Gujari language

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Not to be confused with Gujarati language.
Gojri, Gurjari
Native to India and Pakistan
Region Kashmir, Rajasthan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Punjab, Gilgit-Baltistan
Native speakers
990,000  (1992–2000)[1]
Census results conflate some speakers with Hindi.[2]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 gju
Glottolog guja1253[3]

Gujari, also known as Gojri (گوجری) is a variety of Indo-Aryan spoken by the Gujjars of India and also found in Pakistan[4][5]

Since Dojri, Punjabi, Urdu and Hindi are spoken in a region that has witnessed significant ethnic and identity conflict, all have been exposed to the dialect-versus-language question. Each of these languages possesses a central standard on which its literature is based, and from which there are multiple dialectal variations. At various times, Gujri, Dogri and Himachali have been claimed to be dialects of Punjabi Language.[6][7]

The language was known as Gujjar bhakha, "Gojari" or Gurjar Apabhramsha lately. It was used as literary language as early as 12th century. The poet Bhoja referred to Gaurjar Apabhramsha (Gurjar Apabhramsha) in 1014 AD.[8]

The language is mainly spoken in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Uttarakhand, Punjab, and many other parts of India. The language is also spoken by Gujjars of Pakistan. Many Gujari words originate from Rajasthan. The Government of Jammu and Kashmir has recognized Gujari by including it into sixth scheduled of the constitution.[9]


Gojri is an offshoot of Indo-Aryan Group of languages, and during the dawn of Sanskrit and Persian poetry and prose in the Indian sub-continent several noted poets and Sufi saints used Gojri to spread their message. Noted poet-musician Hazrat Amir Khusro formally made mention of the Gojri language in the list of eighteen Indian languages of his time. Researchers and historians believe that Gujri language is the mother of Rajasthani languages [10]

According to a well researched document[citation needed] the poets and saints who used this language to spread their message were: Saint Noor-ud-Din; Sat Guru (1094 CE); Amir Shah Miran Ji (1494 CE); Shah Bhajan (1397-1508 CE); Qazi Mehmood Daryaee (1419-1545 CE); Ali Jevan Gham Dhani (1565 CE); Burhan–ud-Din Janam (1572 CE); Khub Mahammad Chashti (1539-1614 CE); Adil Shah Sani Jagat Guru (1411 CE); Qutab Shah (1556-1611 CE); Mulana Afzal Pani Patti (1625 CE); Amin Gujrati (1657 CE) Miran Ji Hashmi (1688 CE) etc. These poets and saints known all over India for their unique socio-cultural fraternity used Gojri in their verses to communicate and spread the message of brotherhood, peace and secularism.

As it continues to be a significant language in the subcontinent, Gojri has richly contributed to literary traditions and treasure in the forms of Mathnavis, prose, folklore and religious literature.

Gojri is being widely spoken and is in fact mother tongue of over 20 Million people residing in various parts of India particularly in Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Uttarakhand.[11]

Literature and Communications[edit]

Internationally noted linguistic researcher Sir G. A. Gareirson, while analysing various languages of India, has written a full volume on the Gojri language. In his work Sir Garreirson has accepted and outlined universal influence of Gojri and its impact on other Indian languages. Oxford University compiled the first ever grammar of the Gojri language in 1905. The Linguistic Survey of India has surveyed various aspects of Gojri Language and its influence on other languages. In its research project, the Linguistic Survey of India has described Gojri as one of the main languages instrumental in developing and flourishing other languages. The Central Institute of Indian Language Mysoor Karnatika, under Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India, has published various books on the linguistic aspect of Gojri language.

