List of Korean inventions and discoveries

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

This is a list of Korean inventions and discoveries.

Agriculture[edit]

Early cultivation of the soybean dates back to 4,000 years ago, and originates in Manchuria and the Korean peninsula.[1][2] Early Chinese records mention that soybeans were gifted from the region encompassing Manchuria and Korea.[3] The first unambiguously domesticated, cultigen-sized soybean was discovered in Korea at the Mumun-period Daundong site.[4][5]
Greenhouses in which the temperature could be manually manipulated first appeared in 15th century Korea. The 15th century treatise, the Sanga Yorok, contains descriptions of greenhouses designed to regulate the temperature and humidity requirements of plants and crops. One of the earliest records of the Annals of the Joseon Dynasty in 1438 confirms growing mandarin orange trees in a traditional Korean greenhouse during the winter and installing an ondol system to provide heat.[6]
The first standardized pluviometer (rain gauge), called the cheugugi, was invented during the reign of Sejong the Great in the Joseon dynasty of Korea.[7][8][9][10][11] The cheugugi was used throughout the country for official purposes. In the 15th century, Korea was the only country to use a quantitative measuring device for the purpose of meteorological observation.[11]
In 1441, the Joseon scientist Jang Yeong-sil invented the world's first water gauge, called the supyo (수표/水標).[12][13] The supyo was a calibrated column, installed midstream adjacent to a bridge, that indicated drought, normal, and flood levels.[8]

Architecture[edit]

In the ondol system, heat and smoke from the kitchen stove circulates under the building, warming the floors, then exits through the chimneys.
Namhan Mountain Fortress
Gyeongcheonsa Pagoda
One of the earliest systems of underfloor heating, dating back 2,500 years, was invented and widely used by Koreans. The Korean ondol heating system was thought to be the oldest of its kind until the recent archaeological discovery of a similar heating system in the Alaskan Aleutian Islands. However, the archaeologist who discovered it agrees with Korean researchers that the two systems developed independently, based on the distance of 5,000 kilometers and the absence of ondol in the areas between them.[14][15][16] Despite this, there has also been hypothesis that whale-hunting people from the Korean peninsula have migrated to Alaska by sea during the time period, and this could explain the phenomenon.[17][18][19] Inspired by the Korean ondol hydronic radiant floor heating system, the American architect Frank Lloyd Wright developed and introduced the first "radiant heating system" using hot water pipes.[20][21]
The ancient Silla kingdom created an early refrigeration system called seokbinggo, which were subterranean chambers used to store ice and food.[22][23]
Koreans developed a unique and distinct fortress tradition.[24] There are numerous types of Korean fortresses, including sanseong (mountain fortress), eupseong (city fortress), pyeongjiseong, gwanseong, jangseong, chaekseong, and more.[25] Korean fortresses were based on a stone culture and built using stones, and often incorporated natural mountainous terrain, and therefore were conceptually completely different compared to Chinese fortresses, which were based on an earth culture and built using bricks from earth.[26][27] Korean fortresses were invented by Goguryeo and spread to Baekje and Silla,[28] and then inherited and further developed by Goryeo and then Joseon.[27] Goguryeo fortress ruins have been found in about 170 sites to date, including in China;[29] one of the most notable among them is Anshi Fortress, which successfully defended against Tang Taizong during the Goguryeo–Tang War.[30][31] Korea, especially Goguryeo,[25][29][32] has often been called the "country of (mountain) fortresses";[24][27][33][34] almost 2,400 mountain fortress sites have been found in Korea.[24][27] Korean-style fortresses can also be found in Japan, which were constructed and supervised by immigrants of Baekje origin.[27]
Koreans created a unique and distinct pagoda tradition using stone.[35][36][37] Pagodas were created in India using earth, then in China using wood, which spread to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, and then Japan; however, the pagoda tradition of East Asia diverged, with China creating pagodas using bricks, Korea creating pagodas using stone, and Japan continuing to use wood.[38][39][40][41][42] Korean stone pagodas were first created in Baekje during the early 7th century and then inherited by Later Silla; 90% of the pagodas in Later Silla were made of stone.[38] The stone pagoda tradition was propagated by the great abundance of high quality granite in Korea,[43] which also led to other granite creations such as the Seokguram and Cheomseongdae. Goryeo, a devoutly Buddhist state, also inherited the stone pagoda tradition.[44] Examples of Korean stone pagodas are: Mireuksa of Baekje; Dabo Pagoda and Jungang Pagoda of Later Silla; Gyeongcheonsa Pagoda of Goryeo; and Wongaksa Pagoda of Joseon. Examples of Korean wood pagodas are: Hwangnyongsa and Palsangjeon of Silla.

Astronomy[edit]

The earliest known constellation patterns in Korea can be found on dolmens dating back to 3000 BC.[45] The Cheonsang Yeolcha Bunyajido is a planisphere inscribed on black marble that was completed in 1395 during the reign of King Taejo; according to its inscription, it is based on a star chart from ancient Goguryeo that was lost during wartime. It is known as the world’s second oldest star chart engraved in stone, after the Chinese Suzhou Star Chart of 1247. However, the Cheonsang Yeolcha Bunyajido's stellar positions indicate an epoch dating back to the first century AD, thus making it the oldest actual representation of the stars in the world.[46]
The Cheomseongdae is the oldest surviving astronomical observatory in Asia,[47][48][49] and possibly the world.[50][51][52] It was constructed in Seorabeol, the capital of Silla, during the reign of Queen Seondeok in the 7th century. Modeled on Baekje's Jeomseongdae, which now exists only in historical records, the Cheomseongdae influenced the construction of a Japanese observatory in 675, and Duke Zhou's observatory in China in 723.[53]

Writing[edit]

Hangul is the world's first featural writing system, wherein the shapes of the letters are not arbitrary, but encode phonological features of the phonemes they represent.[54] The Korean alphabet is unique among the world's writing systems, in that it combines aspects of featural, phonemic, and syllabic representation.[55] Hangul, originally named Hunminjeongeum, was created by Sejong the Great to promote literacy among the common people.[56]
Predating the creation of Hangul by hundreds of years, Koreans created various phonetic writing systems that were used in conjunction with Hanja, including: idu, hyangchal, gugyeol, and gakpil.[57][58][59][60] Some of them may have influenced the development of kana in Japan.[59][61][62]

Printing[edit]

Movable metal type was invented in Korea in the early thirteenth century,[63][64][65][66][67] predating Gutenberg’s invention in Europe by two centuries.[68] The first book to be printed with movable metal type is the Prescribed Ritual Texts of the Past and Present in 1234 during the Goryeo period.[69] The earliest surviving book to be printed with movable metal type is the Jikji, dated to 1377.[69][70] The first lead type in the world is the Byeongjinja created in 1436.[71] Metal types were called juja (cast characters), and the Joseon government operated the jujaso bureau, a continuation of Goryeo's seojeogwon, to print books and documents to be distributed to the central and local administrations, village schools, scholars, and officials.[72]
The world's oldest newspaper was published in 1577 during the Joseon period; it was a privately run commercial newspaper, printed daily, that covered a range of topics, including the weather, constellations, and current affairs and events.[73][74]

Music[edit]

Jeongganbo musical notation system
Jeongganbo is a unique traditional musical notation system created during the time of Sejong the Great that was the first East Asian system to represent rhythm, pitch, and time.[75][76]
First depicted in Goguryeo murals,[77] the janggu is the most representative drum in traditional Korean music.[78]
The most representative traditional instrument of Korea,[72] the gayageum was created in Gaya during the 6th century, and based on the Chinese guzheng.[79]
North Korea has developed many modernized instruments based on traditional instruments. The sohaegeum, junghaegeum, daehaegeum, and jeohaegeum are four-stringed fiddles of varying sizes, based on the traditional haegeum. The eoeungeum is a pear-shaped lute with 5 strings that is similar to the hyangbipa. The cheolhyeongeum and ongnyugeum are modernized zithers, and the jangsaenap is a modernized taepyeongso.[80]

Horology[edit]

In 1433, the scientist Jang Yeong-sil invented an automatic time-annunciating clepsydra called the Striking Palace Clepsydra under an order from Sejong the Great; the uniqueness of the clock was its capability to announce dual-times automatically with both visual and audible signals.[81] Jang developed a signal conversion technique that made it possible to measure analog time and announce digital time simultaneously as well as to separate the water mechanisms from the ball-operated striking mechanisms.[82] The conversion device was called pangmok, and was placed above the inflow vessel that measured the time, the first device of its kind in the world.[83] Hence, the Striking Palace Clepsydra is the first hydro-mechanically engineered dual-time clock in the history of horology.[84][85]

Ceramics[edit]

