Moon Boot created in 1970 by Italian company Tecnica
Mountain Troops as modern concept of troops specialized in sustaining mountain warfare were created in 1872 when the first 15 Alpini companies were officially issued by Kingdom of Italy Royal Decree n. 1056, October 15, 1872.
Pantelegraph, a device for telegraphic transmission of writing and drawing invented by Giovanni Caselli. Commercial service started in 1865. It was the first functional Fax Machine to enter commercial service
Shopping Center The earliest example of public shopping mall was the Trajan's Market in Ancient Rome built around 100-110 AD by Apollodorus of Damascus.
Stem cells as vectors for Gene Therapy: In 1992 Doctor Claudio Bordignon working at the Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy performed the first procedure of gene therapy using hematopoietic stem cells as vectors to deliver genes intended to correct hereditary diseases
Star fort It was first seen in the mid-15th century in Italy
Stiletto, a type of narrow dagger which appeared in the Middle Ages
Vespa On 23 April 1946, at 12 o'clock in the central office for inventions, models and makes of the Ministry of Industry and Commerce in Florence, Piaggio e C. S.p.A. took out a patent for a "motorcycle of a rational complexity of organs and elements combined with a frame with mudguards and a casing covering the whole mechanical part". This design became one of the most popular motoscooters worldwide and is still in production.
Watermark This medieval innovation was first introduced in Fabriano, Italy, in 1282.
Welfare The earliest form of welfare was the lex frumentaria instituted by the tribune Gaius Gracchus dating back to 122 B.C., a law that ordered Rome’s government to supply its citizens with allotments of cheaply priced grain.
^Attlee, 2006: 46. The University of Pisa claims that its botanical garden was founded in 1543 and that of Padua, the Orto Botanico di Padova, was founded in 1545, giving them the oldest garden, Attlee, Helena. Italian Gardens - A Cultural History, Francis Lincoln Limited Publishers, 2006
^Adler, Michael H. (1973) The writing machine (London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd.)
^Reti, Ladislao; Di Giorgio Martini, Francesco (Summer 1963). "Francesco di Giorgio (Armani) Martini's Treatise on Engineering and Its Plagiarists". Technology and Culture. 4 (3): 287–298 (290). doi:10.2307/3100858.
^Podolsky, M. Lawrence (1998) Cures Out of Chaos: How Unexpected Discoveries Led to Breakthroughs in Medicine and Health, Harwood Academic Publishers
^Roberts, Colin H; Skeat, TC (1983). The Birth of the Codex. London: British Academy. pp. 15–22. ISBN 0-19-726061-6.
^The inventions that changed the world, Reader's Digest (1982) [Portuguese edition of 1983]
^, Olivetti Programma 101 "Perottina", December 18, 2013.
^"Desk-Top Size Computer Is Being Sold by Olivetti For First Time in US". Wall Street Journal. October 15, 1965.
^Ronchi, Vasco (1970). "Amici, Giovan Battista". Dictionary of Scientific Biography. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. ISBN 0-684-10114-9.
^Larry E. Ashley, Pierce Piano Atlas, 12th edition, Larry E. Ashley Publisher, Albuquerque, NM U.S.A., 2008, p.58.
^Alternating currents of electricity: their generation, measurement, distribution, and application by Gisbert Kapp, William Stanley, Jr.. Johnston, 1893. Page 140. [cf., This direction has been first indicated by Professor Galileo Ferraris, of Turin, some six years ago. Quite independent of Ferraris, the same discovery was also made by Nikola Tesla, of New York; and since the practical importance of the discovery has been recognized, quite a host of original discoverers have come forward, each claiming to be the first.]
^Larned, J. N., & Reiley, A. C. (1901). History for ready reference: From the best historians, biographers, and specialists; their own words in a complete system of history. Springfield, Mass: The C.A. Nichols Co.. Page 440. [cf., At about the same time , Galileo Ferraris, in Italy, and Nikola Tesla, in the United States, brought out motors operating by systems of alternating currents displaced from one another in phase by definite amounts and producing what is known as the rotating magnetic field.]
^The Electrical engineer. (1888). London: Biggs & Co. Pg., 239. [cf., "[...] new application of the alternating current in the production of rotary motion was made known almost simultaneously by two experimenters, Nikola Tesla and Galileo Ferraris, and the subject has attracted general attention from the fact that no commutator or connection of any kind with the armature was required."]
^Galileo Ferraris, "Electromagnetic rotation with an alternating current," Electrican, Vol 36 . pg 360-75.