Institutions working for Gojri[edit]

The All India Radio and Doordarshan Kendra are already running various Gojri programmes. The Radio Kashmir Jammu, Srinagar, Poonch in India and Seven Radio Stations of Pakistan and PTV have since long been airing Gojri programmes and news bulletins which has wide acceptance across the state of Jammu and Kashmir. A large number of Gojri books have been published in various subjects which include encyclopedias, dictionaries, grammar, poetry, prose, flora and fauna, folklore, art and architecture, agriculture, sociology and research documents. The National Academy of Letters, Sahitya Akademi, New Delhi has also recognised Gojri as one of the major Indian languages for its prestigious National Award, Bhasha Samman and other programmes. The Jammu and Kashmir Academy of Arts, Culture and Languages has a well established Gojri Department in its Central Office which is in operation for last 30 years. Hundreds of books in Gojri, dictionaries and other research works have been published by this institutasion and organised hundreds of Seminar, conference etc. for the development of Gojri Language. Jammu and Kashmir State Board of School Education made curriculum in Gojri up to Middle Standard for Teaching Gojri in Schools. The University of Jammu Council has also approved the opening of Gojri Research Centre in Jammu and University of Kashmir have awarded several Doctorate Degrees on completing research projects on Gojri. In Pakistan-administered Kashmir, the Gojri Academy has been established and Post Graduate Studies Department has been set up in various Universities, Regional Research Centers.

Organizations working for Gojri:

  • Tribal Research and Cultural Foundation Poonch
  • Gurjar Desh Charitable Trust Jammu
  • Anjmun Gujjran Srinagar
  • Jammu and Kashmir Anjuman Taraqi Gojri Adab Rajouri
  • Bhartya Gurjar Pareshad Uatter Pardesh.
  • Anjuman Gojri Zuban-o-Adab Tral Kashmir
  • Organisation of Himalyan Gujjars Poonch
  • Adbi Sangat Wangat Kashmir
  • Adbi Majlis Gojri Jammu
  • Sarwari Memorial Gojri Society Jammu
  • Gojri Dramatic Club Jammu
  • Gujjar Writers Association Uri Baramulla.
  • Gojri Anjumun Badgam
  • Gujjar Manch Kathua
  • Bazm-i-Adab Kalakote Rajouri
  • Gojri Development Center Karnah Kupwara
  • Halqa.e.Gojari Adab Gilgit


The Gujjars of Rajasthan speak gojri as their first language. Gujjars are also found in Southen Jammu and Kashmir. The communities that speak Gojri as second language include:[12]

  • Backward classes of Poonch/Rajouri/Udhampur/Doda/Baramulla/Kupwara
  • Gaddi Tribe of Kashmir
  • Mir and Qurieshi Tribe of Poonch and Rajouri Districts in India
  • Hazarwi Tribes
  • Peer Panchal Tribes
  • Bakerwals
  • Ajhries
  • Paharis (Muslims)
  • Some Dogri Sipeaking People of Udhampur
  • Some Kashmiri Speaking people of Poonch, Rajouri, Doda, Baramulla, and Kupwara
  • People of Jammu & Kashmir


  1. ^ Gujari at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Gujari". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  4. ^ Gojri And Its Relationship With Rajasthani, Etc.
  5. ^ Dr. R.P. Khatana. "Gujari Language and Identity in Jammu and Kashmir". Kashmir News Network: Language Section ( Retrieved 2007-05-31. 
  6. ^ Masica, Colin P. (1993). The Indo-Aryan Languages. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-29944-6. 
  7. ^ Itagi, N. H. (1994). Spatial Aspects of Language. Central Institute of Indian Languages. p. 70. ISBN 81-7342-009-2. 
  8. ^ K. Ayyappapanicker (1997). Medieval Indian literature: an anthology, Volume 3. Sahitya Akademi. p. 91. 
  9. ^ The Government of Jammu and Kashmir has already recognised Gojri by including it in the sixth schedule of the constitution. In Jammu and Kashmir Gujari is written right-to-left in an extension of the Persian alphabet, which is itself an extension of the Arabic alphabet. Gujari is associated with the Nastaʿlīq style of Persian calligraphy -,
  10. ^ Ajay Mitra Shastri; R. K. Sharma; Devendra Handa (2005). Revealing India's past: recent trends in art and archaeology. Aryan Books International. p. 227. ISBN 8173052875, ISBN 978-81-7305-287-3. It is an established fact that during 10th-11th century.....Interestingly the language was known as the Gujjar Bhakha.. 
  11. ^ State /Aprx. Population /Language -
  • 1992: Rensch, Calvin R., Hindko and Gujari National Institute of Pakistani Studies, 305 pp. ISBN 969-8023-13-5.

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