Inlaid celadon, 12th century
Buncheong, 15th century
Korean celadon reached its pinnacle with the invention of the sanggam inlay technique in the early 12th century during the Goryeo period.[86][87][88]
Jinsa "underglaze red", a technique using copper oxide pigment to create copper-red designs, was developed in Korea during the 12th century, and later inspired the "underglaze red" ceramics of the Yuan dynasty.[89][90][91][92]
During the Joseon period, Koreans applied the sanggam tradition to create buncheong ceramics.[93][94] In contrast to the refined elegance of Goryeo celadon, buncheong is designed to be natural, unassuming, and practical.[95] However, the buncheong tradition was gradually replaced by Joseon white porcelain, its aristocratic counterpart, and disappeared in Korea by the end of the 16th century.[94] Buncheong became known and prized in Japan as Mishima.[96][97][98]
The Japanese Karatsu style of ceramics originated in Korea.[99][100]

Traditional medicine[edit]

The traditional Korean sauna, called the hanjeungmak, is a domed structure constructed of stone that was first mentioned in the Sejong Sillok of the Annals of the Joseon Dynasty in the 15th century.[101][102] Supported by Sejong the Great, the hanjeungmak was touted for its health benefits and used to treat illnesses.[101] In the early 15th century, Buddhist monks maintained hanjeungmak clinics, called hanjeungso, to treat sick poor people; these clinics maintained separate facilities for men and women due to high demand.[103] Korean sauna culture and kiln saunas are still popular today, and Korean saunas are ubiquitous.[104]
Koryo hand acupuncture[105] is a modern system of acupuncture, created by Yu Tae-u in the 1970s,[106] in which the hand represents the entire body and is needled or stimulated during treatment.[107] Hand acupuncture is popular among the general population as a form of self-medication in Korea, and has adherents in Japan and North America;[106] it is also popular among overseas Koreans.[108] Korean hand acupuncture is different from American hand reflexology, another form of alternative medicine.[109]
In 1961, Kim Bong-han, a North Korean medical surgeon, first discovered a new circulatory system outside of the body’s blood vessels, nervous system or lymphatic system. This was termed the primo-vascular system, or PVS.[110] He postulated that the third vascular system cannot be associated with either the blood vessel system or the lymphatic system. He found evidence of the PVS in hydra, fish, amphibians, birds, and numerous mammals by using a “blue dye.” He concluded that PVS threads among lymphatic vessels, and blood vessels, corresponded to the meridians of traditional acupuncture.[111] The meridians are now called Bonghan ducts or channel, after his research.[112][110][113][114]

Military[edit]

Traditional[edit]

18th century depiction of the geobukseon
The hwacha is a mobile multiple rocket launcher that uses gunpowder to fire up to 200 singijeon rockets at one time. The hwacha was invented in 1409, but saw its greatest use during the Imjin War, most famously in the Battle of Haengju, in which 30,000 Japanese were repelled by 3,400 Koreans with the help of 40 hwachas.[115] Hwachas were used against both land and sea targets.[116]
The world's earliest naval gunships armed with mounted cannons were used to great success in 1380 at the Battle of Jinpo, in which Goryeo ships decimated Wokou pirates using newly developed gunpowder and cannons by Choe Museon.[117][118][119]
The turtle ship, also known as the geobukseon, was the first armored warship in the world.[120][121][122] Turtle ships were built during the Joseon dynasty beginning in the early 15th century up until the 19th century,[120] but are most often associated with Admiral Yi Sun-sin, who used them in battle against the Japanese in the Imjin War (1592–1598).
The myeonje baegab was a soft bulletproof vest invented in 1867 in the Joseon dynasty.[123][124]
The cheonbochong (천보총/千步銃), or the "thousand paces gun", was a type of jochong matchlock musket invented in Joseon during the reign of King Sukjong (1674–1720). Compared to other jochongs of the time that had a range of 120m, the cheonbochong was recorded to have a range of 1200m.[125]
The pigyok chinchollae (비격진천뢰/飛擊震天雷), also called the Flying Thunderbolt,[126] was a time bomb with an adjustable fuse mechanism that was invented by Yi Jangson and first used in the Imjin War at the Battle of Gyeongju in 1592. It was projected into enemy camps and formations using the wangu mortar, and also used at sea.[127][128]
The Bigeo (비거/飛車) was a manned glider-based attack and reconnaissance aircraft invented by Jeong Pyeong Gu (정평구) in 1592 to gain a tactical advantage against the Japanese in the Imjin War. The Bigeo was first mainly used in the Siege of Jinju Fortress for reconnaissance and communication but dropped paper bombs on the enemy and carried food, people, and supplies in and out of the besieged fortress. The device is recorded in multiple sources, including the Yi Gyu Kyung (이규경/李圭景)'s 오주연문장전산고(五洲衍文長箋散稿) and Japanese record Waesagi (왜사기/倭史記) where it was said to travel up to 12 km and caused a great hindrance to the Japanese plans. Although records exist, there is no surviving blueprint and thus all reconstructions made today remain predictions, not exact replicas.[129][130][131][132]

Modern[edit]

Samsung SGR-A1
In 2006, Samsung Techwin released the Samsung SGR-A1, a sentry guard robot designed to replace human counterparts at the Korean Demilitarized Zone. It is the first of its kind to have surveillance, tracking, firing, and voice-recognition systems built into a single unit.[133]
In 2010, DoDaam Systems introduced the Super aEgis II, one of a new breed of automated weapon that can identify, track, and destroy a moving target at a distance of 4 km.[134]
Daewoo's K11 is the first gun of its kind to be operational in the field, making the Republic of Korea Army the first in the world to use an airburst assault rifle as standard issue.[135][136]

Mathematics[edit]

Gusuryak by Choi Seok-jeong, published in 1700
The hexagonal tortoise problem was invented by Joseon mathematician Choi Seok-jeong (1646–1715).[137]
The first literature on the Latin square dates back to the monograph Gusuryak by Choi Seok-jeong,[138] predating Leonhard Euler by at least 67 years.[139][140]
The Korean mathematician Rimhak Ree discovered and constructed the Ree group in the mathematical field of group theory.
Chisanbop is an abacus-like calculation system using fingers that was invented in Korea in the 1940s and brought to the West in the 1970s.[141]

Science[edit]

Physical science[edit]

In 1939, vinylon, the second man-made fiber to be invented, after nylon, was developed by Ichiro Sakurada, Ri Sung-gi, and Hiroshi Kawakami at Kyoto University in Japan. However, the fiber was largely ignored until Ri Sung-gi defected to North Korea in 1950 and led its production. Vinylon is the national fiber of North Korea, and is used for the majority of textiles, outstripping fibers such as cotton or nylon.[142][143]
In 1959, Dawon Kahng and Martin M. (John) Atalla at Bell Labs invented the metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET), a semiconductor that is the basic element in most of today's electronic equipment.[144][145]
In 1967, Dawon Kahng and Simon Min Sze invented the floating gate transistor, which provides the foundation for many forms of semiconductor memory devices.[145][146]
Zang-Hee Cho and James Roberston were the first to propose a ring system that has become the prototype of the current shape of PET.[147] Zang-Hee Cho also developed the first "PET-MRI" fusion molecular imaging device for neuro-molecular imaging.[148]
The invisible axion was first originally proposed by the theoretical physicist Kim Jihn Eui.[149]
In 1991, Mannque Rho and Gerald E. Brown introduced Brown-Rho scaling, which predicts how hadronic masses scale in a dense medium.[150]
Researchers at KAIST developed the HT-1, a next-generation holographic microscope for 3D live cell imaging without the need for staining or labeling. The HT-1 is the first system to achieve high-resolution tomographic microscopy with full optical/electronic control, and do so without having a mechanical rotation system.[151][152][153]
In 1965, Moo-Young Han and Yoichiro Nambu first introduced a new hidden symmetry among quarks, which is the origin of what is now called the color SU(3) symmetry.
In 1977, Benjamin W. Lee and Steven Weinberg introduced the Lee-Weinberg bound, about the cosmological lower bound on heavy neutrino masses.
In 1979, Ihm Jisoon first introduced a new field in condensed matter physics, called computational materials physics.[154][155]
In 2004, Eunseong Kim and Moses H. W. Chan discovered the first evidence of a superfluidlike state in solid helium.
In 2005, Philip Kim and Andre Geim's groups independently demonstrated peculiar and outstanding properties of graphene, leading to an explosion of interest in graphene.[156] In his Nobel lecture in 2010, Andre Geim said, "I owe Philip a great deal for this, and many people heard me saying – before and after the Nobel Prize – that I would be honoured to share it with him."[157] In 2009, Hong Byung-hee pioneered the synthesis of large-scale graphene by chemical vapor deposition, which triggered chemical researches toward the practical applications of graphene.[158][159]
In 1979, Kyongae Chang and Sjur Refsdal pointed out that a single star (a 'microlens') in a lens galaxy can cause flux variations on time scales of a year, leading to the Chang-Refsdal lens.[160][161]
Young-Tae Chang pioneered the diversity oriented fluorescence library approach (DOFLA) using a fluorescent library, allowing clear imaging of pancreatic cells.[162][163]
Seung Kwon Seol's team at the Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute used a new 3D printing technique to demonstrate for the first time 3D printed nanostructures composed entirely of graphene.[164]
POSCO and Siemens VAI developed a new iron-making technology called FINEX in which molten iron is produced directly using iron ore fines and non-coking coal rather than traditional blast furnace methods through sintering and reduction with coke.
Researchers at Seoul National University developed a "smart prosthetic skin" that can sense pressure, heat, and moisture.[165][166]
Giga steel developed by POSCO is a type of ultra-high strength steel that can withstand 100 kilograms or more weight per square millimeter. The giga steel developed by POSCO is cheaper than aluminum but it is three times stronger, while also being lighter than regular steel. The No.7 CGL is world’s first manufacturing facility that is capable of churning out both 1.5 giga-level galva-annealed (GA) and galvanized (GI) steel sheets [167][168][169]

