Rohingya language

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Rohingya
Ruáingga, رُاَࣺينڠَ
Native toMyanmar, Bangladesh
RegionRakhine (Myanmar) and southeastern Chittagong region (Bangladesh)
EthnicityRohingya
Native speakers
1.8 million (2012)[1]
Perso-Arabic, Hanifi, Burmese, Latin Eastern Nagari (rare)
Language codes
ISO 639-3rhg
Glottologrohi1238[2]
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For a guide to IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Rohingya (/rˈɪnə, -hɪn-, -ɪŋjə/),[3] or Ruáingga (IPA: [rʊˈɜiɲɟə]), is a language spoken by the Rohingya people of Rakhine State.[4][5] It is an Eastern Indo-Aryan language belonging to the Bengali–Assamese branch, and is related to the Chittagonian language spoken in neighboring Bangladesh.

Scripts[edit]

Rohingya Arabic script

Arabic script[edit]

Written in Arabic script, the first Rohingya language texts are more than 200 years old.[6] While Arakan was under British rule (1826–1948), the Rohingya people used mainly English and Urdu for written communication. Since independence in 1948, Burmese has been used in all official communications. Since the early 1960s, Rohingya scholars have started to realize the need for a writing system suited to their own language.

In 1975 a writing system was developed using Arabic letters; other scholars adopted Urdu script to remedy some deficiencies of the Arabic. Neither proved satisfactory, however, and most Rohingyas found it difficult to read the language in either version.

Following these attempts, Maulana Hanif achieved a dedicated right-to-left alphabet for the Rohingya language in 1983. Named after its author, the Hanifi alphabet is a modified form of the Arabic alphabet, with additional borrowings from Latin and Burmese alphabets.[7]

Today, there is a Rohingya Unicode font available. It is based on Arabic letters (since those are far more understood by the people) with additional tone signs.[6][7] Tests that have been conducted suggest that this script can be learned in a matter of hours if the reader has learned Arabic in a madrassa.

The Rohingya Fonna Unicode keyboard layout as well as a free font can be found here.

Roman script[edit]

In 1999 E.M. Siddique Basu was able to simplify the Rohingya writing using Latin letters. It is an intuitive writing system which can be learnt easily and is known as Rohingyalish or Rohingya Fonna that uses only 26 Roman letters, five accented vowels, and two additional Latin characters for retroflex and nasal sounds.

Rohingya character set-28
A a B b C c Ç ç D d E e F f
G g H h I i J j K k L l M m
N n Ñ ñ O o P p Q q R r S s
T t U u V v W w X x Y y Z z

Q, V, and X are only used for loan-words. [8]

The character set table of the Rohingya language writing system uses the Latin letters shown above (ç and ñ with green background). The vowels are written both unaccented (aeiou) and accented (áéíóú). The use of c, ç and ñ is adapted to the language; c represents /ʃ/ (English sh), ç is the retroflex r ([ɽ]),[6] and ñ indicates a nasalized vowel (e.g., fañs /fãs/ 'five'). Crucially, these can all be accessed from an English keyboard, for example by using the English (US) International keyboard.

Names and pronunciation of letters[edit]

The names of the letters of the Latin Rohingya alphabet are similar to the names of the letters of the English alphabet.

Basic letters[9]
Grapheme Pronunciation Name
a /a/ ee
b /b/ bii
c /ʃ/ cii
ç /ɽ/ çii
d /d̪/ dii
e /e/ ii
f /f/ ef
g /g/ jii
h /h, x/ eech
i /i/ ai
j /ɟ/ jee
k /k/ kee
l /l/ el
m /m/ em
n /n/ en
ñ /◌̃/ (nasalization)
o /ɔ/ oou
p /p/ pii
q /q/ kyuu
r /r/ er
s /s/ es
t /t̪/ tii
u /u/ yuu
v /v/ vii
w /w/ dblyuu
x /ks/ eks
y /j/ way
z /z/ zed
Digraphs[10]
Grapheme Pronunciation
ch /c/
dh /ɖ/
h' /h/
kh /x/
ng /ŋ/
ny /ɲ/
ou /o/
th /t̪/
ts /t̪/

Long vowels in Rohingya are spelled with double vowels: for example, a long /ɔ/ is spelled as "oo", while a long /o/ is spelled as "oou". [8]

Phonology[edit]

Consonants[edit]

Rohingya has primarily the following 25 native consonant phonemes. There are some other consonant phonemes which are from foreign languages such as Arabic, Bengali, Burmese and Urdu.

