Chhattisgarhi language

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छत्तीसगढ़ी, छत्तिसगढ़ी , ଛତିଶଗଡ଼ି
Native toIndia
RegionChhattisgarh and minor areas in Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Odisha, Maharashtra
Native speakers
18 million, partial count, including Surgujia (2011 census)[1]
(additional speakers counted under Hindi)
Official status
Official language in
 India (Chhattisgarh)
Language codes
ISO 639-3Either:
hne – Chhattisgarhi
sgj – Surgujia

Chhattisgarhi (Devanagari: छत्तीसगढ़ी) or as (Laria/Loriya ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by 18 million people in the Indian state of Chhattisgarh. It is closely related to Awadhi, Bagheli and Odia (spoken in the western orissa) .

Chhattisgarhi has been known by the name Khaltahi to surrounding hill-people and by the name Loriya to speakers in neighboring regions of Odisha to Chhattisgarh.[citation needed] The speakers are concentrated in the Indian state of Chhattisgarh and in adjacent areas of Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, and Jharkhand. Chhattisgarhi cultural and political movements, with origins from the 1920s, affirmed Chhattisgarhi linguistic and cultural identity and sought greater autonomy within India. It was 1 November, 2000 when 16 districts in the state of Madhya Pradesh became the new state of Chhattisgarh.


Chhattisgarhi is most closely related to other Eastern Hindi languages such as Bagheli and Awadhi, forming part of the East-central zone of the Indo-Aryan languages.

Its precise relationship to Hindi is complex, and as with other members of the Hindustani dialect continuum, its status as a dialect or separate language is to some degree a judgment call. According to the Indian Government, Chhattisgarhi is an eastern dialect of Hindi, but it is classified as a separate language in Ethnologue.


Eastern Hindi dialects consist of Chhattisgarhi, Awadhi, and Bagheli. All three dialects are closely related to each other. Chhattisgarhi, due to its heavy indigenous vocabulary and grammar, has always been treated as a distinct language. Awadhi and Bagheli are very closely associated with each other. Bagheli has been treated as separate from Awadhi due to its regional association with Baghelkhand; otherwise, it is considered a southern form of Awadhi.

Comparison of word list
English Chhattisgarhi Awadhi Bagheli
and अउ (au) अउर (aur) अउर (aur)
father ददा (dada) बाप (bapa) बाबू (dadu)
right जेवनी (jevani) दाहिना (dahina) दाए (dae)
tree रुख (rukh) पेड़ (ped) पेड़ (ped)
you तें,तेहा (tum, teha) तें (tu) तय (tayu)
come आवव (aavav) आओ (aao) आ (aa)
good बने (bane) बढ़िया (badiya) बढ़िया (badiya)
name नाव (naav) नाम (naam) नाम (naam)
pond तरिया (tariya) तालाब (talaba) तलाउ (talaua)


Chhattisgarhi has five different main dialect clusters on the basis of geographical division:

  1. Kedri (Central) Chhattisgarhi
    This is purest form Chhattisgarhi, which is spoken in most of the Mahanadi Basin. Kedri Chhattisgarhi is uninfluenced by any other languages except Hindi. It is mostly spoken in the Bilaspur, Durg, Bemetara, Raipur, Rajnandgaon, Dhamtari, and Kanker Districts of Chhattisgarh.
  2. Utti (Eastern) Chhattisgarhi
    Utti Chhattisgarhi, also known as Laria, is mostly spoken in the Raigarh, Mahasamund, Gariaband, and Raipur Districts of Chhattisgarh.
  3. Budati / Khaltahi (Western) Chhattisgarhi
    Marathi-language influence can be seen in Khaltahi Chhattisgarhi. It is mostly spoken in the Balaghat District of Madhya Pradesh and in the Kabirdham and Bemetara Districts of Chhattisgarh.
  4. Bhandar (Northern) Chhattisgarhi
    Also known as Sargujia Chhattisgarhi, it is mostly spoken in the Koria, Surajpur, Sarguja, Jashpur, and Balrampur Districts of Chhattisgarh.
  5. Rakshahun (Southern) Chhattisgarhi
    Mostly spoken in Dandkaranya region (Bastar) of Chhattisgarh. Godi and Halbi are other dialects which are widely spoken here.

In addition to Chhattisgarhi Proper, other dialects of Chhattisgarhi are Baighani, Bhulia, Binjhwari, Kalanga, Kavardi, Khairagarhi, Sadri Korwa, and Surgujia. Surgujia is considered by some to be a distinct language.[3]


Chhattisgarhi, like Hindi, is written using the Devanagari script, although it used to be written using the Odia script.

Chhattisgarhi Language Day[edit]

Chhattisgarhi Language Day (Chhattisgarhi Diwas) is celebrated every year on November 28 across the Indian state of Chhattisgarh. This day is regulated by the state government.

Film industry[edit]

After the formation of the new state, films in the Chhattisgarhi language attracted artists everywhere around India. World-renowned vocalist Lata Mangeshkar and many others have sung songs in Chhattisgari. As the film industry is growing at a fast pace, Chhattisgarhi-language cinema it is now popularly known as Chhollywood.

See also[edit]


  • G. A. Zograph: Languages of South Asia, 1960 (translated by G.L. Campbell, 1982), Routledge, London.


  1. ^ 16.3 million for Chhattisgarhi and 1.74 million for Surgujia.
    Chhattisgarhi at Ethnologue (21st ed., 2018)
    Surgujia at Ethnologue (21st ed., 2018)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Chhattisgarhi". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Surgujia at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)


  • C. K. Chandrakar, "Chhattisgarhi Shabadkosh"
  • C. K. Chandrakar, "Manak Chhattisgarhi Vyakaran"
  • C. K. Chandrakar, "Chhattisgarhi Muhawara Kosh"
  • Chhattisgarh Rajbhasha Aayog, "Prashashnik Shabdkosh Vol. I & II"

Web magazine in Chhattisgarhi language गुरतुर गोठ

External links[edit]

  • [1] webpage on Chhattisgarhi language by Sanjeeva Tiwari, Durg.