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Italy has been the source of many significant inventions. The following inventions and discoveries were made by people that lived in the geographical region of Italy or were made by Italians.
Arduino In 2005, in Ivrea, Italy, a project was initiated to make a device for controlling student-built interaction design projects with less expense than with other prototyping systems available at the time.
Automobile, the Italian word given by Francesco Di Giorgio Martini to drawings he made in 1470. The Italian meaning is "move by itself". Later on his colleague, Leonardo da Vinci also came up with drawings in 1495.
cAD3 vaccine an experimental Ebola virus vaccine developed by Swiss-Italian biotechnology company Oikaros under the leadership of Dr Riccardo Cortese. Clinical trials are starting in the Fall of 2014.
Cam hammer invented in the 1480s by Leonardo da Vinci
Doxorubicin a chemotherapy agent invented by Farmitalia Spa in the 1950s.
Dry Compass was invented by Flavio Gioja (fl. 1302), an Italian pilot from Amalfi, has been credited with perfecting the sailor's compass by suspending its needle over a compass card, thus giving the compass its familiar appearance.
Knockout mice, genetically engineered mice which are used to study the function of genes, developed by Italian-born US Scientist Mario Capecchi in 1989. Prof Capecchi was awarded the 2007 Nobel Prize in Medicine for this innovation.
Magnesium Battery. An unusual type of Magnesium Battery was invented in 1999 by Vito di Noto and Maurizio Fami at the University of Padua. Able to store twice the energy of a lithium battery of the same weight.
Musical notation, staff notation invented by Guido d'Arezzo in 1028 AD. To this day, the entire world's maestro's still exclusively uses the Italian language to describe how the notation is to be played.
Opera House, the first public opera house was the "Teatro San Cassiano" opened in Venice in 1637 and survived until 1800.
Oxygen rebreather, a design for an ARO apparatus which was practical and reliable was developed in Italy by Dario Gonzatti-Emilio Cressi—Duilio Marcante in the 1930s. Emilio Cressi became the founder of the Italian company Cressi-Sub.
Pantelegraph, a device for telegraphic transmission of writing and drawing invented by Giovanni Caselli. Commercial service started in 1865. It was the first functional Fax Machine to enter commercial service
Parachute, first described by Leonardo da Vinci in 1480. His design was built to the original specifications and it actually worked in a test
Parawing, developed in 1957 by Francis Rogallo, an Italian-American engineer.
Shopping Center The earliest example of public shopping mall was the Trajan's Market in Ancient Rome built around 100-110 AD by Apollodorus of Damascus.
Spring powered cart A self-propelled mechanical cart, part of a larger robot, designed by Leonardo da Vinci in the 1480s
Stem cells as vectors for Gene Therapy: In 1992 Doctor Claudio Bordignon working at the Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy performed the first procedure of gene therapy using hematopoietic stem cells as vectors to deliver genes intended to correct hereditary diseases
Stem cell transplant to treat Systemic Lupus Erythematosus was first attempted by Alberto Marmont De Haut Champs in 1996.
Star fort It was first seen in the mid-15th century in Italy
Stiletto, a type of narrow dagger which appeared in the Middle Ages
Vega (rocket) a rocket developed chiefly in Italy (65%) with the collaboration of other European Nations (Spain, Belgium, The Netherlands, Switzerland and Sweden). First flight took place in 2012. The last stage of the rocket has the ability to use the propulsion system to adjust the orbit.
Vibram rubber soles, invented in 1937 by Vitale Bramani
Welfare The earliest form of welfare was the lex frumentaria instituted by the tribune Gaius Gracchus dating back to 122 B.C., a law that ordered Rome’s government to supply its citizens with allotments of cheaply priced grain.
The Space Tether Experiment in 1996 was a collaboration between NASA and Italy and called for a scientific payload--a large, spherical satellite--to be deployed from the US space shuttle at the end of a conducting cable (tether) 20 km (12.5 miles) long. The idea was to let the shuttle drag the tether across the Earth's magnetic field, producing one part of a dynamo circuit. The experiment worked, proving that large amounts of electricity were produced, so much so that the tether itself was melted
Comau an Italian company who is a leader in industrial automation and developed many innovations in this field. In particular the Smart5 line of industrial robots. Today all major automotive manufacturers use Comau machines.
