Gangneung

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Gangneung
강릉시
Municipal City
Korean transcription(s)
 • Hangul
 • Hanja
 • Revised RomanizationGangneung-si
 • McCune-ReischauerKangnŭng-si
Cherry blossoms along Gyeongpo Lake.
Cherry blossoms along Gyeongpo Lake.
Official logo of Gangneung
Emblem of Gangneung
Location in South Korea
Location in South Korea
Coordinates: 37°45′N 128°54′E / 37.750°N 128.900°E / 37.750; 128.900Coordinates: 37°45′N 128°54′E / 37.750°N 128.900°E / 37.750; 128.900
Country South Korea
RegionGwandong
ProvinceGangwon-do
Administrative divisions1 eup, 7 myeon, 13 dong
Area
 • Total1,040 km2 (400 sq mi)
Population (2006)
 • Total229,869
 • Density221/km2 (570/sq mi)
 • DialectGangwon
ClimateCfa
Gyeongpo Lake

Gangneung (Korean pronunciation: [kaŋ.nɯŋ]) is a city in the province of Gangwon-do, on the east coast of South Korea. It has a population of 213,658 (as of 2017).[1] Gangneung is the economic centre of the Yeongdong region of Gangwon-do. Gangneung has many tourist attractions, such as Jeongdongjin, a very popular area for watching the sun rise, and Gyeongpo Beach. There is an ROK airbase south of downtown Gangneung that formerly doubled as a civil airport.[2]

The city hosted all the ice events for the 2018 Winter Olympics.[3]

History[edit]

Gangneung was the place where Yemaek people lived from ancient times and was the land of Wiman Joseon in 129 BC. In 128 BC, Nam Ryeo, the army officer of Yaekam, punished Wujang of Wisman Korea and became the territory of the Han dynasty. In the 14th year of Goguryeo Muchheon(313), it entered Goguryeo territory.[4]

In 639, Silla occupied this place and ruled it as a 'Seogyeong' (소경). In 658, King Moo-yeong abolished the Seogyeong and made an arsenal to send the todok, because it was adjacent to Malgal. In 757, it was renamed Sungju and restored it in 776.[5]

It was renamed Myungju again during the Goryeo period, and it was under the jurisdiction the north of Chuncheon in the 14th year of Sungjong (995). It separated the Hamgyeong-do from the Gangeung and called it Gangneung-do, but it has always been the center of administration and military. At the beginning of the Joseon Dynasty, it called to Hwadangdo and Wonchundo and rename Gangneung by the name of Gangwon Province in the 5th year of King Sejong (1423).[6]

Some areas have been incorporated into Yangyang since 1945, and Gangneung City was established in 1995 as a Gangneung and Myeongju merged.[7]

On 18 September 1996 a North Korean submarine ran aground near Gangneung in an attempted infiltration mission, spurring a 49-day manhunt for the escaped passengers. For more details, refer to the 1996 Gangneung submarine infiltration incident.[8]

Symbols of Gangneung[edit]

The flag of the city shows a red sun in the centre and blue wave in front, on a white background. The sun represents the sunrise, the wave the sea. The flower of the city is the crepe myrtle, the tree of the city is the pine tree, its bird the swan. The animal of Gangneung is the tiger.[9]

Geography[edit]

Gangneung is located in the eastern center of the Taebaek Mountains, which is the waist of the Korean peninsula. The east side is the East Sea, the west side is the inner side of Hongcheon County, the Pyeongchang County's Jinbu-myeon and the Daegwallyeong-myeon respectively. The southern side is in contact with Donghae City and the Jeongseon County's critical side. The north side is adjacent to Yangyang County Hyunbuk-myeon and Hyunnam-myeon.[10]

The total area of Gangneung City is about 1,040.4 km2 (401.7 sq mi) as of the end of 2015, which accounts for 6.2% of Gangwon Province's 16,873 km2 (6,515 sq mi). 80.4% of the area of Gangneung, 837.36 km2 (323.31 sq mi), is forestland.[11]

Climate[edit]

Gangneung experiences a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) with cool to cold winters and hot, humid summers. Since Gangneung is a coastal city, it has generally milder winters and relatively cooler summers than the rest of Korea. It is bordered by mountains to the west and the sea to the east.[12]