Rohingya consonants[11]
Bilabial Labio-
dental
Dental/
Alveolar
Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosive voiceless p ʈ c k ʔ
voiced b ɖ ɟ ɡ
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Fricative voiceless f s ç x h
voiced z
Flap ɾ ɽ
Approximant central w j
lateral l

Vowels[edit]

Front Back
Close i u
Close-mid e o
Open-mid ɔ
Open a

There are six vowels and several diphthongs in the Rohingya language.[12] They contrast between "open-o" ([ɔ]) and "closed-o" ([o]) by using the different spellings ⟨o⟩/⟨ó⟩ and ⟨ou⟩/⟨óu⟩ respectively.

Tones[edit]

Accented vowels, marked with an acute accent, represent stressed (or "hard" vowels), and repeating a vowel lengthens it.[11] Thus, tonals are marked by arranging the location of a stressed vowel in a lengthened pair, like ⟨aá⟩ and ⟨áa⟩.[11]

Grammar[edit]

Definite articles[edit]

1. If a noun ends with a vowel then the article is either án or if singular, or ún if plural or uncountable.
Usually is used for round-fatty objects, and án for flat-thin objects.

      ( singular )                        ( plural )
 Kéti  án     (the farm)          Kéti  ún     (the farms)
 Fothú án     (the picture)       Fothú ún     (the pictures)
 Fata  wá     (the leaf)          Fata  ún     (the leaves)
 Boro  wá     (the large)         Boro  ún     (the large)[clarification needed]
                                  Lou   ún     (the blood)

2. If a noun ends with a consonant then the article is the end-consonant plus án or for singular or ún for plural.

 Debal  lán   (the wall)          Debal  lún   (the walls)
 Mes    sán   (the table)         Mes    sún   (the tables)
 Kitap  p(the book)          Kitap  pún   (the books)
 Manúic c(the man)           Manúic cún   (the men)

3. If a noun ends with r, then the article is g plus án or for singular or ún or ín for plural.

 Tar   gán    (the wire)          Tar   gún/gín (the wires)
 Duar  gán    (the door)          Duar  gún/gín (the doors)
 Kuñir g(the dog)           Kuñir gún/gín (the dogs)
 Faár  g(the mountain)      Faár  gún/gín (the mountains)
 
 Note: gún is used for human and gín for non-human.

Indefinite articles[edit]

Indefinite articles can be used either before or after the noun. Uggwá usually is used for roll/round/fatty shaped objects and ekkán is for thin/flat shaped objects.

    ( singular )                     ( plural )
 Uggwá fata    (a leaf)           Hodún fata    (some leaves)
 Ekkán fothú   (a picture)        Hodún Fothú   (some pictures)
     -or-                               -or-
 Fata  uggwá   (a leaf)           Fata  hodún   (some leaves)
 Fothú ekkán   (a picture)        Fothú hodún   (some pictures)

Word order[edit]

Rohingya word order-1 is Subject–Object–Verb.

Subject         Object                 Verb
Aññí  (I)       bát     (rice)         hái  (eat).
Ite   (He)      TV      (TV)           saá  (watches).
Ibá   (She)     sairkél (bicycle)      soré (rides).
Itará (They)    ham ot  (to work)      za   (go).

Rohingya word order-2 is Subject–Time-Place-Object–Verb.

Subject      Time                            Place                   Object             Verb
Ibá  (I)     beínna       (in the morning)   gór ot    (at home)     bát    (rice)      há  (eat).
Tará (They)  biale        (at night)         duan ot   (at shop)     TV     (TV)        saá (watches).
Ite  (He)    sair gwá báze(at 4pm)           hál hañsat(at seaside)  sairkél(bicycle)   soré(rides).
Ítara(They)  nowá báze    (at 9 o'clock)     ofís ot   (to office)   ham ot (to work)   zaa (go).

Rohingya word order-3 is Subject–Time-[adjective]-Place-Object–[adverb]-Verb.