Life science[edit]

In 1935, the Korean-Japanese plant scientist Woo Jang-choon proposed the Triangle of U, named after himself,[170] which describes the evolution and relationships between members of the plant genus Brassica.[171]
Hantaan, the prototype hantavirus, was first isolated by Ho Wang Lee and Karl M. Johnson in 1978,[172] and the first hantavirus vaccine to protect against hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome was developed in Korea in 1990.[173][174]
The world's first cloned dog, Snuppy the Afghan hound, was cloned at Seoul National University and born in 2005. Snuppy was also used in the first successful breeding between cloned canines.
Chil-Yong Kang and his team at Western University developed the first genetically modified, whole-killed HIV vaccine to be approved for testing in humans, called the SAV001-H.[175]
Cheon Jinwoo of Yonsei University demonstrated, for the first time, the nanoscale size-dependent MRI contrast effect, opening a new gateway to “nanomedicine”, and also introduced the world’s most advanced nano-MRI technology, MEIO (magnetism-engineered iron oxide).[176]
Park Seung-jung pioneered a new method using a stent as an alternative treatment for left main coronary artery stenosis, an abnormal narrowing of the aortic valve in the heart.[177][178]
Koon Ho Rha and Seung Choul Yang at Yonsei University invented video-assisted minilaparotomy surgery (VAMS), a hybridized form of laparoscopic and open surgeries.[179][180]
Sang-Ho Lee of Wooridul Spine Hospital pioneered percutaneous endoscopic cervical discectomy, which is the first laser-assisted endoscopic technique for herniated disc surgery.[181][182]

Social science[edit]

The blue ocean strategy was developed by W. Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne, who argue that companies can succeed not by battling competitors, but rather by creating ″blue oceans″ of uncontested market space.
U-City (ubiquitous city) is defined as a "next generation urban space" that includes an integrated set of ubiquitous services: a convergent form of both physical and online spaces. Songdo in South Korea is the first U-City in the world.[189][190]
Juche, translated as "self-reliance" or "self-determination", is the state ideology of North Korea. Implemented in 1956, Juche follows the four principles of "autonomy in ideology, independence in politics, self-sufficiency in economy, and self-reliance in defense."[191]
Silhak, also known as "Practical Learning", was a Korean school of thought that was dedicated to an empirical approach to statecraft based on pragmatism, instead of a blind and uncritical adherence to Confucianism.[192] Silhak scholars, such as Jeong Yak-yong, emphasized human equality and advocated economic, educational, and social reform.[193]

Technology[edit]

Electronics[edit]

The world's first MP3 player, the MPMan, was launched by SaeHan Information Systems in 1997.[194][195]
The first mobile phone to support MP3 playback, the SPH-M2100, was released by Samsung in 1999.[196][197]
The world's first TV phone, the SCH-M220, was developed by Samsung in 1999.[198][199]
The world's first commercially-available tablet computer, the GRiDPad was manufactured by Samsung in 1989 for GRiD Systems Corporation, it was modified from the Samsung PenMaster, a prototype that was not commercially distributed.[200][201][202]
The world's first watch phone, the SPH-WP10 was launched by Samsung. It had a protruding antenna, a monochrome LCD screen, and a 90-minutes of talk time with an integrated speaker and microphone.[203]
The world's first curved display smartphone, the Samsung Galaxy Round, was released by Samsung on October 10, 2013.[196][204]
The world's first solar-powered cell phone, the Samsung E1107, was released by Samsung in 2009.[205][206]
Samsung developed the first eye tracking mouse that doesn't require users to wear special equipment, called the EyeCan, in 2012.[207][208]
The world's first CDMA-based watch phone, the SPH-WP10, was released by Samsung in 1999.[209]
The LG Prada is the world's first completely touchscreen mobile phone,[210][211] and also the first mobile phone with a capacitive touchscreen.[212][213]
Samsung released the world's first LTE mobile phone, the SCH-r900, in 2010,[212][214] and the world's first LTE smartphone, the Samsung Galaxy Indulge, in 2011.[215]
Apple's "Retina" display was invented by LG and bought by Apple.[216]
The world's first 360-degree color hologram was developed by the Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute in 2015.[217]
The world's first UFS memory cards were developed by Samsung.[218][219]
The world's first solid rollable keyboard was introduced by LG in 2015.[220][221]
In 2012, researchers at KAIST demonstrated the first fully functional all-flexible electronic battery system.[222] In 2013, scientists led by Professor Lee Sang-young of Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology developed the world's first bendable lithium ion batteries.[223]
High Bandwidth Memory is a high-performance RAM interface for 3D-stacked DRAM developed by SK Hynix and AMD to be used in conjunction with high-performance graphics accelerators and network devices.
Researchers led by Byung Jin Cho at KAIST developed a glass fabric-based thermoelectric (TE) generator that is extremely light and flexible and produces electricity from the heat of the human body.[224][225][226]
Transparent resistive random access memory (TRRAM) is the world's first transparent computer chip, invented by scientists at KAIST.[227][228]
Researchers at KAIST developed an electric transportation system in which online electric vehicles (OLEV) get power wirelessly through the application of shaped magnetic field in resonance, a new technology introduced by KAIST that enables electric vehicles to transfer electricity wirelessly from the road surface.[229][230] The world's first OLEV buses began operation at the city of Gumi in March 2014.[231]
The first pen that performs 3D printing on the nanoscale was developed by Seongpil Hwang of Korea University in 2014.[232][233]

Appliances[edit]

In 2000, LG Electronics introduced the world's first digital refrigerator called the Internet Digital DIOS.[234]
In 2011, LG introduced a closet, called the Styler, that steam cleans clothing that's hung inside without the use of water or detergents; it is used in hotels, airports, casinos, and homes in Korea.[235]
In 2012, Dongbu Daewoo Electronics introduced the world’s first wall-mounted drum type washing machine called the "Mini".[236][237]
In 2015, LG Electronics unveiled the world's first washing machine that allows for two separate loads to be washed simultaneously using the "TWIN Wash System".[238][239]
The kimchi refrigerator is designed to meet the storage requirements of kimchi. The first commercial kimchi refrigerator was created by Winia Mando in 1995.[240]
Invented by Romi Haan in 2001, the steam mop is a type of electric mop that uses hot steam to disinfect floors.[241][242]

Information technology[edit]

Beginning in 1995, Seoul was the first city in the world to use contactless smart cards, for electronic ticketing.[243][244]
Developed in 2005 by Samsung Electronics, WiBro, an abbreviation of wireless broadband, is the first commercial mobile WiMax system in the world. In April 2007, KT began full commercial WiBro services in the Seoul metropolitan area and its vicinity for the first time in the world.[245]
The digital multimedia broadcasting technology was developed in South Korea. It is a digital transmission system for sending multimedia to mobile devices.[246][247]
By developing digital multimedia broadcasting, Korea became the first nation in the world to introduce mobile television.[247]
In 2011, Homeplus launched the world's first virtual store at Seolleung Station, enabling consumers to purchase items with their smartphones by scanning QR codes using the Homeplus app, then having the products delivered.[248]
The caller ringback tone (CRBT) service, which allows subscribers to choose a piece of music or an audio clip that callers will hear in place of the standard 'ringing' tone when dialing the subscriber's number, was first offered in South Korea in 2002 by SK Telecom. It was developed in 2001 by the Korean firm Witcom.[249][250]

Robotics[edit]

Albert HUBO
Developed by KAIST and introduced in 2004, HUBO is the world's second walking humanoid robot,[251] and the first to move with a natural gait.[252]
Developed by a team at the Korea Institute of Industrial Technology and introduced in May 2003, EveR-1 is the world's second android.[253]
Introduced in 2005, Albert HUBO is the world’s first walking humanoid robot with an android head. It was a collaboration between Hanson Robotics and KAIST.[254][255]
Developed by a team at Korea Institute of Science and Technology and introduced in March 2005, MAHRU (originally known as NBH-1) is the first network-based humanoid robot in the world.[256][257]
Developed by the Korean Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, Crabster CR200 is the world's deepest and largest underwater walking robot. It can be used in scientific exploration projects and repairing structures such as pipes used to carry oil and gas.[258]
In 2011, the world's first robot prison guard was introduced. Developed by Lee Baik-chul, a professor at Kyonggi University, the robot prison guard uses 3D cameras to detect abnormal human behavior patterns.[259][260][261]
South Korea's Method-2 is the world's first manned bipedal robot.[262][263]
Hongsoo Choi's research team at the Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology developed the world's first ciliary microrobots, that can move and function like single cells.[264][265][266]
Scientists at the Chonnam National University in South Korea developed the world's first cancer-fighting nanobot, a microscopic robot called a "bacteriobot", that is injected into the bloodstream and seeks out and destroys cancer cells while leaving healthy cells alone.[267][268]
Robot-assisted transaxillary thyroid surgery (RATS), also called robotic thyroidectomy (RT), is a minimally invasive surgical technique developed in Korea that can remove all or part of the thyroid without scarring the neck.[269]