Latin alphabet derived from the Greek alphabets became the foundation of many languages worldwide.
Eurofighter Typhoon. Italy is one of the members of the multinational consortium that builds the Typhoon. The aircraft is innovative because the goal of its designers was extreme agility at high speeds, unlike aircraft such as the Sukhoi 27 and the F-22, which opted for agility at slow speed. To this, one must add the ability to supercruise, sustain very high G turns thanks to a special suit worn by its pilots and the ability to engage off-boresight targets. The aircraft is low-observable and is hard to spot with the naked eye, while its IRST sensor allows it to detect "stealth" aircraft at great range. Armed with the new IRIS-T missile, it becomes a formidable dogfighter.
Fabian strategy. A guerrilla-warfare strategy first impelemented by Quintus Fabius Maximus "Cunctator" in 217 BC
Fiat G.91a very successful attack plane which served in many NATO air forces.
Franchi SPAS-15 A legendary automatic shotgun which earned the nickname of the "Key of the Commando". It was featured in the 2002 action movie Showtime, but its Italian origin was not revealed and it was characterized as a "custom job, probably from Eastern Europe".
IRIS-T a missile developed by a German-led consortium, in which Italy holds a 19% stake. The missile was developed after the Luftwaffe realized that the AA-11 Archer missile was far more advanced than first thought. As of 2014 IRIS-T is one of the most capable and most agile air-to-air missiles and vastly outclasses both the Sidewinder and the Archer.
Panavia Tornado an attack aircraft designed for the interdiction role by a consortium formed by the United Kingdom, Germany and Italy
PIRATE, The Passive Infra-Red Airborne Track Equipment system is an infrared search and track (IRST) system mounted on the Eurofighter Typhoon. SELEX Galileo is an Italian company which is the leading contractor on the project. PIRATE is capable of detecting stealth aircraft at surprising ranges, thus effectively negating the advantage of stealth.
Puma (AFV) a family of wheeled armoured fighting vehicles
^Avogadro, Amedeo (1811), "Essai d'une maniere de determiner les masses relatives des molecules elementaires des corps, et les proportions selon lesquelles elles entrent dans ces combinaisons", Journal de Physique73: 58–76.English translation.
^American Society of Mechanical Engineers (1906), Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 27, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, p. 441
^Dante Bini (2009); A cavallo di un soffio d'aria, L'architettura autoformante, Guerini e Associati editore ISBN 88-6250-172-2
^Bossi, Enea (12 1960). "A man has flown by his own power in 1937". Canadian Aeronautical Journal 6 (10): 395–399
^Attlee, 2006: 46. The University of Pisa claims that its botanical garden was founded in 1543 and that of Padua, the Orto Botanico di Padova, was founded in 1545, giving them the oldest garden, Attlee, Helena. Italian Gardens - A Cultural History, Francis Lincoln Limited Publishers, 2006
^Reti, Ladislao; Di Giorgio Martini, Francesco (Summer 1963). "Francesco di Giorgio (Armani) Martini's Treatise on Engineering and Its Plagiarists". Technology and Culture4 (3): 287–298 (290). doi:10.2307/3100858.
^Podolsky, M. Lawrence (1998) Cures Out of Chaos: How Unexpected Discoveries Led to Breakthroughs in Medicine and Health, Harwood Academic Publishers
^Roberts, Colin H; Skeat, TC (1983). The Birth of the Codex. London: British Academy. pp. 15–22. ISBN 0-19-726061-6.
^Alternating currents of electricity: their generation, measurement, distribution, and application by Gisbert Kapp, William Stanley, Jr.. Johnston, 1893. Page 140. [cf., This direction has been first indicated by Professor Galileo Ferraris, of Turin, some six years ago. Quite independent of Ferraris, the same discovery was also made by Nikola Tesla, of New York; and since the practical importance of the discovery has been recognized, quite a host of original discoverers have come forward, each claiming to be the first.]
^Larned, J. N., & Reiley, A. C. (1901). History for ready reference: From the best historians, biographers, and specialists; their own words in a complete system of history. Springfield, Mass: The C.A. Nichols Co.. Page 440. [cf., At about the same time , Galileo Ferraris, in Italy, and Nikola Tesla, in the United States, brought out motors operating by systems of alternating currents displaced from one another in phase by definite amounts and producing what is known as the rotating magnetic field.]