Subject      Time      [Adjective]    Place       [Adverb]                   Object    Verb
Tuñí         aijja      noya          eskul ot     toratori/toratorigorí     paathi    goró.
You          today      new           at school    quickly                   party     make.

Rohingya word order-4 is Subject–Time-[adjective]-Place-Object–[adverb]-Verb_1-Verb_2.

Subject      Time      [Adjective]    Place       [Adverb]                   Object    Verb_1    Verb_2
Tuñí         aijja      noya          eskul ot     toratori/toratorigorí     paathi    goittóu   modot-goró.
You          today      new           at school    quickly                   party     help      to make.
English: You help to make party quickly at new school today.

More on Time extension:

(1) Aijja Januari 24 tarík ót, cón 2017 beínna 4 gwá báze 15 miníth 5 sekén ót.
    Today January dated 24, year 2017 in the morning at 4 o'clock 15 minutes 5 second.  
(2) Hailla Februari 30 tarík ót, cón 2017 ázinna 5 swá báze 25 minith 7 sekén ót. 
    Tomorrow January dated 30, year 2017 in the evening at 5 o'clock 25 minutes 7 second.  
(3) Goto hailla Oktubor 10 tarík ót, cón 2018 rait or 10 cwá báze 35 miníth 50 sekén ot. 
    Yesterday October dated 10, year 2018 in the night at 10 o'clock 35 minutes 50 second.

Tenses[edit]

Rohingya distinguishes 12 tenses, as shown in the examples below. In these tenses, the helping verb félai shows perfect action (comparable to English "has/have") and félaat shows perfect continuous action (compare English "has/have been"). The helping verb táki and táikki are comparable to English "be" and "been".

Verb-form-suffix (basic and/or helping verb) indicate both person and tense. The suffixes ~ir, ~yi, ~lám, ~youm are used for the first person, the suffixes ~or, ~yó, ~lá, ~bá for the 2nd person, and the suffixes ~ar, ~ye, ~l, ~bou for the 3rd person. Similarly ~ir, ~or, ~ar indicate present continuous tense, ~yi, ~yó, ~ye present perfect tense, ~lám, ~lá, ~l past tense, and ~youm, ~bá, ~bou future tense.


First person ( I ):

1. Present
(a)Aññí hái.                   (I eat.)
(b)Aññí háir.                  (I am eating.)
(c)Aññí hái félaiyi.           (I have eaten.)
(d)Aññí hái félair.            (I have been eating.)
2. Past
(a)Aññí háiyi.                 (I ate.) Note: refer near past.
   Aññí háailam.               (I ate.) Note: refer far past.
(b)Aññí háat táikkilám.        (I was eating.)
(c)Aññí hái  félailám.         (I had eaten.)
(d)Aññí hái  félaat táikkilám. (I had been eating.)
3. Future
(a)Aññí háiyoum.               (I will eat.)
(b)Aññí háat tákiyoum.         (I will be eating.)
   Aññí háiyoum boi.                  "
(c)Aññí hái  félaiyoum.        (I will have eaten.)
(d)Aññí hái  félaat tákiyoum.  (I will have been eating.)

Second person ( You ):

1. Present
(a)Tuñí/Oñne hóo.                 [Tui hós.]                 (You eat.)
(b)Tuñí/Oñne hóor.                [Tui hóor.]                (You are eating.)
(c)Tuñí/Oñne hái  félai.        [Tui hái  félaiyós].       (You have eaten.)
(d)Tuñí/Oñne hái  féloor.         [Tui hái  féloor].         (You have been eating.)
2. Past
(a)Tuñí/Oñne háiyo.               [Tui háiyós.]              (You ate.) Note: refer near past.
   Tuñí/Oñne háai.              [Tui háai.]              (You ate.) Note: refer far past.
(b)Tuñí/Oñne háat táikki.       [Tui háat táikki.]       (You were eating.)
(c)Tuñí/Oñne hái  félai.        [Tui hái  félai.]        (You had eaten.)
(d)Tuñí/Oñne hái  félaat táikki.[Tui hái  félaat táikki.](You had been eating.)
3. Future
(a)Tuñí/Oñne háiba.               [Tui hái.]               (You will eat.)
(b)Tuñí/Oñne háat táki.         [Tui háat táki.]         (You will be eating.)
   Tuñí/Oñne háiba goi.           [Tui háibi goi.]                      "
(c)Tuñí/Oñne hái  félai.        [Tui hái  félai.]        (You will have eaten.)
(d)Tuñí/Oñne hái  félaat táki.  [Tui hái  félaat táki.]  (You will have been eating.)