Entertainment technology[edit]

Developed by South Korean conglomerate CJ Group in 2009, 4DX is the world's first 4D cinema technology, allowing a motion picture presentation to be augmented with environmental effects.[270][271]
Developed by South Korean conglomerate CJ Group in 2012, ScreenX is the world’s first multi-projection system. It extends the images onto the theater walls to provide a 270-degree viewing environment.[271][272]
Developed by Samsung Electronics, the "Super S" is the first cinema screen composed entirely of LED panels, eliminating the need for projectors.[273] Compared to the traditional theater viewing experience, the LED cinema screen supports HDR and has a brightness of 146 foot-lambert (fL), 10 times that of conventional projector-based screens with 14fL. The screen is also the world's first movie equipment to meet the Digital Cinema Initiatives without a projector.[274]

Internet[edit]

In 1988, an archaic type of cybercafé called the "Electronic Café" was opened in front of Hongik University in Seoul, South Korea by Ahn Sangsu and Keum Nuri. It had two 16-bit computers connected to an online service provider through a telephone line. The first modern Internet café in Korea was opened in 1994.[275] Korean Internet cafés, called PC bangs, are also LAN gaming centers,[276] and boomed during the late 1990s thanks to the growth of the Internet and gaming cultures.[277]
Nexus: The Kingdom of the Winds was released by Nexon on April 5, 1996,[278] making it one of the earliest graphical MMORPGs in the world.[277][279][280]
Naver, the leading search portal in South Korea, pioneered a real-time community-driven question-and-answer platform called Knowledge Search in 2002.[281][282] In 2005, Yahoo! launched Yahoo! Answers, which was modeled, in part, on Naver's Knowledge Search.[283]
North Korea's Kwangmyong is generally considered the first national intranet, launched in 2000.[citation needed]
The first eSports league in the field of online gaming started in Korea in 1997. In December 1997, PC bang chains opened the first national online gaming league, known as the "Korea Pro Gamers League". The term "eSports" was coined by Park Ji-won of the Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism in February 2000 when he inaugurated the Korea e-Sports Association.[284] OGN was the first online game specialty channel in the world, and opened the world's first eSports dedicated stadium.[285]
South Korea's Cyworld is the world's first mass social networking service.[286][287] It was also the first in the world to have individual home pages and automated systems for contacting friends and relatives, leading to the creation of other popular sites such as Facebook and Myspace.[288]
The free-to-play business model in online games was created by Nexon in Korea.[289][290] The first game to use it was Nexon's QuizQuiz, released in October 1999, and made by Lee Seungchan, who would go on to create MapleStory.[291]
In 2003, Daum launched the "Webtoon" digital platform, creating a new form of manhwa (comics) that utilizes major characteristics of digital technologies.[292][293] According to the Korea Creative Content Agency, "Webtoons are not simply scanned versions of print comics. It’s a whole new, different genre tailored for the Internet age."[294]
Mukbang, also called "eating broadcast" or "social eating", is a type of online broadcast in which the host eats while interacting with online viewers.[295] The mukbang Internet culture began on AfreecaTV in 2009.[296]
Launched in 2000, OhmyNews is the world's first online newspaper to publish reports by readers, or "citizen journalists", allowing civil participation in opposition of the conservative press. OhmyNews influenced the outcome of the 2002 South Korean Presidential Election, and is considered one of the country's most influential media outlets.[297][298][299]
Developed by Naver for its LINE instant messaging app in Japan, stickers are large detailed emoticons featuring popular characters and themes.[300] The original default characters and stickers, known as the LINE Friends, were created by Kang Byeongmok, also known as "Mogi", in 2011.[301][302]
Coinone, the company that runs one of the leading digital currency trading platforms in Korea, opened Coinone Blocks, a brick-and-mortar branch that enables offline cryptocurrency exchanges. The company claimed that the offline branch is the first brick-and-mortar trading floor for cryptocurrencies in the world. [303]

Traditional games[edit]

Koreans playing a traditional board game, 18th century
Yut is an ancient Korean board game that is still played to this day, especially on Seollal.[304]
Juryeonggu is a 14-sided die invented in the Later Silla period that was used in drinking games.[305]
Tujeon is a traditional card game, originally based on Madiao, that is played with long rectangular numbered cards. It gradually became linked to gambling.[306][307]
Seunggyeongdo is a traditional board game attributed to Ha Ryun that simulates climbing the Joseon government career ladder and reaching the top by the end.[308][309]
Seongbuldo is a traditional board game dating back to the Goryeo period that simulates the path to becoming a Buddha.[310] It is still played by Buddhists in Korea.[311]

Martial arts[edit]

It is believed that taekkyeon originated from subak (手搏), based on the encyclopedia Manmulbo published in 1798.[312] Taekkyeon almost disappeared during the 20th century but made a resurgence in modern times, and was inscribed in the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity of UNESCO in 2011.[313][314]
The earliest evidence of ssireum, or "Korean wrestling", dates back to the Goguryeo period. Originally used in military applications, ssireum became a popular pastime of the people, including many Korean kings, during the Goryeo and Joseon periods. In the 20th century, ssireum became a nationally televised sport in South Korea.[315]
Gukgung, also known as gungsul, is traditional Korean archery that makes use of the gakgung, the traditional Korean composite bow made of horn.[316]

Sports[edit]

Inspired by the Southeast Asian sport sepak takraw,[317] jokgu is a modern sport invented in 1960 by members of the Republic of Korea Air Force's 11th Fighter Wing that combines aspects of football and volleyball.[318]
Jangchigi, originally called dobogyeokdo, is a traditional hockey-like sport that dates back to the Three Kingdoms period. It is related to masanggyeokgu, a traditional polo-like sport that also dates back to the Three Kingdoms period.[319]

Products[edit]

The Korean exfoliating mitt[320] is a mass-produced bath product used to scrub and peel the outermost layer of skin; it was invented in Busan by Kim Pil-gon in 1962. Since then, the Italy Towel has become a household item in Korean homes and a staple item in Korean saunas. The Korean exfoliating mitt was named the Italy Towel because the viscose fabric used to make it was imported from Italy at the time.[321][322]
The dol bed, or stone bed, is a manufactured bed that has the same heating effect as ondol and is purported to have health benefits.[323] The dol bed industry is estimated to be worth 100 billion Korean won, comprising 30 to 40 percent of the entire bed industry in South Korea; dol beds are most popular with middle-aged people in their 40s and 50s.[324][325]
Special cosmetic contact lenses popular in Asia that make the eye's iris appear larger in different shades. This product was invented in South Korea.[326][327][328]
Sheet masks are face-shaped sheet fabrics soaked in nutrition-packed solution called serum, used as skincare and beauty product originated in Korea.[329]
The Dot Watch. manufactured in Korea, the Dot is the world’s first ever mechanical smart watch made specially to cater the needs of the visually impaired.[330][330]

Miscellaneous[edit]

