Aminolevulinic acid

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δ-Aminolevulinic acid
Aminolevulinic acid.svg
Clinical data
Trade names Levulan, NatuALA, others
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ATC code
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Legal status
  • In general: ℞ (Prescription only)
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ECHA InfoCard 100.003.105 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
Formula C5H9NO3
Molar mass 131.13 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
Melting point 118 °C (244 °F)
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δ-Aminolevulinic acid (also dALA, δ-ALA, 5ALA or 5-aminolevulinic acid), an endogenous non-protein amino acid, is the first compound in the porphyrin synthesis pathway, the pathway that leads to heme[1] in mammals and chlorophyll[2] in plants.

5ALA is used in photo dynamic detection [3][4][5][6] and photo dynamic surgery of cancer.[3][4][5][6]

Medical uses[edit]

Being a precursor of a photosensitizer, 5ALA is also used as an add on agent for photodynamic therapy.[7]. In contrast to larger photosensitizer molecules, it is predicted by computer simulations to be able to penetrate tumor cell membranes.[8]

Cancer diagnosis[edit]

Photodynamic detection is the use of photosensitive drugs with a light source of the right wavelength for the detection of cancer, using fluorescence of the drug.[3] 5ALA, or derivatives thereof, can be used to visualize bladder cancer by fluorescence imaging.[3]

Cancer treatment[edit]

Aminolevulinic acid is being studied for photodynamic therapy (PDT) in a number of types of cancer.[9] It is not currently a first line treatment for Barrett's esophagus.[10] Its use in brain cancer is currently experimental.[11] It has been studied in a number of gynecological cancers.[12]

It is used to visualise tumorous tissue in neurosurgical procedures.[4] Studies since 2006 have shown that the intraoperative use of this guiding method may reduce the tumour residual volume and prolong progression-free survival in people with malignant gliomas.[5][6] The US FDA approved aminolevulinic acid hydrochloride (ALA HCL) for this use in 2017.[13]

Side effects[edit]

Side effects may include liver damage and nerve problems.[10] Hyperthermia may also occur.[11] Deaths have also resulted.[10]

Biosynthesis[edit]

In non-photosynthetic eukaryotes such as animals, fungi, and protozoa, as well as the Alphaproteobacteria class of bacteria, it is produced by the enzyme ALA synthase, from glycine and succinyl CoA. This reaction is known as the Shemin pathway, which occurs in mitochondria.[14]

In plants, algae, bacteria (except for the α-proteobacteria group) and archaea, it is produced from glutamic acid via glutamyl-tRNA and glutamate-1-semialdehyde. The enzymes involved in this pathway are glutamyl-tRNA synthetase, glutamyl-tRNA reductase, and glutamate-1-semialdehyde 2,1-aminomutase. This pathway is known as the C5 or Beale pathway.[15][16] In most plastid-containing species, glutamyl-tRNA is encoded by a plastid gene, and the transcription, as well as the following steps of C5 pathway, take place in plastids.[17]

Importance in humans[edit]

Activation of mitochondria[edit]

In humans, 5ALA is a precursor to heme.[1] Biosynthesized, 5ALA goes through a series of transformations in the cytosol and finally gets converted to Protoporphyrin IX inside the mitochondria.[18][19] This protoporphyrin molecule chelates with iron in presence of enzyme ferrochelatase to produce Heme.[18][19]

Heme increases the mitochondrial activity thereby helping in activation of respiratory system Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Chain[20] leading to formation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) for adequate supply of energy to the body.[20] So, 5ALA increases the Basal Metabolic Rate of an individual thereby increasing glucose consumption and it helps in addressing the problem of low energy levels of patients.[21]

Accumulation of Protoporphyrin IX[edit]

Cancer cells lack or have reduced ferrochelatase activity and this results in accumulation of Protoporphyrin IX, a fluorescence generating substance, that can easily be visualized.[3]

Induction of Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1)[edit]

Excess heme is converted in macrophages to Biliverdin and ferrous ions by the enzyme HO-1. Biliverdin formed further gets converted to Bilirubin and carbon monoxide.[22] Biliverdin and Bilirubin are potent anti oxidants and regulate important biological processes like inflammation, apoptosis, cell proliferation, fibrosis and angiogenesis.[22]

Plants[edit]