Third persons ( He/She/They ):

1. Present
(a)Ite/Ibá/Itará  há.                   (He/She/They eats/eats/eat.)
(b)Ite/Ibá/Itará  hár.                  (He/She/They is/is/are eating.)
   Ite/Ibá/Itará  hái boi.                      "
(c)Ite/Ibá/Itará  hái félaiye.          (He/She/They has/has/have eaten.)
(d)Ite/Ibá/Itará  hái félaar.           (He/She/They has/has/have been eating.)
2. Past
(a)Ite/Ibá/Itará  háaiye.               (He/She/They ate.) Note: refer near past.
   Ite/Ibá/Itará  háail.                (He/She/They ate.) Note: refer far past.
(b)Ite/Ibá/Itará  háat táikkil.         (He/She/They was/was/were eating.)
(c)Ite/Ibá/Itará  hái  félail.          (He/She/They had eaten.)
(d)Ite/Ibá/Itará  hái  félaat táikkil.  (He/She/They had been eating.)
3. Future
(a)Ite/Ibá/Itará  háibou.               (He/She/They will eat.)
(b)Ite/Ibá/Itará  háat tákibou.         (He/She/They will be eating.)
   Ite/Ibá/Itará  háibou goi.                   "
(c)Ite/Ibá/Itará  hái  félaibou.        (He/She/They will has/has/have eaten.)
(d)Ite/Ibá/Itará  hái  félaat tákibou.  (He/She/They will has/has/have been eating.)

Pronouns[edit]

Number Person Gender Pronouns Possessive
adjectives
Subject Object Possessive Reflexive
Singular 1st m/f (I) aññí, mui añáre, more añár, mor aññínize, muinize añár, mor
2nd m/f (you) tuñí
tui
oñne
tuáñre
toré
oñnoré
tuáñr
tor
oñnor
tuñínize
tuinize
oñnenize
tuáñr
tor
oñnor
3rd m (he) ite *
te *
uite **
íte **
itaré
taré
uitaré
ítare
itar
tar
uitar
ítar
itenize
tenize
uitenize
ítenize
itar
tar
uitar
ítar
m/f (he/she) ibá *
uibá **
íba **
ibáre
uibáre
íbare
ibár
uibár
íbar
ibánize
uibánize
íbanize
ibár
uibár
íbar
n (it) yián
ibá
yían **
íba **
yiánóre
ibáre
yíanóre
íbare
yiánór
ibár
yíanór
íbar
yiánnize
ibánize
yíannize
íbanize
yiánór
ibár
yíanór
íbar
Plural 1st m/f (we) añára añáráre añárar añáránize añárar
2nd m/f (you) tuáñra tuáñráre tuáñrar tuáñránize tuáñrar
3rd m/f (they) itará *
tará *
uitará **
ítara **
itaráre
taráre
uitaráre
ítarare
itarár
tarár
uitarár
ítarar
itaránize
taránize
uitaránize
ítaranize
itarár
tarár
uitarár
ítarar
n (they) iín *
íin **
uún
úun **
uuín **
iínóre
íinóre
uúnóre
úunóre
uuínóre
iínór
íinór
uúnór
úunór
uuínór
iínnize
íinnize
uúnnize
úunnize
uuínnize
iínór
íinór
uúnór
úunór
uuínór

Gender: m=male, f=female, n=neuter., *=the person or object is near., **=the person or object is far.

Interrogative[edit]

The interrogative is indicated by at the end of the sentence.

Itattú gór ekkán asé ? [Does he have a house?]
Itattú gór ekkán asé. [He has a house.]
Ibá za ? [Does she go?]
Ibá za. [She goes.]
Itará giyé ? [Did they go?]
Itará giyé. [They went.]

Inflection for person[edit]

Rohingya verbs indicate person by suffixes.

