[edit]

World Population Prospects, 2010[18]
Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR1 CDR1 NC1 TFR1 IMR1
1950-1955 981 000 269 000 712 000 48.6 13.3 35.3 7.42 96.8
1955-1960 1 095 000 285 000 810 000 45.7 11.9 33.8 7.27 86.5
1960-1965 1 218 000 299 000 919 000 43.0 10.6 32.5 6.98 77.4
1965-1970 1 334 000 311 000 1 023 000 40.4 9.4 31.0 6.54 67.8
1970-1975 1 461 000 326 000 1 136 000 38.3 8.5 29.8 5.98 59.3
1975-1980 1 643 000 346 000 1 297 000 37.4 7.9 29.5 5.46 51.8
1980-1985 1 801 000 368 000 1 433 000 35.6 7.3 28.3 4.92 45.2
1985-1990 1 968 000 393 000 1 575 000 34.0 6.8 27.2 4.53 39.5
1990-1995 2 084 000 419 000 1 664 000 31.8 6.4 25.4 4.14 34.5
1995-2000 2 216 000 450 000 1 766 000 30.2 6.1 24.1 3.90 30.1
2000-2005 2 360 000 487 000 1 873 000 29.0 6.0 23.0 3.70 26.3
2005-2010 2 318 000 528 000 1 790 000 25.9 5.9 20.0 3.27 23.0
1 CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births

Fertility and Births[edit]

Total Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted Fertility Rate) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR):[19]

Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural)
1993 29,7 4,09 (2,9) 28,5 3,53 (2,6) 30,9 4,82 (3,3)
1998 28,0 3,73 (2,7) 25,8 3,01 (2,3) 30,1 4,67 (3,3)
2003 25,6 3,5 (2,5) 24,7 3,0 (2,2) 26,7 4,3 (3,0)
2008 23,4 3,3 (2,4) 21,6 2,8 (2,1) 24,6 3,8 (2,7)
2013 22,1 3,0 (2,2) 21,5 2,6 (1,9) 22,6 3,5 (2,5)

Year by year[edit]

Source: Philippines Stat, Philippines Total Fertility Rate 1960-2010 and SUMMARY OF PRINCIPAL VITAL STATISTICS1 IN THE PHILIPPINES: 1903-2010

Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rate Infant mortality rate (per 1000 births)
1903 7 635 284 000 329 671 -44 871 37.3 43.2 -5.9
1904 7 659 216 176 146 894 69 282 28.2 19.2 9.0
1905 7 699 244 586 166 555 78 031 31.8 21.6 10.2
1906 7 761 215 296 143 284 72 012 27.7 18.5 9.2
1907 7 844 258 010 138 464 119 546 32.9 17.7 15.2
1908 7 964 278 369 190 495 87 874 35.0 23.9 11.1
1909 8 095 234 726 179 355 55 371 29.0 22.2 6.8
1910 8 220 290 210 191 576 98 634 35.3 23.3 12.0
1911 8 387 302 855 188 412 114 443 36.1 22.5 13.6
1912 8 576 290 995 185 185 105 810 33.9 21.6 12.3
1913 8 786 316 056 154 086 161 970 36.0 17.5 18.5
1914 9 017 347 337 163 943 183 394 38.5 18.2 20.3
1915 9 269 327 206 176 313 150 893 35.3 19.0 16.3
1916 9 542 340 269 195 970 144 659 35.7 20.5 15.2
1917 9 836 353 283 212 334 140 949 35.9 21.6 14.3
1918 10 314 345 751 367 106 -21 355 33.5 35.6 -2.1
1919 10 324 306 832 326 716 -19 884 29.7 31.6 -1.9
1920 10 445 351 195 200 690 150 505 33.6 19.2 14.4
1921 10 673 364 432 205 654 158 778 34.1 19.3 14.8
1922 10 908 373 506 203 237 170 269 34.2 18.6 15.6
1923 11 152 385 418 202 981 182 437 34.6 18.2 16.4
1924
1925
1926 11 935 400 439 229 928 170 511 33.6 19.3 14.3 156.7
1927 12 212 414 357 229 328 185 029 33.9 18.8 15.1 152.5
1928 12 498 422 716 218 096 204 620 33.8 17.5 16.3 150.1
1929 12 792 428 996 237 733 191 263 33.5 18.6 14.9 161.6
1930 13 094 429 245 252 988 176 257 32.8 19.3 13.5 165.0
1931 13 405 440 159 240 825 199 334 32.8 18.0 14.8 155.1
1932 13 724 446 940 211 809 235 131 32.6 15.4 17.1 137.6
1933 14 051 459 682 227 594 232 088 32.7 16.2 16.5 145.8
1934 14 387 447 738 239 703 208 035 31.1 16.7 14.4 160.8
1935 14 731 461 410 257 181 204 229 31.3 17.5 13.8 153.4
1936 15 084 485 126 239 107 246 019 32.2 15.9 16.3 134.0
1937 15 445 513 760 254 740 259 020 33.3 16.5 16.8 137.3
1938 15 814 512 389 261 848 250 541 32.4 16.6 15.8 139.0
1939 16 000 522 432 273 141 249 291 32.7 16.9 15.8 146.2
1940 16 460 535 117 273 480 261 637 32.5 16.6 15.9 135.8
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946 18 434 533 283 278 546 254 737 28.9 15.1 13.8 125.5
1947 18 786 272 226 238 527 33 699 14.5 12.7 1.8 234.4
1948 19 234 602 415 243 467 358 948 31.3 12.7 18.6 114.4
1949 19 509 609 138 231 151 377 987 31.2 11.8 19.4 108.5
1950 19 881 642 472 226 505 415 967 32.3 11.4 20.9 101.6
1951 20 260 637 264 237 937 399 327 31.5 11.7 19.8 105.5
1952 20 646 650 725 241 020 409 705 31.5 11.7 19.8 101.2
1953 21 039 468 489 239 988 228 501 22.3 11.4 10.9 148.8
1954 22 869 702 662 217 650 485 012 30.7 9.5 21.2 94.2
1955 23 568 734 761 212 798 521 963 31.2 9.0 22.2 84.3
1956 24 288 542 249 205 581 336 668 22.3 8.5 13.8 110.9
1957 25 030 514 202 199 919 314 283 20.5 8.0 12.5 112.9
1958 25 795 484 592 185 437 299 155 18.6 7.2 11.4 109.2
1959 26 584 616 893 176 448 440 445 23.2 6.6 16.6 93.4
1960 27 088 649 651 196 544 453 107 24.0 7.3 16.7 7,15 84.6
1961 28 214 647 846 207 436 440 410 23.0 7.3 15.7 7,09 88.4
1962 29 064 775 146 169 880 605 266 26.7 5.9 20.8 7,02 58.6
1963 29 937 786 698 214 412 572 286 26.3 7.2 19.1 6,95 72.8
1964 30 841 802 648 222 097 580 551 26.0 7.2 18.8 6,87 70.5
1965 31 770 795 415 234 935 560 480 25.0 7.4 17.6 6,78 72.9
1966 32 727 823 342 236 396 586 946 25.2 7.2 18.0 6,69 72.0
1967 33 713 840 302 240 122 600 180 24.9 7.1 17.8 6,59 72.2
1968 34 728 898 570 261 893 636 677 25.9 7.5 18.4 6,48 71.0
1969 35 774 946 753 241 678 705 075 26.5 6.8 19.7 6,38 67.3
1970 36 684 966 762 234 038 732 724 26.4 6.4 20.0 6,26 60.0
1971 37 902 963 749 250 139 713 610 25.4 6.6 18.8 6,15 62.0
1972 38 991 968 385 285 761 682 624 24.8 7.3 17.5 6,04 67.9
1973 40 123 1 049 290 283 475 765 815 26.2 7.1 19.1 5,93 64.7
1974 41 279 1 081 073 283 975 797 098 26.2 6.9 19.3 5,82 58.7
1975 42 071 1 223 837 271 136 952 701 29.1 6.4 22.7 5,72 53.3
1976 43 338 1 314 860 299 861 1 014 999 30.3 6.9 23.4 5,61 56.9
1977 44 417 1 344 836 308 904 1 035 932 30.3 7.0 23.3 5,51 56.8
1978 45 498 1 387 588 297 034 1 090 554 30.5 6.5 24.0 5,40 53.1
1979 46 592 1 429 814 306 427 1 123 387 30.7 6.6 24.1 5,29 50.2
1980 48 098 1 456 860 298 006 1 158 854 30.3 6.2 24.1 5,18 45.1
1981 49 536 1 461 204 301 117 1 160 087 29.5 6.1 23.4 5,08 44.1
1982 50 783 1 474 491 308 758 1 165 733 29.0 6.1 22.9 4,98 41.8
1983 52 055 1 506 356 327 260 1 179 096 28.9 6.3 22.6 4,88 42.7
1984 53 351 1 478 205 313 359 1 164 846 27.7 5.9 21.8 4,80 38.5
1985 54 668 1 437 154 334 663 1 102 491 26.3 6.1 20.2 4,71 38.0
1986 56 004 1 493 995 326 749 1 167 246 26.7 5.8 20.9 4,63 35.0
1987 57 356 1 582 469 335 254 1 247 215 27.6 5.8 21.8 4,55 32.1
1988 58 721 1 565 372 325 098 1 240 274 26.7 5.5 21.2 4,48 30.1
1989 60 097 1 565 254 325 621 1 239 633 26.0 5.4 20.6 4,40 27.5
1990 60 703 1 631 069 313 890 1 317 179 26.9 5.4 21.5 4,32 24.3
1991 63 729 1 643 296 298 063 1 345 233 25.8 4.7 21.1 4,25 20.9
1992 65 339 1 684 395 319 579 1 364 816 25.8 4.9 20.9 4,18 21.9
1993 66 982 1 680 896 318 546 1 362 350 25.1 4.8 20.3 4,11 20.6
1994 68 624 1 645 011 321 440 1 323 571 24.0 4.7 19.3 4,06 18.9
1995 68 617 1 645 043 324 737 1 320 306 24.0 4.7 19.3 4,01 18.6
1996 69 951 1 608 468 344 363 1 264 105 23.0 4.9 18.1 3,96 19.0
1997 71 549 1 653 236 339 400 1 313 836 23.1 4.7 18.4 3,92 17.0
1998 73 147 1 632 859 352 992 1 279 867 22.3 4.8 17.5 3,89 17.3
1999 74 746 1 613 335 347 989 1 265 346 21.6 4.7 16.9 3,85 15.6
2000 76 348 1 766 440 366 931 1 399 509 23.1 4.8 18.3 3,81 15.7
2001 77 926 1 714 093 381 834 1 332 259 22.0 4.9 17.1 3,77 15.2
2002 79 503 1 666 773 396 297 1 270 476 21.0 5.0 16.0 3,71 14.2
2003 81 081 1 669 442 396 331 1 273 111 20.6 4.9 15.7 3,64 13.7
2004 82 663 1 710 994 403 191 1 307 803 20.7 4.9 15.8 3,57 13.2
2005 84 241 1 688 918 426 054 1 262 864 20.0 5.1 14.9 3,48 12.8
2006 86 973 1 663 029 441 036 1 221 993 19.1 5.1 14.0 3,40 13.1
2007 88 706 1 749 878 441 956 1 307 922 19.7 5.0 14.7 3,33 12.4
2008 90 457 1 784 316 461 581 1 322 735 19.7 5.1 14.6 3,26 12.5
2009 92 227 1 745 585 480 820 1 264 765 18.9 5.2 13.7 3,20 12.4
2010 94 013 1 782 981 488 265 1 294 716 19.0 5.2 13.8 3,15 12.6
2011
2012
2013 98 211 2 417 955 486 144 1 931 811 24.62 4.95 19.67 3.0
2014 100 000 2 424 000 492 000 1 932 000 24.24 4.92 19.32 3.1