Climate data for Gangneung (1981–2010, extremes 1911–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 17.4
(63.3)
21.4
(70.5)
27.1
(80.8)
33.6
(92.5)
35.1
(95.2)
37.0
(98.6)
39.4
(102.9)
38.9
(102)
35.8
(96.4)
31.9
(89.4)
26.2
(79.2)
21.8
(71.2)
39.4
(102.9)
Average high °C (°F) 5.0
(41)
6.7
(44.1)
10.9
(51.6)
17.9
(64.2)
22.4
(72.3)
24.9
(76.8)
27.8
(82)
28.3
(82.9)
24.5
(76.1)
20.3
(68.5)
13.7
(56.7)
7.9
(46.2)
17.5
(63.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 0.4
(32.7)
2.2
(36)
6.3
(43.3)
12.9
(55.2)
17.6
(63.7)
20.8
(69.4)
24.2
(75.6)
24.6
(76.3)
20.3
(68.5)
15.5
(59.9)
9.2
(48.6)
3.4
(38.1)
13.1
(55.6)
Average low °C (°F) −3.2
(26.2)
−1.6
(29.1)
2.0
(35.6)
7.9
(46.2)
12.9
(55.2)
17.0
(62.6)
21.1
(70)
21.5
(70.7)
16.6
(61.9)
11.2
(52.2)
5.3
(41.5)
−0.3
(31.5)
9.2
(48.6)
Record low °C (°F) −20.2
(−4.4)
−15.9
(3.4)
−11.7
(10.9)
−3.5
(25.7)
−0.8
(30.6)
6.0
(42.8)
11.3
(52.3)
13.7
(56.7)
6.3
(43.3)
−1.9
(28.6)
−9.3
(15.3)
−15.3
(4.5)
−20.2
(−4.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 55.1
(2.169)
49.6
(1.953)
68.9
(2.713)
68.7
(2.705)
87.0
(3.425)
120.6
(4.748)
242.8
(9.559)
298.9
(11.768)
243.8
(9.598)
110.4
(4.346)
80.3
(3.161)
38.3
(1.508)
1,464.5
(57.657)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 5.8 6.4 8.9 8.3 9.3 11.3 15.6 15.6 11.1 7.1 7.2 4.5 111.1
Average snowy days 6.0 6.0 4.3 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.9 2.9 20.2
Average relative humidity (%) 49.0 52.1 56.6 54.1 61.1 71.4 76.6 78.1 74.3 62.2 53.8 47.8 61.4
Mean monthly sunshine hours 183.8 172.6 186.5 203.8 209.1 165.0 138.2 147.9 157.2 188.3 170.6 183.3 2,106.3
Percent possible sunshine 60.0 56.7 50.3 51.6 47.5 37.3 30.8 35.1 42.1 54.1 55.9 61.5 47.3
Source: Korea Meteorological Administration[13][14][15] (percent sunshine and snowy days)[16]

Administrative divisions[edit]

The district includes one town (eup), seven townships (myeon), 13 neighborhoods (dong).[17]

Name Korean name Area(km2) Population Households Map
Jumunjin-eup 주문진읍 60.52 19,299 9,098 Gangneung-map.png
Seongsan-myeon 성산면 80.28 3,305 1,488
Wangsan-myeon 왕산면 245.28 1,682 881
Gujeong-myeon 구정면 42.72 3,990 1,661
Gangdong-myeon 강동면 112.48 5,090 2,435
Okgye-myeon 옥계면 148.83 4,452 2,039
Sacheon-myeon 사천면 70.89 4,255 1,971
Yeongok-myeon 연곡면 202.45 6,920 3,090
Hongjae-dong 홍제동 3.76 8,678 3,601 Gangneungsine-map1.png
jungang-dong 중앙동 0.99 6,447 3,281
Okcheon-dong 옥천동 0.58 4,246 2,162
first Kyo-dong 교1동 2.73 29,995 11,122
Second Kyo-dong 교2동 2.57 9,723 4,078
first Ponam-dong 포남1동 1.3 12,057 5,213
Second Ponam-dong 포남2동 2.58 16,694 6,727
chodang-dong 초당동 2.89 5,921 2,413
Songjeong-dong 송정동 3.45 7,561 2,838
Naegok-dong 내곡동 4.96 11,970 5,066
Gangnam-dong 강남동 16.09 21,515 8,450
Seongdeok-dong 성덕동 11.41 29,357 11,043
Gyeongpo-dong 경포동 23.02 4,829 2,234
Gangneung-si 강릉시 1,040 217,986 90,891