Present Tense
lek = write (command to you sg.)
lekí = I/we write.
lekó = write (command to you pl.)
lekós = You write(sg./pl.).
leké = He/she/they write(s).

Present Continuous Tense
lekír = I/we am/are writing.
lekór = You(sg./pl.) are writing.
lekér = He/she/they is/are writing.

Present Perfect Tense
lekífélaiyi = I/we have written.
lekífélaiyo = You (sg./pl.) have written.
lekífélaiyós = You (sg.) have written. (used to very closed people)
lekífélaiye = He/she/they has/have written.

Future Tense
lekíyóum = I/we will write.
lekíbá = You (sg./pl.) will write.
lekíbi = You (sg.) will write. (used to very closed people)
lekíbóu = He/she/they will write.

Past Tense (Immediate/near past)
leikkí = I/we wrote.
leikkó = You (sg./pl.) wrote.
leikkós = You (sg.) wrote. (used to very closed people)
leikké = He/she/they wrote.

Past Tense (Remote past)
leikkílám = I/we wrote long ago.
leikkílá = You (sg./pl.) wrote long ago.
leikkílí = You (sg.) wrote long ago. (used to very closed people)
leikkíl = He/she/they wrote long ago.

Past Tense (If possibility)
lekítám = I/we would have written.
lekítá = You (sg./pl.) would have written.
lekítí = You (sg.) would have written. (used to very closed people)
lekítóu = He/she/they would have written.

Forming Noun, Doer, Tool, Action
lekóon = act of writing.
        e.g. Debalor uore lekóon gom noó. Writing on wall is not good.
lekóya = writer.
        e.g. Itaráttú lekóya bicí. They-have many writers.
lekóni = thing with which you write.
        e.g. Añártú honó lekóni nái. I-have no any writing-thing (i.e. pen, pencil)
lekát = in the action of writing.
        e.g. Tui lekát asós. You are busy-in-writing.

Rohingya grammatical case[edit]

Example of a Rohingya case inflection is given below, using the singular forms of the Rohingya term for "hóliba (tailor)" which belongs to Rohingya's first declension class.

  • hólibaye (nominative) "[the] hóliba" [as a subject] (e.g. hólibaye tíai táikke éçe – the tailor is standing there)
  • hólibar (genitive) "[the] hóliba's / [of the] hóliba" (e.g. hólibar nam Ahmed – the tailor's name is Ahmed)
  • hóliballa (dative) "[to/for the] hóliba" [as an indirect object] (e.g. hóliballa hádiya ekkán diyí – I gave a present for the tailor)
  • hólibare (accusative) "[the] hóliba" [as a direct object] (e.g. Aññí hólibare deikkí – I saw the tailor)
  • hólibaloi (ablative) "[by/with/from/in the] hóliba" [in various uses] (e.g. Aññí hólibaloi duan ot giyí – I went to the shop with the tailor).'
  • óu hóliba / hóliba ya (vocative) "[you] the hóliba" [addressing the object] (e.g. "cúkuria tuáñre, óu hóliba (sáb)" - thank you, tailor).

Morphology[edit]

Seventy or more different forms are available in Rohingya. A hyphen (-) between letters is to be removed, it is used for initial understanding only — how the word is formed.

Command

01 lek =write(sg.) Tui yián ehón lek. You write this right now.
02 lek-ó =write(pl.) Tuñí yián ehón lekó. You write this right now.
03 lek-á =cause to write Tui/Tuñí John ór áta leká/lekó. You ask John to write.
04 lek-í-de =help to write Tui/Tuñí ibáre lekíde/lekído. You help John in writing.

Present

05 lek-í =write(I) Aññí hámicá gór ot lekí. I always write at home.
06 lek-ó =write(II) Tuñí hámicá gór ot lekó. You always write at home.
07 lek-ó-s =write(IIa) Tui hámicá gór ot lekós. You always write at home.
08 lek-é =write(III) Tará hámicá gór ot leké. They always write at home.

Continuous

09 lek-í-r =writing(I) Aññí ciñçí ekkán lekír. I am writing a letter now.
10 lek-ó-or =writing(II) Tuñí/Tui ciñçí ekkán lekóor. You are writing a letter now.
11 lek-é-r =writing(III) Tará ciñçí ekkán lekér. They are writing a letter now.