Ethnic groups[edit]

Further information: Filipino people

The majority of the people in the Philippines are of Austronesian descent. The largest of these groups are the Visayan, Tagalog, Ilocano, Bicolano, Moro, the Kapampangan, the Zamboangueño and among others. The indigenous peoples of the Philippines form a minority of the population. Other ethnic groups include the Spaniard, Indian, Chinese, American, Japanese, Arab, Korean, and other ethnic groups from other countries.

Languages[edit]

There are between 120 and 170 languages spoken in the country. Most of them have several varieties (dialects), totaling over 300 across the archipelago. Since the 1930s the government has promoted the use of the national language, Filipino, based on Tagalog.[17][20] Visayan languages (also called Bisaya or Binisaya) are widely spoken throughout the Visayas and in some parts of Mindanao. Ilokano is the lingua franca of Northern Luzon excluding Pangasinan.

English is considered an official language for purposes of communication and instruction.[1] Consequently, it is widely spoken and understood.

Religion[edit]

The U. S. Department of State International Religious Freedom (IRF) report for 2012, citing a year 2000 survey from the Philippines National Statistics Office, reports that 80-85% of Filipinos were then Roman Catholics, with 93% being Christian, and that 5% of the population was then Islamic.The 2012 IRF report also reports that an estimate by the National Commission on Muslim Filipinos (NCMF) in 2011 stated that there were then 10.3 million Muslims, or about 11 percent of the total population.[21] In 2000, according to the "World Values Survey", 1.8% were Protestant Christians and 10.9% were then irreligious.[22] Other Christian denominations include the Iglesia ni Cristo (one of a number of separate Churches of Christ generally not affiliated with one another), Philippine Independent Church (more commonly called the Aglipayan Church), Members Church of God International, and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). Minority religions include Buddhism, Hinduism, and Judaism. Roman Catholics and Protestants were converted during the four centuries of Western influence by Spain, and the United States. Under Spanish rule, much of the population was converted to Christianity.