Tour[edit]

Sunrise[edit]

Sunrises, especially the first in the New Year, are important in traditional Korean culture. The Jeongdongjin and Gyeongpo beaches in Gangneung are popular places to enjoy a sunrise.[18]

Gyeongpodae and Area[edit]

Gyeongpo Beach
Olympic Rings in Gyeongpo Beach in May 2018

Gangneung is considered special in that it has access to both a lake and the sea. Gyeongpodae is a pavilion overlooking a Gyeongpo lake. It is said that one can see the moon five times when at Gyeongpodae. One sees the moon once in the sky, once reflected in the lake, once reflected in the sea, once reflected in the drinking glass, and once more in the eyes of a lover. The site of Gyeongpodae is known for its location east of the centre of the city.[19]

Inside the Gyeongpodae pavilion, built with 28 pillars, is the Gyeongpodaebu, a poem by Yul Gok. Gyeongpodaebu describes the movement of the heavens and the moon. The best view of the moon is on the 15th of the lunar month.[19]

The nearby Gyeongpo Beach has a sandy beach and a line of fresh seafood restaurants, with its proximity to Seoul making it a popular summer destination.

Beach[edit]

Anmok beach.

In addition to the Jungdongjin beach where Sandglass, a TV series was taken, there are 18 beaches such as Anmok beach, Gyeongpo beach, Gangmun beach.[20]

Culture[edit]

Heritage[edit]

Ojukheon.

There are a total of 128 cultural properties in Gangneung. Among them, there are 34 State-designated heritage and 58 Province-designated heritage.[21]

National Treasure in Gangneung is Gate to an official inn in Gangneung. This gate is the front gate of the Gangneung official inn built in the Goryeo Dynasty. It is the oldest gate in the Goryeo Dynasty. It is the only cultural property designated as a national treasure among the buildings in Gangwon-do.

Ojukheon is the birthplace of Shin Saimdang and Yulgok Lee. It was designated as Treasure No.165 by being recognized as one of the oldest architecture in the Korea and being a rare example of preserving the shape of the house of the Joseon Dynasty.

Gangneung Guseongsa site, which was founded by Burma in the 13th year of King Munsung of Silla(851), has been designated as Korea's Historic Site No.448. Inside the temple, treasures are designated as Treasures No. 85, Treasures No. 86, There is a stone Buddhist image designated as No. 38.

total State-designated heritage Province-designated heritage Registered cultural heritage Cultural heritage material
total National Treasure Treasure Historic Site Natural monuments Intangible Cultural Property Scenic Site National Folklore Cultural Heritage total Tangible Cultural Heritage Intangible Cultural Heritage Monument
128 34 1 16 3 5 1 4 2 58 39 5 14 2 2

Festivals[edit]

Gangneung has numerous festivals. The biggest and most famous is the Gangneung Dano Festival (강릉단오제) at the Dano fairground near the Namdae River. In 1967, the Gangneung Dano Festival was designated Korean National Immaterial Cultural Heritage No. 13. On November 11, 2005, it was designated by UNESCO as one of the "Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity". Nowadays, it is a combination of several commemoration rites and traditional plays. A highlight is the traditional Gwanno Mask Dance (Gwanno Gamyeongeuk), which is only performed at this festival.

In addition to well established festivals like the Dano, there are several newer festivals in Gangneung, such as the IJAF (International Junior Art Festival) enjoys great popularity. The IJAF is a cultural festival for youth from all over the world. The festival includes both performances of the participating groups and a diversified cultural program demonstrating the essence of Korean culture. Since 2002, the IJAF takes place at Gyeongpo Beach in the end of July. Also, the Gyeongpo Rock Festival was established in 2006. This festival, mostly attracting young people, offers young Korean bands from the Gangneung area a stage for their performances.