The earliest depictions of whaling have been discovered in Korea at the Neolithic Bangudae site, which may date back to 6000 BC.[331] Bangudae is the earliest evidence for whaling.[332]
Thundersticks, known as makdae pungseon in Korea, are inflatable plastic promotional noisemakers that are most often used at sporting events, political rallies, and concerts. Makdae pungseon were created by BalloonStix Korea and first used in 1994 at an LG Twins baseball game.[333][334][335]
The "jige', literally translated as a 'back-carrier', is a simple wooden carrying frame that was originally used by farmers and traders to carry heavy loads, but were soon adopted by United Nations troops. Known to Americans as an 'A-frame' and to the British as a 'jiggy', they were held by two ropes around the shoulders and armpits, and were designed to hang the weight of the load on the shoulders while the centre of gravity was lower on the back. This design allowed the bearer to carry a heavy load while walking, even on a steep gradient.[336] It is said that a man has been known to carry a load of five hundred pounds the distance of a mile without stopping to rest.[337][338]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Korean traditional fermented soybean products: Jang". Journal of Ethnic Foods. Retrieved 24 March 2017. 
  2. ^ "Utilization of Soybean as Food Stuffs in Korea". InTechOpen. InTech. 1 January 2011. doi:10.5772/21966. Retrieved 24 March 2017. 
  3. ^ Publishing, Britannica Educational. The History of Agriculture. Britannica Educational Publishing. p. 48. ISBN 9781615309214. Retrieved 24 March 2017. The original sources for soybeans and adzuki beans are still unclear, although early Chinese records mention that soybeans were a gift from the region encompassing the Northeast Plain (formerly Manchuria) and Korea. Korean soybeans dating to about 3000 BP are the oldest yet discovered. 
  4. ^ Lee, Gyoung-Ah; Crawford, Gary W.; Liu, Li; Sasaki, Yuka; Chen, Xuexiang (4 November 2011). "Archaeological Soybean (Glycine max) in East Asia: Does Size Matter?". PLOS ONE. 6 (11): e26720. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 3208558Freely accessible. PMID 22073186. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0026720. Retrieved 18 April 2017. 
  5. ^ Stark, Miriam T. Archaeology of Asia. John Wiley & Sons. p. 81. ISBN 9781405153034. Retrieved 18 April 2017. 
  6. ^ Yoon, Sang Jun; Woudstra, Jan (1 January 2007). "Advanced Horticultural Techniques in Korea: The Earliest Documented Greenhouses". Garden History. 35 (1): 68–84. doi:10.2307/25472355. Retrieved 24 March 2017. 
  7. ^ Earth Science' 2005 Ed. Rex Bookstore, Inc. ISBN 9789712339387. Retrieved 23 September 2016. 
  8. ^ a b Chun, Youngsin; Jeon, Sang-woon. Chugugi, Supyo, and Punggi: Meteorological instruments of the 15th century in Korea (PDF). Meteorological Research Institute, Seoul, The Republic of Korea. Retrieved 24 March 2017. 
  9. ^ Bellis, Mary. "Rain Gauge". ThoughtCo. Retrieved 24 March 2017. 
  10. ^ "측우기". 네이버 지식백과 (Naver Encyclopedia of Knowledge) (in Korean). Naver Corporation. Retrieved 24 March 2017. 
  11. ^ a b Selin, Helaine. Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Westen Cultures. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 505. ISBN 9789401714167. Retrieved 9 September 2016. 
  12. ^ "기후와 천문관측". 문화콘텐츠닷컴 (in Korean). 한국콘텐츠진흥원. Retrieved 26 April 2017. 
  13. ^ Baek, Seokgi. Woongjin Wi-in Jeon-gi 11: Jang Yeong-sil. Woongjin Publishing. p. 101. 
  14. ^ "Ancient 'Ondol' Heating Systems Discovered in Alaska". The Chosun Ilbo. Retrieved 24 March 2017. 
  15. ^ Lim, Jae-Han; Jo, Jae-Hun; Kim, Yong-Yee; Yeo, Myoung-Souk; Kim, Kwang-Woo (1 January 2006). "Application of the control methods for radiant floor cooling system in residential buildings". Building and Environment. 41 (1): 60–73. doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.2005.01.019. Retrieved 24 March 2017. 
  16. ^ "温突—朝鲜族民居的独特采暖方式". Journal of Shenyang Architecture and Civil Engineering University. 2000. 
  17. ^ http://news.naver.com/main/read.nhn?mode=LSD&mid=sec&sid1=102&oid=009&aid=0002186764
  18. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3s6CUCiib2w
  19. ^ http://news.naver.com/main/read.nhn?mode=LSD&mid=sec&sid1=103&oid=001&aid=0005768290
  20. ^ Hoppen, Donald W. The Seven Ages of Frank Lloyd Wright: The Creative Process. Courier Corporation. p. 76. ISBN 9780486294209. Retrieved 24 March 2017. 
  21. ^ Pfeiffer, Bruce Brooks; Wright, Frank Lloyd. Treasures of Taliesin: Seventy-seven Unbuilt Designs. Pomegranate. p. 33. ISBN 9780764910418. Retrieved 24 March 2017. 
  22. ^ Walker, Hugh Dyson. East Asia: A New History. p. 178. 
  23. ^ "경주 석빙고". 네이버 지식백과 (Naver Encyclopedia of Knowledge) (in Korean). Naver Corporation. Retrieved 24 March 2017. 
  24. ^ a b c "Korea’s fortresses reflect the past and Koreans’ respect for the environment". Korea.net : The official website of the Republic of Korea. Korean Culture and Information Service (KOCIS). Retrieved 20 September 2016. 
  25. ^ a b "‘산성의 나라’ 고구려". 민족21. Retrieved 20 September 2016. 
  26. ^ Chʻa, Yong-gŏl; Hakhoe, Hanʼguk Sŏnggwak. Mountain Fortresses in Central Inland Korea: Deokju Sanseong Mountain Fortress. Korea Fortress Academy. p. 36. Retrieved 20 September 2016. 
  27. ^ a b c d e "Ancient Mountain Fortresses in Central Korea". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. United Nations. Retrieved 20 September 2016. 
  28. ^ Chʻa, Yong-gŏl; Hakhoe, Hanʼguk Sŏnggwak. Mountain Fortresses in Central Inland Korea: Deokju Sanseong Mountain Fortress. Korea Fortress Academy. p. 33. Retrieved 20 September 2016. 
  29. ^ a b Su-il, Jeong. The Silk Road Encyclopedia. Seoul Selection. ISBN 9781624120763. Retrieved 20 September 2016. 
  30. ^ Kim, Li-na. Koguryo tomb murals. ICOMOS-Korea. p. 100. Retrieved 20 September 2016. 
  31. ^ Kim, Jinwung. A History of Korea: From "Land of the Morning Calm" to States in Conflict. Indiana University Press. p. 50. ISBN 0253000246. Retrieved 20 September 2016. 
  32. ^ "사진을 통해 본 고구려 성곽". 동북아역사넷. Retrieved 20 September 2016. 
  33. ^ Cultural Heritage Administration (South Korea). World Heritage in Korea. 길잡이미디어. p. 65. ISBN 9788981241773. Retrieved 20 September 2016. 
  34. ^ The Korea Foundation (23 February 2015). "Koreana - Winter 2014 (English): Korean Culture & Arts". 한국국제교류재단. Retrieved 20 September 2016. 
  35. ^ The Korean Overseas Information Service Seoul, Republic of Korea (ROK). HELLO from Korea. 길잡이미디어. p. 52. ISBN 9788973753741. Retrieved 6 October 2016. 
  36. ^ Yu, Chai-Shin. The New History of Korean Civilization. iUniverse. p. xii. ISBN 9781462055616. Retrieved 6 October 2016. 
  37. ^ "pagoda | architecture". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 6 October 2016. 
  38. ^ a b Yu, Hong-jun. Smiles of the Baby Buddha: Appreciating the Cultural Heritage of Ky?ngju. 창비 Changbi Publishers. pp. 26–28. ISBN 9788936470562. Retrieved 6 October 2016. 
  39. ^ Sinha, P. C. Encyclopaedia of South East and Far East Asia. Anmol Publications. p. 2368. ISBN 9788126126460. Retrieved 6 October 2016. Going from China to Korea and from Korea to Japan, the pagoda evolved in varying styles and materials: brick pagodas were more numerous in China, stone pagodas fairly soon predominated in Korea, and wooden pagodas were most popular in Japan. 
  40. ^ "Korea Journal". 17. Korean National Commission for UNESCO. 1 January 1977. Retrieved 6 October 2016. 
  41. ^ Koehler, Robert. Religion in Korea: Harmony and Coexistence. Seoul Selection. ISBN 9781624120459. Retrieved 6 October 2016. 
  42. ^ Korea (South) Munhwa Kongbobu (1970). The Ancient Arts of Korea. Ministry of Culture and Information. p. 73. Retrieved 6 October 2016. Unlike the Chinese brick pagodas, the Silla people used granite stones in building the base of brick pagodas, probably due to the fact that the Silla people were more skilled in the technique of cutting stones, and quality granite is abundant in the Korean peninsula. 
  43. ^ Sinha, P. C. Encyclopaedia of South East and Far East Asia. Anmol Publications. p. 2368. ISBN 9788126126460. Retrieved 6 October 2016. 
  44. ^ Jinyoung, Lim; Lyong, Ryoo Seong. K-architecture: Tradition Meets Modernity. 길잡이미디어. pp. 35–36. ISBN 9788973755820. Retrieved 6 October 2016. 
