LAV-25

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LAV-25
US Army LAV-25A2 with 4-68 Armor 82nd Airborne Division.jpg
TypeArmored reconnaissance vehicle[1]
Place of originAmerica
Service history
In service1983–present
Specifications (standard variant)
Weight12.80 tonnes (12.60 long tons; 14.11 short tons)
Length6.39 m (21 ft 0 in)
Width2.50 m (8 ft 2 in)
Height2.69 m (8 ft 10 in)
Crew3+6

ArmorWelded steel
Main
armament
M242 Bushmaster 25 mm chain gun with 210 rounds of ammunition
Secondary
armament
Two M240 7.62 mm machine guns with 660 rounds of ammuntion, one mounted co-axially and one pintle-mounted on the roof
EngineDetroit Diesel 6V53T
275 hp (205 kW)
Power/weight19.5 hp/sh tn (16.0 kW/t)
TransmissionAllison MT653
Suspension8×8 wheeled
Operational
range
660 km (410 mi)
Speed100 km/h (62 mph)

The LAV-25 (Light Armored Vehicle) is an eight-wheeled amphibious armored reconnaissance vehicle used by the United States Marine Corps, United States Army, and the Canadian Army. It was built by General Dynamics Land Systems Canada, developed from the Canadian built versions of the Swiss MOWAG Piranha 6x6 family of armored fighting vehicles.

History[edit]

During the 1980s, the U.S. Marine Corps began looking for a light armored vehicle to give their divisions greater mobility. They chose the Light Armored Vehicle design from GM Defense. It entered service with the Marines in 1983. The U.S. Army was interested in these vehicles at the time, but did not order any—although they did later with the introduction of the Stryker family of vehicles. The Army did, however, borrow at least a dozen LAV-25s for use by the 82nd Airborne Division, 3-73rd Armor for a Scout Platoon during the Gulf War. These LAV-25s were later returned to the Marine Corps after the conflict.[2] The USMC ordered 758 vehicles of all variants. LAVs first saw combat during the Invasion of Panama in 1989, and continued service in the Gulf War, Iraq War, and the War in Afghanistan.[3]

The table of organization and equipment for an USMC light-armored reconnaissance battalion includes 56 LAV-25s, 16 LAV-ATs, 12 LAV-Ls, 8 LAV-Ms, 4 LAV-Rs, 4 LAV-C2s, and an unknown number of LAV-MEWSS vehicles.[4]

The LAV platform is planned to remain in service with the Marine Corps until 2035.[5] The Marines aim to have prototypes for the LAV's replacement, dubbed the Armored Reconnaissance Vehicle (ARV), by 2023. The ARV is planned to be a networked family of wheeled vehicles capable of performing various mission sets, with 500 to be procured.[6]

Design[edit]

Powered by a 6V53T Detroit Diesel turbo-charged engine, they are four-wheel drive (rear wheels) transferable to Eight-wheel drive. These vehicles are also amphibious, meaning they have the ability to "swim", but are limited to non-surf bodies of water (no oceans). While engaged in amphibious operations, the maximum speed is approximately 12 km/h (7.5 mph) using equipped propellers. The current Service Life Extension Program (SLEP) modifications will hinder or eliminate amphibious ops.

Typical land speeds are approximately 100 km/h (62.5 mph) in either 4- or 8-wheel drive; however, fuel economy decreases in 8-wheel drive. The vehicles operate on diesel fuel. They are equipped with a M242 Bushmaster 25 mm cannon, two M240 7.62 mm machine guns, and two 4-barrel smoke grenade launchers located on the forward left and right sides of the turret. The crew is three; vehicle commander (VC), gunner, and driver; and four passengers (scouts) with combat gear.

The LAV-25's power plant
An LAV-25 conducts swim test at Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune
SLEP mods to a LAV-25 show new thermal shrouding over the exhaust
The LAV-25's rear passanger compartment

Armor[edit]

Destroyed LAV-25 during the 1991 Gulf War

The LAV-25 is a lightly armored vehicle. The base model is protected by light gauge high hardness steel armor (MIL-A-46100), varying in nominal thickness from 4.71 mm to 9.71 mm. This level of high-hardness steel armor is intended only to offer protection against small arms rounds such as the common 7.62x39mm M1943 ball used by the AKM, to achieve the lowest possible weight and cost.[7]

Variants[edit]