Museum[edit]

There are a number of historical remains and museums in Gangneung. The most prominent being the Ojukheon Museum, which is named after a special black bamboo growing in this area. It is the birthplace of the famous Korean scholar Yulgok (1536–1584) (whose image is on the South Korean 5,000 Won note) and his mother Saimdang (1504–1551) (whose image is on the 50,000 Won note.) In 1963, the Ojukheon Museum was designated as National Cultural Heritage No. 165. It includes one of the oldest wooden buildings in Korea. Several shrines and old residential buildings deliver insight into the lives of these famous Koreans. Next to the Ojukheon Museum there is the Gangneung Municipal Museum which shows folklore and antique pieces from the history of the city. Located in the hills surrounding Gangneung City, there is the revealing Daegwallyeong Museum. It consists of a private collection with more than 1000 artifacts and shows the agricultural history of the region.

Religious architecture[edit]

Gangneung Imdeungdong Cathedral is one of the Roman Catholic sanctuaries in Korea. Show the cathedral style of Gangwon province in the 1950s. It became Registered cultural heritage No.457.

Transportation[edit]

On Gangneung city, the expressway is Donghae Expressway which connects Incheon to Gangneung and Yeongdong Expressway which connects Yangyang County and Donghae City. National highway is National Route 7(part of Asian Highway Route 6) which connects Goseong County to Busan. It takes about 2 hours and 30 minutes to Seoul by road.

The Yeongdong Line passes Yeongju city to Gangneung. before 2006, Saemaeul-ho stopped at Jeongdongjin Station and Gangneung Station and it took 5.5 hours at Cheongnyangni Station, but now only Mugunghwa-ho is stopped, It takes 6 hours to drive. In 2017, Gyeonggang Line was opened and Gangneung Station was designated as a esseintial-stop station. the time between Gangneung Station and Cheongnyangni Station has been reduced from the existing 6 hours to the minimum of 114 minutes after KTX operation.

It was operated by Gangneung Airport for air traffic, but passed the passenger transportation right to Yangyang International Airport in 2002 and closed its service as a airport.[22]

Road[edit]

Yeongdong Expressway passed city west to east, Donghae Expressway passed through the city from south to north. National Route 6, 7, 35, 59 passed through city.

Train[edit]

KTX-Sancheon is essential stop Jinbu and Gangneung Station. On 2018 Winter Olympics period, increased frequency of KTX.[23]

Gangneung Station
Legenda kolej.svg Yeongdong Line MangsangOkkyeJeongdongjinAninGangneung
Legenda kolej.svg Gyeonggang Line JinbuGangneung

Buses[edit]

Local transit operators connect communities in the city divided three regions. This is managed by Gangneung City Office and the operation is carried out by each transportation company.[24]

Gangneung Intercity Bus Terminal operates the intercity bus[25] and operates six Express Bus line in the Gangneung Express Bus Terminal, the largest terminal in Gangwon Province.[26]

Taxi[edit]

A total of 589 units in Gangneung are operating taxi licenses. The basic fare of Gangneung city taxi is 2,800 won for 2 km. After that, 100 won will be charged for 152m from 2 km to 6 km, and 200 won will be charged for 152m after 6 km. but Jumunjin area, Gangdong-meon, Okgye area are designated as exceptional areas to 45% extra charge.[27]

Sea transport[edit]

Gangneung Port Passenger Terminal of Gangneung Harbor handles the Gangneung-Ulneung passenger ship.[28]

Sports[edit]

Football[edit]

Ganwon is the home of the National League football club Gangneung City FC and K League football team Gangwon FC. Since 1976, Gangneung Jeil High School and Gangneung Junior high school soccer team rivaly Durby, which is held every day in the Dano Festival, have become popular.

Ice Hockey[edit]

In 2016, Daemyung Killer Whales, which is affiliated with the Gangneung Hockey Center, is active in the Asia League Ice Hockey.[29]

2018 Winter Olympics[edit]

The city 'Gangneung Costal Cluster' will be the venue for the indoor sports of the 2018 Winter Olympics and Paralympics in Pyeongchang. All these facilities, except for the Gangneung Curling Centre, have been newly built for the Olympics.