In plants, production of 5ALA is the step on which the speed of synthesis of chlorophyll is regulated.[2] Plants that are fed by external 5ALA accumulate toxic amounts of chlorophyll precursor, protochlorophyllide, indicating that the synthesis of this intermediate is not suppressed anywhere downwards in the chain of reaction. Protochlorophyllide is a strong photosensitizer in plants.[23]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Gardener, L.C.; Cox, T.M. (1988). "Biosynthesis of heme in immature erythroid cells". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 263: 6676–6682. 
  2. ^ a b Wettstein, D.; Gough, S.; Kannangara, C.G. (1995). "Chlorophyll biosynthesis". Plant Cell. 7: 1039–1057. doi:10.1105/tpc.7.7.1039. PMC 160907Freely accessible. 
  3. ^ a b c d e Wagnières, G.., Jichlinski, P., Lange, N., Kucera, P., Van den Bergh, H. (2014). Detection of Bladder Cancer by Fluorescence Cystoscopy: From Bench to Bedside - the Hexvix Story. Handbook of Photomedicine, 411-426.
  4. ^ a b c Eyüpoglu, Ilker Y.; Buchfelder, Michael; Savaskan, Nic E. (2013). "Surgical resection of malignant gliomas—role in optimizing patient outcome". Nature Reviews Neurology. 9 (3): 141–51. doi:10.1038/nrneurol.2012.279. PMID 23358480. 
  5. ^ a b c Stummer, W; Pichlmeier, U; Meinel, T; Wiestler, OD; Zanella, F; Reulen, HJ (2006). "Fluorescence-guided surgery with 5-aminolevulinic acid for resection of malignant glioma: a randomised controlled multicentre phase III trial". Lancet Oncol. 7 (5): 392. doi:10.1016/s1470-2045(06)70665-9. 
  6. ^ a b c Eyüpoglu, Ilker Y.; Hore, Nirjhar; Savaskan, Nic E.; Grummich, Peter; Roessler, Karl; Buchfelder, Michael; Ganslandt, Oliver (2012). Berger, Mitch, ed. "Improving the Extent of Malignant Glioma Resection by Dual Intraoperative Visualization Approach". PLoS ONE. 7 (9): e44885. PMC 3458892  PMID 23049761. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0044885
  7. ^ Yew, Y.W., Lai, Y.C., Lim, Y.L., Chong, W.S., Theng, C. (2016). Photodynamic therapy with topical 5% 5-aminolevulinic acid for the treatment of truncal acne in Asian patients. J Drugs Dermatol, 15, 727-732
  8. ^ Erdtman, Edvin. "Modelling the behavior of 5-aminolevulinic acid and its alkyl esters in a lipid bilayer". Chemical Physics Letters. 463 (1-3): 178. doi:10.1016/j.cplett.2008.08.021. 
  9. ^ Inoue, K (February 2017). "5-Aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy for bladder cancer". International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association. 24 (2): 97–101. doi:10.1111/iju.13291. PMID 28191719. 
  10. ^ a b c Qumseya, BJ; David, W; Wolfsen, HC (January 2013). "Photodynamic Therapy for Barrett's Esophagus and Esophageal Carcinoma". Clinical endoscopy. 46 (1): 30–7. doi:10.5946/ce.2013.46.1.30. PMC 3572348Freely accessible. PMID 23423151. 
  11. ^ a b Tetard, MC; Vermandel, M; Mordon, S; Lejeune, JP; Reyns, N (September 2014). "Experimental use of photodynamic therapy in high grade gliomas: a review focused on 5-aminolevulinic acid". Photodiagnosis and photodynamic therapy. 11 (3): 319–30. doi:10.1016/j.pdpdt.2014.04.004. PMID 24905843. 
  12. ^ Shishkova, N; Kuznetsova, O; Berezov, T (March 2012). "Photodynamic therapy for gynecological diseases and breast cancer". Cancer biology & medicine. 9 (1): 9–17. doi:10.3969/j.issn.2095-3941.2012.01.002. PMC 3643637Freely accessible. PMID 23691448. 
  13. ^ FDA Approves Fluorescing Agent for Glioma Surgery.June 2017
  14. ^ Ajioka, James; Soldati, Dominique, eds. (September 13, 2007). "22". Toxoplasma: Molecular and Cellular Biology (1 ed.). Taylor & Francis. p. 415. ISBN 9781904933342
  15. ^ Beale SI (August 1990). "Biosynthesis of the Tetrapyrrole Pigment Precursor, delta-Aminolevulinic Acid, from Glutamate". Plant Physiol. 93 (4): 1273–9. PMC 1062668.PMID 16667613. doi:10.1104/pp.93.4.1273
  16. ^ Willows, R.D. (2004). "Chlorophylls". In Goodman, Robert M. Encyclopaedia of Plant and Crop Science. Marcel Dekker. pp. 258–262. ISBN 0-8247-4268-0
  17. ^ Biswal, Basanti; Krupinska, Karin; Biswal, Udaya, eds. (2013). Plastid Development in Leaves during Growth and Senescence (Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration). Dordrecht: Springer. p. 508. ISBN 9789400757233
  18. ^ a b Malik, Z; Djaldetti, M (1979). 5 aminolevulinic acid stimulation of porphyrin and hemoglobin synthesis by uninduced Friend erythroleukemic cells. Cell Differentiation, 8(3), 223-33
  19. ^ a b Olivo, M.; Bhuvaneswari, R.; Keogh, I. (2011). "Advances in Bio-Optical Imaging for the Diagnosis of Early Oral Cancer". Pharmaceutics. 3: 354–378. doi:10.3390/pharmaceutics3030354. 
  20. ^ a b Ogura S, Maruyama K, Hagiya Y, Sugiyama Y, Tsuchiya K, Takahashi K, Fuminori A, Tabata K, Okura I, Nakajima M, Tanaka T (2011). "The effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid on cytochrome c oxidase activity in liver mouse". BMC Research Notes. 17 (4): 6. doi:10.1186/1756-0500-4-66. 
  21. ^ Bratic, I., Trifunovic, A. (2010). Mitochondrial energy and ageing. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta-Bioenergetics, 1797,961-967.
  22. ^ a b Loboda, A; Damulewicz, M; Pyza, E; Jozkowicz, A; Dulak, J (2016). "Role of Nrf2/HO-1 system in development, oxidative stress response and disease: an evolutionary conserved mechanism". Cell Mol Life Sci. 73: 3221–47. doi:10.1007/s00018-016-2223-0. 
  23. ^ Kotzabasis, K., Senger, H. (1990).The influence of 5-aminolevulinic acid on protochlorophyllide and protochlorophyll accumulation in dark-grown Scenedesmus. Z. Naturforch, 45, 71-73