^The Electrical engineer. (1888). London: Biggs & Co. Pg., 239. [cf., "[...] new application of the alternating current in the production of rotary motion was made known almost simultaneously by two experimenters, Nikola Tesla and Galileo Ferraris, and the subject has attracted general attention from the fact that no commutator or connection of any kind with the armature was required."]
^Galileo Ferraris, "Electromagnetic rotation with an alternating current," Electrican, Vol 36 . pg 360-75.
^"La documentazione essenziale per l'attribuzione della scoperta". The request bears the no. 700 of Volume VII of the Patent Office of the Reign of Piedmont. We do not have the text of the patent request, only a photo of the table which contains a drawing of the engine. We do not even know if it was a new patent or an extension of the patent granted three days earlier, on 30 December 1857, at Turin.
^Ciampaglia Giuseppe: "La propulsione a reazione in Italia dalle origini al 1943". Edito da Ufficio Storico Aeronautica Militare Italiana. Roma 2002.
^Helmut Schippel: Die Anfänge des Erfinderschutzes in Venedig, in: Uta Lindgren (Hrsg.): Europäische Technik im Mittelalter. 800 bis 1400. Tradition und Innovation, 4. Aufl., Berlin 2001, S.539-550 ISBN 3-7861-1748-9
^, NYT, "Amazing Leonardo da Vinci Inventions".
^, Olivetti Programma 101 "Perottina", December 18, 2013.
^"Desk-Top Size Computer Is Being Sold by Olivetti For First Time in US". Wall Street Journal. October 15, 1965.
^(1) Paoletti, Enzo, Bernard R. Lipinskas, Carol Samsonoff, Susan Mercer, and Dennis Panicali (1984) "Construction of Live Vaccines Using Genetically Engineered Poxviruses: Biological Activity of Vaccinia Virus Recombinants Expressing the Hepatitis B Virus Surface Antigen and the Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoprotein D" Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81:193-197 (2) Panicali, Dennis, Stephen W. Davis, Randall L. Weinberg, Enzo Paoletti (1983) "Construction of Live Vaccines by Using Genetically Engineered Poxviruses: Biological Activity of Recombinant Vaccinia Virus Expressing Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin" Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80:5364-5368 (3) US Patent 4722848 - Method for immunizing animals with synthetically modified vaccinia virus
^Several Italian encyclopaedias define Meucci as the inventor of the telephone, including: - the prestigious "Treccani" - the Italian version of Microsoft digital encyclopaedia, Encarta. - Enciclopedia Italiana di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti (Italian Encyclopedia of Science, Literature and Arts).
^J. John Lighton Synge; Alfred Schild (1978). Tensor Calculus. Courier Dover Publications. p. 142. ISBN978-0-486-14139-8.
^Administration of Cardiac Stem Cells in Patients With Ischemic Cardiomyopathy: The SCIPIO Trial: Surgical Aspects and Interim Analysis of Myocardial Function and Viability by Magnetic Resonance. Chugh AR, Beache GM, Loughran JH, Mewton N, Elmore JB, Kajstura J, Pappas P, Tatooles A, Stoddard MF, Lima JA, Slaughter MS, Anversa P, Bolli R. Circulation. 2012 Sep 11;126(11 Suppl 1):S54-64
^Nature. 2003 Aug 7;424(6949):635. Pregnancy: a cloned horse born to its dam twin. Galli C, Lagutina I, Crotti G, Colleoni S, Turini P, Ponderato N, Duchi R, Lazzari G.
^Giulio Douhet, Command of the Air (USAF Warrior Studies), Office of Air Force History, United States Government Printing Office (1983), trade paperback, ISBN 0-912799-10-2; trade paperback, Airforce History Museums Pro (1998), 406 pages, ISBN 0-16-049772-8; hardcover, Arno Press (1942), 396 pages, ISBN 0-405-04567-0; hardcover, Natraj Publishers, (2003), 325 pages, ISBN 81-8158-002-8; first published in 1921; Coward McCann & Geoghegan, (1942), hardcover, 394 pages; Faber and Faber (1943), hardcover 325 pages; Collector's Edition, Easton Press, Library of Military History (1994), ISBN 0-405-04567-0