The city will also host an Olympic Village for the athletes and a media village.

Image gallery[edit]

Sister cities[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gangneung City (2003). Population & Households Archived 2012-06-01 at WebCite. Retrieved January 14, 2006.
  2. ^ US Forces Korea (2004). Alphabetical Listing Archived 2004-10-20 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved January 14, 2006.
  3. ^ "Gangneung Curling Centre". Gangneung city. Retrieved 2018-02-09.
  4. ^ "Origin and history". Gangneung city office. Retrieved 2018-02-09.
  5. ^ 유래와 연혁. Gangneung city office. Retrieved 2018-02-09.
  6. ^ 강릉의 역사. Digital Gangneung Culture Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2018-02-09.
  7. ^ 경기도남양주시등33개도농복합형태의시설치등에관한법률. Korea Ministry of Government Legislation. 1994-08-23. Retrieved 2018-02-09.
  8. ^ "North Korea denies murdering diplomat". CNN. 1996-10-04. Retrieved 2018-02-09.
  9. ^ Gangneung City (2003). Symbols Archived 2012-06-01 at WebCite. Retrieved January 14, 2006.
  10. ^ "Location and Area". Gangeung city. Retrieved 2018-02-10.
  11. ^ 강릉시 기본현황. Gangeung city. Retrieved 2018-02-10.
  12. ^ "Gangneung, where travel on the east coast begins". visit korea. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
  13. ^ 평년값자료(30년) 강릉(105). Korea Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2011-04-30.
  14. ^ 기후자료 극값(최대값) 전체년도 일최고기온 (℃) 최고순위, 강릉(105). Korea Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2015-04-21.
  15. ^ 기후자료 극값(최대값) 전체년도 일최저기온 (℃) 최고순위, 강릉(105). Korea Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2015-04-21.
  16. ^ "Climatological Normals of Korea" (PDF). Korea Meteorological Administration. 2011. p. 499 and 649. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 December 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  17. ^ "Administrative district". Gangneung city. Retrieved 2018-02-09.
  18. ^ Best spots to usher in the New Year (2009) Korea Herald Retrieved June 23. 2010.
  19. ^ a b Korea Tourism Organization (2005). Gyeongpodae Archived 2006-05-26 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved January 14, 2006.
  20. ^ 관광명소・축제 - 바다・해안비경. Gangneung city office. Retrieved 2018-02-09.
  21. ^ 강릉시 문화재 총괄현황. Gangneung city office. Retrieved 2018-02-09.
  22. ^ 강릉·속초공항 폐쇄. Gangwondominilbo. 2002-11-29. Retrieved 2018-02-09.
  23. ^ Bureau of railroad operation, MOLIT. 서울~강릉 KTX 올해말 개통, 114분 소요 (Press release) (in Korean). Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, South Korea. Retrieved 2018-02-09.
  24. ^ "Gangneung Bus Information". Gangneung bus Information System. Retrieved 2018-02-09.
  25. ^ 강릉시외버스터미널. Gangneung Intercity Bus Terminal. Retrieved 2018-02-09.
  26. ^ 터미널 소개. Gangneung Express Bus Terminal. Retrieved 2018-02-09.
  27. ^ 택시. Gangnenung city Tour. Retrieved 2018-02-08.
  28. ^ 여객선 터미널 안내. Good-morning Ulnenung-do. Retrieved 2018-02-08.
  29. ^ 아이스하키 제3구단 ‘대명 킬러웨일즈’ 공식 출범. SBS. 2016-05-23. Retrieved 2018-02-09.
  30. ^ "International Exchange". List of Affiliation Partners within Prefectures. Council of Local Authorities for International Relations (CLAIR). Archived from the original on 4 January 2016. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
  31. ^ 韩国江陵市议会代表团到芒市进行友好交流 [Korea Gangneung City parliament delegation arrive at Mangshi to friendly exchange]. www.ynmsrd.com (in Chinese). 2014-10-19. Retrieved 2018-01-21.

External links[edit]