  45. ^ Yang, Hong-Jin. Astronomical signs of Korean tombs (PDF). Daejeon, Korea: Korean Astronomy and Space Science Institute. Retrieved 16 August 2017. 
  46. ^ Park, Changbom. Astronomy: Traditional Korean Science. Ewha Womans University Press. p. 115. ISBN 9788973007790. Retrieved 24 March 2017. 
  47. ^ Storey, Glenn. Urbanism in the Preindustrial World: Cross-Cultural Approaches. University of Alabama Press. p. 201. ISBN 9780817352462. Retrieved 16 November 2016. 
  48. ^ Dicati, Renato. Stamping Through Astronomy. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 30. ISBN 9788847028296. Retrieved 16 November 2016. 
  49. ^ Bernardi, Gabriella. The Unforgotten Sisters: Female Astronomers and Scientists before Caroline Herschel. Springer. p. 40. ISBN 9783319261270. Retrieved 16 November 2016. 
  50. ^ Kelley, David H.; Milone, Eugene F. Exploring Ancient Skies: A Survey of Ancient and Cultural Astronomy. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 79. ISBN 9781441976246. Retrieved 16 November 2016. 
  51. ^ Park, Changbom. Astronomy: Traditional Korean Science. Ewha Womans University Press. p. 63. ISBN 9788973007790. Retrieved 16 November 2016. 
  52. ^ Selin, Helaine. Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Westen Cultures. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 503. ISBN 9789401714167. Retrieved 16 November 2016. 
  53. ^ Park, Changbom. Astronomy: Traditional Korean Science. Ewha Womans University Press. p. 65. ISBN 9788973007790. Retrieved 24 March 2017. 
  54. ^ Sampson, Geoffrey. Writing Systems: A Linguistic Introduction. Stanford University Press. ISBN 9780804717564. Retrieved 25 March 2017. 
  55. ^ Kim-Renaud, Young-Key. The Korean Alphabet: Its History and Structure. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 9780824817237. Retrieved 25 March 2017. 
  56. ^ Koerner, E. F. K.; Asher, R. E. Concise History of the Language Sciences: From the Sumerians to the Cognitivists. Elsevier. p. 54. ISBN 9781483297545. Retrieved 13 October 2016. 
  57. ^ Hannas, Wm C. Asia's Orthographic Dilemma. University of Hawaii Press. p. 57. ISBN 9780824818920. Retrieved 20 September 2016. 
  58. ^ Chen, Jiangping. Multilingual Access and Services for Digital Collections. ABC-CLIO. p. 66. ISBN 9781440839559. Retrieved 20 September 2016. 
  59. ^ a b "Invest Korea Journal". 23. Korea Trade-Investment Promotion Agency. 1 January 2005. Retrieved 20 September 2016. They later devised three different systems for writing Korean with Chinese characters: Hyangchal, Gukyeol and Idu. These systems were similar to those developed later in Japan and were probably used as models by the Japanese. 
  60. ^ "Korea Now". 29. Korea Herald. 1 July 2000. Retrieved 20 September 2016. 
  61. ^ Fischer, Steven Roger. History of Writing. Reaktion Books. ISBN 9781861895882. Retrieved 20 September 2016. 
  62. ^ "Katakana system may be Korean, professor says". The Japan Times Online. 4 April 2002. Retrieved 20 September 2016. 
  63. ^ "Korean Classics : Asian Collections: An Illustrated Guide (Library of Congress - Asian Division)". Library of Congress. United States Congress. Retrieved 19 August 2016. 
  64. ^ "Gutenberg Bible". British Library. The British Library Board. Retrieved 19 August 2016. 
  65. ^ "Movable type - Oxford Reference". Oxford Reference. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/oi/authority.20110803100213284. Retrieved 19 August 2016. 
  66. ^ Ebrey, Patricia Buckley; Walthall, Anne. East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History. Cengage Learning. ISBN 1285528670. Retrieved 19 August 2016. 
  67. ^ Selin, Helaine. Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Westen Cultures. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 504. ISBN 9789401714167. Retrieved 9 September 2016. 
  68. ^ "Korea, 1000–1400 A.D. | Chronology | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art". The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 19 August 2016. 
  69. ^ a b Xia, Jingfeng. Scholarly Communication in China, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea and Taiwan. Elsevier. p. 95. ISBN 9781780632131. Retrieved 25 March 2017. 
  70. ^ Twyman, Michael. The British Library Guide to Printing: History and Techniques. University of Toronto Press. p. 21. ISBN 9780802081797. Retrieved 25 March 2017. 
  71. ^ "세계 최초의 납활자라 '병진자'". 스마트과학관 (in Korean). National Science Museum. Retrieved 25 March 2017. 
  72. ^ a b Korean Culture and Information Service (South Korea). Guide to Korean Culture: Korea's cultural heritage. 길잡이미디어. ISBN 9788973755714. Retrieved 25 March 2017. 
  73. ^ "Korean monk claims to have found world’s oldest newspaper". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 1 May 2017. 
  74. ^ "세계 최초의 신문…1577년 조선시대 '조보' 실물 발견". 네이버 뉴스 (in Korean). Retrieved 1 May 2017. 
  75. ^ Gnanadesikan, Amalia E. The Writing Revolution: Cuneiform to the Internet. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781444359855. Retrieved 20 September 2016. 
  76. ^ "Gukak". The DONG-A ILBO. dongA.com. Retrieved 20 September 2016. 
  77. ^ Yi, Yong-sik. Shaman Ritual Music in Korea. Jimoondang International. ISBN 9781931897105. Retrieved 25 March 2017. 
  78. ^ "장구와 장단". National Gugak Center. Retrieved 26 April 2017. 
  79. ^ Rossing, Thomas. The Science of String Instruments. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 192. ISBN 9781441971104. Retrieved 25 March 2017. 
  80. ^ "북한의 '개량 민족악기'를 처음 만난다". NK조선 (in Korean). Retrieved 25 March 2017. 
  81. ^ Koetsier, Teun; ceccarelli, marco. Explorations in the History of Machines and Mechanisms: Proceedings of HMM2012. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 90. ISBN 9789400741324. Retrieved 27 March 2017. 
  82. ^ Koetsier, Teun; ceccarelli, marco. Explorations in the History of Machines and Mechanisms: Proceedings of HMM2012. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 95. ISBN 9789400741324. Retrieved 27 March 2017. 
  83. ^ Fifty Wonders of Korea - Vol. 2. KSCPP. Retrieved 27 March 2017. 
  84. ^ Ceccarelli, Marco. Distinguished Figures in Mechanism and Machine Science: Their Contributions and Legacies. Springer. p. 111. ISBN 9789401789479. Retrieved 27 March 2017. 
  85. ^ Pisano, Raffaele. A Bridge between Conceptual Frameworks: Sciences, Society and Technology Studies. Springer. p. 364. ISBN 9789401796453. Retrieved 27 March 2017. 
  86. ^ Koehler, Robert. Korean Ceramics: The Beauty of Natural Forms. Seoul Selection. ISBN 9781624120466. Retrieved 27 March 2017. 
  87. ^ Lee, Soyoung. "Goryeo Celadon". The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 27 March 2017. 
  88. ^ Injae, Lee; Miller, Owen; Jinhoon, Park; Hyun-Hae, Yi. Korean History in Maps. Cambridge University Press. p. 76. ISBN 9781107098466. Retrieved 27 March 2017. 
  89. ^ Lee, Lena Kim. Korean Art. Philip Jaisohn Memorial Foundation. p. 15. Retrieved 27 April 2017. Koryo potters also experimented with the use of copper for red designs under the glaze, since ground copper pigment fires red in the reducing kiln atmosphere. This technique was started in the twelfth century. Many scholars agree that Chinese Yuan wares with underglaze red design were inspired by the Koryo potters' use of copper red at the time when the Yuan and Koryo courts had very close political ties. 
  90. ^ "Collection online". British Museum. Retrieved 27 April 2017. 
  91. ^ Sullivan, Michael. The Arts of China. University of California Press. p. 196. ISBN 9780520049185. Retrieved 27 April 2017. 
  92. ^ "진사 이야기". The Yonsei Chunchu (in Korean). Yonsei University. Retrieved 27 April 2017. 
  93. ^ Koehler, Robert. Korean Ceramics: The Beauty of Natural Forms. Seoul Selection. ISBN 9781624120466. Retrieved 29 March 2017. 
  94. ^ a b Lee, Author: Soyoung. "Joseon Buncheong Ware: Between Celadon and Porcelain". The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 29 March 2017. 
  95. ^ Koehler, Robert. Korean Ceramics: The Beauty of Natural Forms. Seoul Selection. ISBN 9781624120466. Retrieved 29 March 2017. 
  96. ^ Levenson, Jay A.; (U.S.), National Gallery of Art. Circa 1492: Art in the Age of Exploration. Yale University Press. p. 422. ISBN 0300051670. Retrieved 29 March 2017. 