LAV-25[edit]

Standard LAV fitted with a turret with 360° traverse, armed with an M242 25 mm chain gun with 420 rounds of 25 mm ammunition, both M791 APDS-T (Armour Piercing Discarding Sabot-Tracer) and M792 HEI-T (High Explosive Incendiary-Tracer), of which half is ready for use. One hundred fifty rounds are ready for use from one stowage bin, 60 from another stowage bin, the other 210 rounds are stowed elsewhere in the vehicle. A coaxial M240C machine gun is mounted alongside the M242, and a pintle-mounted M240B/G machine gun, with 1,320 rounds of 7.62 mm ammunition, is mounted on the turret roof. The Canadian Army uses an upgraded version of this chassis for its Coyote Armoured Reconnaissance Vehicle.

LAV-25A1[edit]

The vehicle has been through many changes through the late 1990s. The new modification or SLEP has changed the LAV-25 to the LAV-25A1 standard and has been completely fielded.

LAV-25A2[edit]

A U.S. Air Force C-17 delivers a U.S. Marine Corps LAV-25A2 at 1,500 ft (457 m) over Fort Bragg...
and airdropped onto Sicily Drop Zone...
where paratroopers rapidly prepare the LAV and its weapons for action...
then test-fire its weapons as part of OTC's airdrop certification.

Funding has been approved for continued upgrades to the LAV family to bring them up to the LAV-A2 standard. Phase I improvements include increased external and internal ballistic armor upgrades, improved fire suppression equipment, and upgrading the vehicle's suspension to the Generation II standard.[8] Phase II upgrades include replacing the turret hydraulics with an electric drive system and replacing the thermal sight with an improved model incorporating a laser range finder for aircraft.

To reflect the improved significant survivability and capability enhancements occurring today, the LAV is being renamed as the LAV-A2. The LAV-A2 project involved developing and installing an internal and external ballistic protection upgrade package, developed by Armatec Survivability,[9] for the Light Armored Vehicles, an automatic fire suppression system for the interior of the vehicle and a Generation II suspension upgrade to support the added weight of the new armor. The suspension upgrade includes new struts/steering knuckles, torsion bars, shocks and mounts and drive shaft. The three-kit armor system provides the LAV with additional survivability against improvised explosive devices (IED) and direct-fire kinetic energy weapons.

The LAV-25A2 includes the Improved Thermal Sight System (ITSS) developed by Raytheon, scheduled for fielding by the end of 2007. The ITSS provides the gunner and commander with thermal images, an eye-safe laser range finder, a fire-control solution and far-target location target grid information.[10]

The new armor will provide protection from 14.5 mm armor-piercing rounds, and include an anti-spall lining on the inside to further protect crew members. It will be similar to the protection found on the U.S. Army's LAV III "Stryker" variant.[11][12]

Tests by the U.S. Army's Operational Test Command (OTC), Airborne and Special Operations Test Directorate at Fort Bragg demonstrated that the LAV-25A2 could be airdropped from transport aircraft, a capability of interest to Army airborne units.[13] On 26 October 2018, Alpha Company, 4th Battalion, 68th Armor Regiment, 1st Brigade Combat Team of the 82nd Airborne Division was activated equipped with ex-USMC LAV-25A2s.[14]

Derivatives[edit]