Orthodox Christians also live in Philippines. Protestant Christianity arrived in the Philippines during the 20th century, introduced by American missionaries.

Other religions include Judaism, Mahayana Buddhism, often mixed with Taoist beliefs, Hinduism, and Sikhism. Animism and Paganism are also followed.

Education[edit]

Education in the Philippines is based on both Western and Eastern ideology and philosophy influenced by the United States, Spain, and its neighbouring Asian countries. Philippine students enter public school at about age four, starting from nursery school up to kindergarten. At about seven years of age, students enter elementary school (6 to 7 years). This is followed by high school (4 years) and senior high school (2 years). Students then take the college entrance examinations (CEE), after which they enter university (3 to 5 years). Other types of schools include private school, preparatory school, international school, laboratory high school, and science high school. School year in the Philippines starts from June, and ends in March with a two-month summer break from April to May, one week of semestral break in October, and a week or two during Christmas and New Year holidays.

Starting on in SY 2011–2012 there will be a phased implementation of a new program. The K to 12 Program covers kindergarten and 12 years of basic education (six years of primary education, four years of junior high school, and two years of senior high school [SHS]) to provide sufficient time for mastery of concepts and skills, develop lifelong learners, and prepare graduates for tertiary education, middle-level skills development, employment, and entrepreneurship.[23]

Publications[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Constitution of the Philippines: Article XIV Education, Science and Technology, Arts, Culture, and Sports". Chan Robles Virtual Law Library. Retrieved 26 November 2009. 
  2. ^ a b Philippine population to reach 97.6 M, Manila Bulletin, December 31, 2011, retrieved January 1, 2012
  3. ^ "The 2010 Census of Population and Housing Reveals the Philippine Population at 92.34 Million". National Statistics Office of the Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved 15 February 2013. [dead link]
  4. ^ The PHILIPPINES historical demographic data of the whole country [1]
  5. ^ "100 hundred million". ALFREDOPALCONIT. Retrieved 25 October 2014. 
  6. ^ Tamil Cultural Association - Tamil Language
  7. ^ Philippine History: Impluwensya ng mga Hindu sa mga Pilipino - YouTube
  8. ^ The Cultural Influences of India, China, Arabia, and Japan | Philippine Almanac
  9. ^ "The World Factbook - Philippines". U.S. Central Intelligence Angency. Retrieved 2009. 
  10. ^ a b Jan Lahmeyer (1996). "The Philippines: historical demographic data of the whole country". Retrieved 2003-07-19. 
  11. ^ Voz de Galicia (1898). "CENSOS DE CUBA,PUERTO RICO , FILIPINAS Y ESPAÑA .ESTUDIO DE SU RELACION". Retrieved 2010-12-12. 
  12. ^ United States. Bureau of the Census; Joseph Prentiss Sanger; Henry Gannett; Victor Hugo Olmsted (1905). Census of the Philippine Islands: Taken Under the Direction of the Philippine Commission in the Year 1903, in Four Volumes ... U.S. Government Printing Office. Archived from the original on 16 June 2007. 
  13. ^ a b United States. Bureau of the Census (1923). Fourteenth Census of the United States Taken in the Year 1920 ... U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 11. 
  14. ^ Millegan, Lloyd S. (November 1942). "Census of the Philippines: 1939". The Journal of Asian Studies (The Association for Asian Studies, Inc) 2 (1): 77–79. doi:10.2307/2049281. Retrieved 8 September 2014. 
  15. ^ "Statistical Abstract of the United States" (PDF). census.gov. United States Department of Commerce. 1941. Retrieved 8 September 2014. 
  16. ^ Bailey, Rayne (2009). Immigration and Migration. Infobase Publishing. p. 107. ISBN 9781438109015. Retrieved 8 September 2014. 
  17. ^ a b Andrew Gonzalez (1998). "The Language Planning Situation in the Philippines" (PDF). Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 19 (5, 6): 487–488. doi:10.1080/01434639808666365. Retrieved 2007-03-24. 
  18. ^ World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs.
  19. ^ MEASURE DHS: Demographic and Health Surveys
  20. ^ Thompson, Roger M. (2003). "3. Nationalism and the rise of Tagalog 1936-1973". Filipino English and Taglish. John Benjamins Publishing Company. pp. 27–29. ISBN 978-90-272-4891-6. , ISBN 90-272-4891-5, ISBN 978-90-272-4891-6.
  21. ^ International Religious Freedom Report 2012 : Philippines, U.S. Department of State.
  22. ^ Dentsu Communication Institute Inc., Research Centre for Japan (2006)(Japanese)
  23. ^ "The K to 12 Program". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved August 1, 2012. 

External links[edit]

 This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook document "2011 edition".