Perfect

12 lek-í-féla-iyi =have written(I) Aññí ciñçí lekífélaiyi. I have written a letter.
13 lek-í-féla-iyo =have written (II) Tuñí ciñçí lekífélaiyi. You have written a letter.
14 lek-í-féla-iyo-s =have written(IIa) Tui ciñçí lekífélaiyos. You have written a letter.
15 lek-í-féla-iye =has/have written (III) Tará ciñçí lekífélaiye. They have written a letter.

Past

16 leik-kí =wrote(I) Aññí ciñçí ekkán leikkí. I wrote a letter.
17 leik-kó =wrote(II) Tuñí ciñçí ekkán leikkó. You wrote a letter.
18 leik-kó-s =wrote(IIa) Tui ciñçí ekkán leikkós. You wrote a letter.
19 leik-ké =wrote(III) Tará ciñçí ekkán leikké. They wrote a letter.

Future

20 lek-í-youm =will write(I) Aññí ciñçí ekkán lekíyoum. I will write a letter.
21 lek-í-ba =will write(II) Tuñí ciñçí ekkán lekíba. You will write a letter.
22 lek-í-bi =will write(IIa) Tui ciñçí ekkán lekkíbi. You will write a letter.
23 lek-í-bou =will write(III) Tará ciñçí ekkán lekíbou. They will write a letter.

Alternative

24 leik-kyóum =will write(I) Aññí ciñçí ekkán leikkyóum. I will write a letter.
25 leik-bá =will write(II) Tuñí ciñçí ekkán leikbá. You will write a letter.
26 leik-bí =will write(IIa) Tui ciñçí ekkán leikbí. You will write a letter.
27 leik-bóu =will write(III) Tará ciñçí ekkán leikbóu. They will write a letter.

Passive

28 lek-á-giye =(passive I,II,III) Ciñçí ekkán lekágiyé. A letter is/was written.

Possibility

29 lek-á-za =being writable Ciñçí yián leká za. This letter is not writable.
30 lek-á-za-ibou =being writable in future Ciñçí yián leká zaibou. This letter will be writable.
31 lek-á-di-ya-za =can be made writable Ciñçí yián lekádiyaza. This letter can be made writable.

Noun

32 lek-á =writing Leká yián bicí cúndor. This writing is very beautiful.
33 lek-ó-on =act of writing Email beggún óttu lekóon saá. All should write emails.
34 lek-ó-ya =person who writes Ahmed bála lekóya. Ahmed is a good writer.
35 lek-ó-ni =thing used to write Añártu honó lekóni ciz nái. I do not have anything to write with.
36 lek-á-ni =tool used to write Añártu honó lekáni boudh nái. I do not have any writing board.
37 lek-á-lekí =activities to write Tuáñrár bútore lekáleki tákoon saá. There should be writing between you.

Adjective

38 lek-é-de =thing used for writing Añártu honó lekéde ciz nái. I do noy have any writable thing.
39 leik-kyá =of written Kitab ibá fura leikká. This book is fully written.
40 leik-kyé-dé=of that written Añártu honó leikkyéde juab nái. I do not have any written answer.

Adverb

41 lek-í lek-í =by writing & writing/while writing Ite gór ottu lekí lekí aiyér. He is coming from home while writing.

Immediate present

42 lek-í-lam =acted to write(I) Aññí habos sán lekílam. I write the letter.
43 lek-í-la =acted to write(II) Tuñí habos sán lekíla. You write the letter.
44 lek-í-li =acted to write(II) Tui habos sán lekíli. You write the letter.
45 lek-í-lou =acted to write(III) Tará habos sán lekílou. They write the letter.

Alternative

46 leik-lám =acted to write(I) Aññí habos sán lekílam. I write the letter.
47 leik-lá =acted to write(II) Tuñí habos sán lekíla. You write the letter.
48 leik-lí =acted to write(II) Tui habos sán lekíli. You write the letter.
49 leik-lou =acted to write(III) Tará habos sán lekílou. They write the letter.