  • The LAV-AT with the 901A1 TOW-2
    LAV-AT (Anti-Tank)
LAV fitted with an Emerson 901A1 TOW-2 ATGM (Anti-Tank Guided Missile) launcher, the same turret that was fitted on the M901 ITV (Improved TOW Vehicle). It is also armed with a pintle-mounted M240E1 or M240B general-purpose machine gun. It carries a total of 16 TOW missiles, and 1,000 rounds of 7.62 mm ammunition.
LAV-ATM (Modernization) replaces the Emerson turret with the Modified Target Acquisition System (MTAS) turret. Improvements include always being in the up position to scan and track while moving and a more reliable digital design.[15] The turret is also unmanned, can fire both wire-guided and radio frequency TOW missiles, has an improved thermal sight, Far Target Location system, new commander/gunner video sight displays, and an electric elevation and azimuth drive system to rotate the system onto target. Development began in 2012 and fielding started in September 2017.[16]
  • LAV-M (Mortar)
LAV fitted with opening doors on the top, inside it is fitted with an 81 mm M252 mortar, with 360° traverse, and a pintle-mounted M240E1 machine gun. It carries 99 81 mm mortar shells, and 1,000 rounds of 7.62 mm ammunition.
  • The LAV-AD during live-fire exercise
    LAV-AD (Air Defense)
LAV fitted with an electric turret mounting a General Dynamics GAU-12 Equalizer 25 mm (0.984 in) 5-barreled Gatling cannon, and two missile pods each with 4 FIM-92 Stinger missiles for Short Range Air Defense (SHORAD) duties. Capacity for 990 rounds of 25 mm ammunition, and 16 (including 8 reload rounds) FIM-92 Stinger missiles. This variant has been removed from service.[citation needed] A variant using the Mistral missile in place of Stingers was developed for the export market.[17]
  • LAV-R (Recovery)
LAV fitted with a boom crane, and recovery winch, for use in recovery of vehicles, specifically other LAVs. It is armed with a pintle-mounted M240E1/G machine gun, and carries 1,000 rounds of 7.62 mm ammunition.
  • LAV-C2 (Command & Control)
LAV with a raised roof to accommodate several VHF, UHF and HF radios. It is armed with a pintle-mounted M240E1/G machine gun, and carries 1,000 rounds of 7.62 mm ammunition. Generally referred to as the C2 ("C-square" or "C-two").
  • LAV-LOG (Logistics)
LAV modified for use in a logistics role (e.g., cargo transport).
  • LAV-MEWSS (Mobile Electronic Warfare Support System)
LAV modified for use in an electronic warfare role. Specific details of this variant are classified.
  • LAV-EFSS (Expeditionary Fire Support System)
Proposed replacement for LAV-M, LAV fitted with provisions to use Dragon Fire, a 120 mm recoil mortar system.

An unknown variant is used by at least one civilian law enforcement agency.[18]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Michael Green; Greg Stewart (2003). Modern U.S. tanks & AFVs. Zenith Imprint. ISBN 9780760314678. Retrieved 29 January 2011.
  2. ^ "LAV-25".
  3. ^ "LAV-25". Military-Today.com. ARG. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
  4. ^ Lamothe, Dan (11 May 2009). "Corps has big plans to upgrade LAV fleet". Marine Corps Times. Archived from the original on 21 June 2013. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
  5. ^ A force of one: LAV-ATs test modernization upgrades - Dvidshub.net, 27 March 2014
  6. ^ Marines Want Armored Recon Prototypes By 2023: F-35 On Wheels Or FCS Redux?. Breaking Defense. 10 May 2018.
  7. ^ Thomas G. Melvin. "LAV ARMOR PLATE STUDY". U.S. ARMY MATERIALS TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY, April 1992. Page 1.
  8. ^ MCA Continues LAV Upgrades Archived September 25, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.
  9. ^ GovTribe. "Contract Activity: LAV Armor and Ballistic Protection Upgrade Packages". govtribe.com.
  10. ^ "Light Armored Vehicle (LAV)". Olive-drab.com. Retrieved 2012-11-09.
  11. ^ "Spending outlook: Marine Corps procurement forecast clouded by bleak budget projections. - Free Online Library". Thefreelibrary.com. Retrieved 2012-11-09.
  12. ^ "DEFENSE NEWS: DTN News: General Dynamics To Supply 24 Light Armored Vehicles To the U.S. Marine Corps". Defensenews-updates.blogspot.com. 2010-08-14. Retrieved 2012-11-09.
  13. ^ 82nd Airborne Division's 3rd Brigade Combat Team airdrop tests Light Armor Vehicle - Army.mil, 25 January 2018
  14. ^ "Army's Newest Airborne Unit Gets Second-Hand But Air Droppable USMC LAV-25 Armored Vehicles". The Drive. 29 October 2018. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  15. ^ New LAV Anti-Tank Modernization A2 armored models with new rocket launcher for U.S. Marines - Armyrecognition.com, 24 June 2017
  16. ^ Program office begins fielding upgraded LAV Anti-Tank Weapon System to Marines - Marines.mil, 16 November 2017
  17. ^ "LAV-AD, United States of America". Army-Technology.com. Retrieved 27 April 2013.[unreliable source?]
  18. ^ Duchnowski, Jillian (15 June 2009). "Sheriff's vehicle has many uses". Northwest Herald. Retrieved 27 April 2013.

External links[edit]