  97. ^ Hopper, Robin. Making Marks: Discovering the Ceramic Surface. Krause Publications Craft. p. 103. ISBN 0873495047. Retrieved 29 March 2017. 
  98. ^ Snodgrass, Mary Ellen. Encyclopedia of Kitchen History. Routledge. p. 764. ISBN 9781135455729. Retrieved 29 March 2017. 
  99. ^ Munsterberg, Hugo. The Ceramic Art of Japan: A Handbook for Collectors. Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 9781462913091. Retrieved 29 March 2017. 
  100. ^ "Karatsu ware". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 29 March 2017. 
  101. ^ a b 한영준. "조선보다 못한 '한증막 안전'". 세이프타임즈 (in Korean). Retrieved 25 March 2017. 
  102. ^ "Jjimjilbang: a microcosm of Korean leisure culture". The Korea Herald. 1 April 2010. Retrieved 25 March 2017. 
  103. ^ 김용만. "온천". 네이버캐스트 (in Korean). Retrieved 25 March 2017. 
  104. ^ Sang-hun, Choe (26 August 2010). "Kiln Saunas Make a Comeback in South Korea". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 September 2016. 
  105. ^ Yu, T'ae-u (1988). Koryo sooji chim. Eum Yang Mek Jin Pub. Co. ; San Mateo, CA : Distributed by the Koryo Hand Acupuncture Institute of America. Retrieved 13 August 2016. 
  106. ^ a b Selin, Helaine (2006-04-11). Medicine Across Cultures: History and Practice of Medicine in Non-Western Cultures. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 152. ISBN 9780306480942. Retrieved 13 August 2016. 
  107. ^ Mosby's Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing & Health Professions. Elsevier Health Sciences. 2016-04-28. p. 998. ISBN 9780323414197. Retrieved 13 August 2016. 
  108. ^ Lee, Jonathan H. X.; Nadeau, Kathleen M. (2011). Encyclopedia of Asian American Folklore and Folklife. ABC-CLIO. p. 710. ISBN 9780313350665. Retrieved 13 August 2016. 
  109. ^ Oleson, Terry (2014). Auriculotherapy Manual: Chinese and Western Systems of Ear Acupuncture. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 33. ISBN 9780702035722. Retrieved 13 August 2016. 
  110. ^ a b https://www.cecity.com/aoa/jaoa_mag/2016/jan_16/12.pdf
  111. ^ http://jaoa.org/article.aspx?articleid=2480724
  112. ^ Ogay, V; Bae, KH; Kim, KW; Soh, KS. "Comparison of the characteristic features of Bonghan ducts, blood and lymphatic capillaries". J Acupunct Meridian Stud. 2: 107–17. PMID 20633481. doi:10.1016/S2005-2901(09)60042-X. 
  113. ^ https://www.researchgate.net/publication/302513762_Nanoparticles_for_tracing_acupuncture_meridians_and_Bonghan_ducts
  114. ^ http://ocm.auburn.edu/newsroom/news_articles/2016/12/auburn-scientist-discovers-microstructure-of-primo-vascular-system.htm
  115. ^ Ramsey, Syed. Tools of War: History of Weapons in Early Modern Times. Vij Books India Pvt Ltd. ISBN 9789386019820. Retrieved 27 March 2017. 
  116. ^ Grant, R. G. Battle at Sea: 3,000 Years of Naval Warfare. Penguin. p. 110. ISBN 9780756657017. Retrieved 27 March 2017. 
  117. ^ 김재근. "무장 및 화력". 전통한선의 디지털복원. 한국콘텐츠진흥원. Retrieved 27 March 2017. 
  118. ^ "세계 최초의 함포탑재 전함을 개발한 최무선". 인터넷한겨레. Retrieved 27 March 2017. 
  119. ^ Turnbull, Stephen. Pirate of the Far East: 811-1639. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 9781780963709. Retrieved 27 March 2017. 
  120. ^ a b Polmar, Norman; Cavas, Christopher P. Navy's Most Wanted: The Top 10 Book of Admirable Admirals, Sleek Submarines, and Oceanic Oddities. Potomac Books, Inc. ISBN 9781597976558. Retrieved 27 March 2017. 
  121. ^ Tucker, Spencer C. A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East [6 volumes]: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East. ABC-CLIO. p. 909. ISBN 9781851096725. Retrieved 27 March 2017. 
  122. ^ Tucker, Spencer C. Wars That Changed History: 50 of the World's Greatest Conflicts: 50 of the World's Greatest Conflicts. ABC-CLIO. p. 156. ISBN 9781610697866. Retrieved 27 March 2017. 
  123. ^ "면제갑옷". 문화재청 (in Korean). Cultural Heritage Administration. Retrieved 27 March 2017. 
  124. ^ "세계최초의 방탄조끼 조선군의 ‘면제배갑’". 한겨레 (in Korean). 21 February 2007. Retrieved 27 March 2017. 
  125. ^ "천보총(千步銃)". 문화콘텐츠닷컴 (in Korean). 한국콘텐츠진흥원. Retrieved 27 March 2017. 
  126. ^ Hawley, Samuel Jay. The Imjin War: Japan's Sixteenth-century Invasion of Korea and Attempt to Conquer China. Royal Asiatic Society, Korea Branch. p. 115. ISBN 9788995442425. Retrieved 27 March 2017. Finally, there was the recently developed pigyok chinchollae (flying-striking-earthquake-heaven-thunder), sometimes rendered as "the flying thunderbolt," a hollow iron ball packed with gunpowder and equipped with a fuse. This ingenious device was fired from a cannon over the walls of enemy fortifications and into the midst of the defenders clustered within, where, if all went well, it exploded. 
  127. ^ "비격진천뢰(飛擊震天雷)". 문화콘텐츠닷컴 (in Korean). 한국콘텐츠진흥원. Retrieved 27 March 2017. 
  128. ^ "비격진천뢰(飛擊震天雷)". 문화재청 현충사 관리소. Retrieved 27 March 2017. 
  129. ^ http://www.domin.co.kr/news/articleView.html?idxno=1134257
  130. ^ http://www.metroseoul.co.kr/news/newsview?newscd=2015020200145#cb
  131. ^ http://terms.naver.com/entry.nhn?docId=1224161&cid=40942&categoryId=33383
  132. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8N9ytgFD8uk
  133. ^ Pike, John. "Samsung Techwin SGR-A1 Sentry Guard Robot". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 27 March 2017. 
  134. ^ Parkin, Simon. "Killer robots: The soldiers that never sleep". BBC. Retrieved 15 April 2017. 
  135. ^ "Korea emerges as arms development powerhouse". The Korea Times. 16 June 2010. Retrieved 13 April 2017. 
  136. ^ Ramsey, Syed. Tools of War: History of Weapons in Modern Times. Vij Books India Pvt Ltd. ISBN 9789386019837. Retrieved 13 April 2017. 
  137. ^ Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers. p. 689. Retrieved 28 March 2017. 
  138. ^ Colbourn, Charles J.; Dinitz, Jeffrey H. Handbook of Combinatorial Designs, Second Edition. CRC Press. p. 12. ISBN 9781420010541. Retrieved 28 March 2017. 
  139. ^ "Math&Presso" (PDF). 3. International Congress of Mathematicians. August 15, 2014. 
  140. ^ Kim, Sung Sook (2012). Orthogonal Latin Squares of Choi Seok-Jeong (PDF). History and Pedagogy of Mathematics. Retrieved 28 March 2017. 
  141. ^ Hancock, Jonathan; Chapman, Jon. Number Training Your Brain: Teach Yourself. Hodder & Stoughton. ISBN 9781444136494. Retrieved 28 March 2017. 
  142. ^ Hoare, James E. Historical Dictionary of Democratic People's Republic of Korea. Scarecrow Press. p. 394. ISBN 9780810879874. Retrieved 1 April 2017. 
  143. ^ Gilbert, Marianne. Brydson's Plastics Materials. William Andrew. p. 435. ISBN 9780323370226. Retrieved 1 April 2017. 
  144. ^ "1960: Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) Transistor Demonstrated". Computer History Museum. Retrieved 1 April 2017. 
  145. ^ a b Daniels, Lee A. (28 May 1992). "Dr. Dawon Kahng, 61, Inventor In Field of Solid-State Electronics". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 April 2017. 
  146. ^ Kahng, D.; Sze, S. M. (8 July 1967). "A Floating Gate and Its Application to Memory Devices". Bell System Technical Journal. 46: 1288–1295. doi:10.1002/j.1538-7305.1967.tb01738.x. Retrieved 1 April 2017. 
  147. ^ Mikla, Victor I.; Mikla, Victor V. Medical Imaging Technology. Elsevier. p. 54. ISBN 9780124170360. Retrieved 1 April 2017. 
  148. ^ Cho, Zang-Hee. 7.0 Tesla MRI Brain Atlas: In-vivo Atlas with Cryomacrotome Correlation. Springer. ISBN 9783642543982. Retrieved 1 April 2017. 
  149. ^ Zee, A. Unity of Forces in the Universe: (In 2 Volumes). World Scientific. p. 509. ISBN 9789814518888. Retrieved 1 April 2017. 
  150. ^ Brown, Gerald E.; Holt, Jeremy William; Kuo, Thomas Tzu Szu. The Nucleon-nucleon Interaction and the Nuclear Many-body Problem: Selected Papers of Gerald E. Brown and T.T.S. Kuo. World Scientific. p. 552. ISBN 9789814289283. Retrieved 1 April 2017. 
  151. ^ Ltd, SPIE Europe. "TomoCube holotomography offers label-free imaging of cells". optics.org. Retrieved 1 April 2017. 
  152. ^ "Holographic Microscope Allows Stain-Free 3D Imaging Of Live Cells". Asian Scientist Magazine. 4 April 2016. Retrieved 1 April 2017. 
  153. ^ "Next-generation holographic microscope for 3D live cell imaging". ScienceDaily. Retrieved 1 April 2017. 
  154. ^ "Asia’s Scientific Trailblazers: Ihm Jisoon". Asian Scientist Magazine. 19 July 2016. Retrieved 1 April 2017. 