Long past

50 leik-kí-lam =had written(I) Aññí habos sán leikkílam. I had written this paper long ago.
51 leik-kí-la =had written(II) Tuñí habos sán leikkíla. You had written this paper long ago.
52 leik-kí-li =had written(II) Tui habos sán leikkíli. You had written this paper long ago.
53 leik-kí-l =had written(III) Tará habos sán leikkíl. They had written this paper long ago.

Remote future

54 lek-í-youm éri =will write later(I) Aññí habos sán lekíyoum éri. I will write the paper sometime later.
55 lek-í-ba ri =will write later(II) Tuñí habos sán lekíba ri. You will write the paper sometime later.
56 lek-í-bi ri =will write later(IIa) Tui habos sán lekíbi ri. You write the paper sometime later.
57 lek-í-bou ri =will write later(III) Tará habos sán lekíbou ri. They will write the paper sometime later.

Conditional

58 lek-í-tam =would have written(I) Aññí email lán lekítam. I would have written the email.
59 lek-í-ta =would have written(II) Tuñí email lán lekíta i. You would have written the email.
60 lek-í-ti =would have written(IIa) Tui email lán lekíti. You would have written the email.
61 lek-í-tou =would have written(III) Tará email lán lekítou. They would have written the email.

Alternative

62 leik-tám =would have written(I) Aññí email lán leiktám. I would have written the email.
63 leik-tá =would have written(II) Tuñí email lán leiktá. You would have written the email.
64 leik-tí =would have written(IIa) Tui email lán leiktí. You would have written the email.
65 leik-tóu =would have written(III) Tará email lán leiktóu. They would have written the email.

Request/allow

66 lek-ó-na =please write Meérbanigorí lekóna. Please write the letter.
67 lek-ó-goi =allowed to write Tuñí lekó gói. Let you write.

Alternative

68 lek-se-ná =please write Meérbanigorí leksená. Please write the letter.
69 lek-gói =allowed to write Tui lek gói. Let you write.

If

70 lek-í-le =if (I/II/III) person write Tuñí lekíle gom óibou. It will be good if you write.

Sample text[edit]

The following is a sample text in Rohingya of the Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights:

Rohingya in Rohingya Latin alphabet

Manúic beggún azad hísafe, ar izzot arde hók ókkol ót, fúainna hísafe foida óiye. Fottí insán óttu honó forók sára elan ot aséde tamám hók ókkol arde azadi ókkol loi fáaida goróon ór hók asé. Ar, taráre dil arde demak diyé. Ótolla, taráttu ekzon loi arekzon bái hísafe maamela goróon saá.

Bengali in Latin script

Shômosto manush shadhinbhabe shôman môrjada ebong odhikar niye jônmogrohon kôre. Tãder bibek ebong buddhi achhe; shutorang shôkoleri êke ôporer proti bhratrittoshulobh mônobhab niye achôron kôra uchit.

Assamese in Latin script

Xôkôlû manuhê sadhinbhawê xôman môrzôda aru ôdhikar lôi zônmôgrôhôn kôrê. Xihôtôr bibêk aru buddhi asê aru xihôtê pôrôspôr bhratrittôrê asôrôn kôribô lagê.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rohingya at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Rohingya". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ "Rohingya". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  4. ^ What is Rohingyalish or Rohingya Language?, RohingyaLanguage.com, archived from the original on 2012-07-31, retrieved 2012-06-11
  5. ^ Rohingya Language, WorldLanguage.com, archived from the original on 2012-03-25, retrieved 2012-06-11
  6. ^ a b c Priest, Lorna A.; Hosken, Martin; SIL International (2010-08-12). "Proposal to add Arabic script characters for African and Asian languages" (PDF). pp. 13–18, 34–37.
  7. ^ a b Pandey, Anshuman (2012-06-20). "Preliminary Proposal to Encode the Rohingya Script" (PDF). Expanding Unicode. Anshuman Pandey. Retrieved 2017-09-14.
  8. ^ a b "Rohingya", Omniglot
  9. ^ Rohingya, Omniglot
  10. ^ Rohingya, Omniglot
  11. ^ a b c "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-06-12. Retrieved 2010-07-04.
  12. ^ Kazi Mujibuddin bin Abul khair. روهنغيا قائده (in Arabic) – via Scribd.

External links[edit]