  155. ^ "70-year-old professor is to fire up his academic imagination". The DONG-A ILBO. Retrieved 1 April 2017. 
  156. ^ Yi, Gyu-Chul. Semiconductor Nanostructures for Optoelectronic Devices: Processing, Characterization and Applications. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 169. ISBN 9783642224805. Retrieved 2 April 2017. 
  157. ^ Brink, Lars. Nobel Lectures in Physics (2006 – 2010). World Scientific. p. 332. ISBN 9789814612708. Retrieved 2 April 2017. 
  158. ^ Graphene Commercialisation & Applications 2013: Global Industry & Academia Collaboration Summit Archived 26 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  159. ^ Patel, Prachi. "Bigger, Stretchier Graphene". MIT Technology Review. Retrieved 2 April 2017. 
  160. ^ Chang, K.; Refsdal, S. (1979). "Flux variations of QSO 0957 + 561 A, B and image splitting by stars near the light path". Nature. 282 (5739): 561–564. Bibcode:1979Natur.282..561C. doi:10.1038/282561a0. 
  161. ^ Schneider, P.; Ehlers, J.; Falco, E. E. Gravitational Lenses. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 9. ISBN 9783662037584. Retrieved 2 April 2017. 
  162. ^ Kang, Nam-Young; Ha, Hyung-Ho; Yun, Seong-Wook; Yu, Young Hyun; Chang, Young-Tae (2011). "Diversity-driven chemical probe development for biomolecules: beyond hypothesis-driven approach". Chemical Society Reviews. 40 (7): 3613–26. PMID 21526237. doi:10.1039/c0cs00172d. 
  163. ^ "Clear imaging of pancreatic cells through the development of a novel fluorescent probe". Phys.org. Retrieved 2 April 2017. 
  164. ^ "3D printed nanostructures made entirely of graphene". Nanowerk. Retrieved 2 April 2017. 
  165. ^ "Smart prosthetic skin can sense pressure, heat and moisture - MedCity News". MedCity News. Retrieved 3 April 2017. 
  166. ^ Kim, Jaemin; Lee, Mincheol; Shim, Hyung Joon; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Cho, Hye Rim; Son, Donghee; Jung, Yei Hwan; Soh, Min; Choi, Changsoon; Jung, Sungmook; Chu, Kon; Jeon, Daejong; Lee, Soon-Tae; Kim, Ji Hoon; Choi, Seung Hong; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Kim, Dae-Hyeong (9 December 2014). "Stretchable silicon nanoribbon electronics for skin prosthesis". Nature Communications. 5: 5747. ISSN 2041-1723. doi:10.1038/ncomms6747. Retrieved 3 April 2017. 
  167. ^ http://pulsenews.co.kr/view.php?sc=30800021&year=2017&no=285292
  168. ^ http://businesskorea.co.kr/english/news/industry/17969-world%E2%80%99s-first-giga-steel-posco-gwangyang-steelworks-completes-world%E2%80%99s-first-giga
  169. ^ http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/nation/2017/03/693_226435.html
  170. ^ Edwards, Dave; Batley, Jacqueline; Parkin, Isobel; Kole, Chittaranjan. Genetics, Genomics and Breeding of Oilseed Brassicas. CRC Press. p. 2. ISBN 9781439883358. Retrieved 1 April 2017. 
  171. ^ Lim, T. K. Edible Medicinal And Non-Medicinal Plants: Volume 5, Fruits. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 113. ISBN 9789400756533. Retrieved 1 April 2017. 
  172. ^ Lee, HW; Lee, PW; Johnson, KM (1978). "Isolation of the etiologic agent of Korean Hemorrhagic fever". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 137 (3): 298–308. PMID 24670. doi:10.1093/infdis/137.3.298. 
  173. ^ Lee, HW; Ahn, CN; Song, JW; Back, LJ; Seo, TJ; Park, SC (1990). "Field trial of an inactivated vaccine against hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in humans". Arch Virol. 1: 35–47. 
  174. ^ Plotkin, Stanley A.; Orenstein, Walter A.; Offit, Paul A. Vaccines. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 1013. ISBN 1455700908. Retrieved 2 April 2017. 
  175. ^ "New HIV Vaccine Proves Successful In Phase 1 Human Trial". Medical Daily. 4 September 2013. Retrieved 2 April 2017. 
  176. ^ ""Professor Cheon Jinwoo Named one of “the World’s Most influential Scientific Minds” of 2014" - "Nanoscientist who Invents New Tools for Future Medicine"". Yonsei-IBS Institute (in Korean). Retrieved 3 April 2017. 
  177. ^ "Challenging the Textbook of Cardiology". Siemens Healthineers. Retrieved 3 April 2017. 
  178. ^ "Innovator of alternative heart surgery". The Korea Times. 29 November 2015. Retrieved 3 April 2017. 
  179. ^ "AUA2016 Annual Meeting". AUA2016. American Urological Association. Retrieved 3 April 2017. 
  180. ^ Rha, Koon Ho; Kim, Yu Seun; Kim, Soon Il; Byun, Young Joon; Hong, Sung Joon; Park, Kiil; Yang, Seung Choul (31 December 2004). "Video assisted minilaparotomy surgery (VAMS)--live donor nephrectomy: 239 cases". Yonsei Medical Journal. 45 (6): 1149–1154. ISSN 0513-5796. PMID 15627311. doi:10.3349/ymj.2004.45.6.1149. 
  181. ^ "Sang-Ho Lee, MD, PhD - President". SpineUniverse. Retrieved 3 April 2017. 
  182. ^ Wood, Megan. "Dr. Sang-Ho Lee awarded Parviz Kambin award for endoscopic spine surgery at NASS meeting: 5 highlights". Becker's Spine Review. Retrieved 3 April 2017. 
  183. ^ Doherty, Annette M. Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry. Academic Press. p. 458. ISBN 9780080458175. Retrieved 2 April 2017. 
  184. ^ Alksne, Lefa (1 February 2003). "Balofloxacin Choongwae". Current Opinion in Investigational Drugs (London, England: 2000). 4 (2): 224–229. ISSN 1472-4472. PMID 12669387. 
  185. ^ "Dong-A ST develops antibiotic to fight superbacteria". Korea.net. Korean Culture and Information Service (KOCIS). Retrieved 2 April 2017. 
  186. ^ Kim, Sung-Ho; Jung, Eunsoo; Yoon, Min Kyung; Kwon, O. Hwan; Hwang, Dal-Mi; Kim, Dong-Wook; Kim, Junghyun; Lee, Sun-Mee; Yim, Hyeon Joo (5 October 2016). "Pharmacological profiles of gemigliptin (LC15-0444), a novel dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, in vitro and in vivo". European Journal of Pharmacology. 788: 54–64. ISSN 1879-0712. PMID 27298192. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2016.06.016. 
  187. ^ Chi, Yong Ha; Lee, Howard; Paik, Soo Heui; Lee, Joo Han; Yoo, Byoung Wook; Kim, Ji Han; Tan, Hyun Kwang; Kim, Sang Lin (1 October 2011). "Safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of fimasartan following single and repeated oral administration in the fasted and fed states in healthy subjects". American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions. 11 (5): 335–346. ISSN 1179-187X. PMID 21910510. doi:10.2165/11593840-000000000-00000. 
  188. ^ Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry. Elsevier. p. 523. ISBN 0124171516. Retrieved 2 April 2017. 
  189. ^ Jang, Myungjun; Suh, Soon-Tak (1 January 2010). "U-City: New Trends of Urban Planning in Korea Based on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Geotechnology and Geoinformation". Computational Science and Its Applications – ICCSA 2010. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. 6016: 262–270. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-12156-2_20. Retrieved 3 April 2017. 
  190. ^ Guston, David H. Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Society. SAGE Publications. p. 158. ISBN 9781452266176. Retrieved 3 April 2017. 
  191. ^ "North Korea - Cultural life | history - geography". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 17 September 2017. 
  192. ^ "Silhak | Korean political philosophy". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 17 September 2017. 
  193. ^ Yi, Sang-tʻaek (1996). Religion and Social Formation in Korea: Minjung and Millenarianism. Walter de Gruyter. p. 47. ISBN 9783110147971. Retrieved 17 September 2017. 
  194. ^ Verganti, Roberto. Design-driven Innovation: Changing the Rules of Competition by Radically Innovating what Things Mean. Harvard Business Press. p. 75. ISBN 9781422124826. Retrieved 4 April 2017. 
  195. ^ Smith, Tony. "Ten years old: the world's first MP3 player". The Register. Retrieved 4 April 2017. 
  196. ^ a b Dreyer, Pete (17 February 2016). "10 things Samsung brought to smartphones first...". Vodafone Social. Retrieved 4 April 2017. 
  197. ^ "SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS UNVEILS SPH-M2100 PHONE". Telecompaper. Archived from the original on 18 April 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2017. 
  198. ^ "SAMSUNG Electronics Develops World`s First TV Phone". SAMSUNG. Retrieved 4 April 2017. 
  199. ^ Williams, Martyn (December 2, 1999). "Samsung builds TV function into cell phones". CNN. Retrieved 4 April 2017. 
  200. ^ The BYTE Awards: GRiD System's GRiDPad, BYTE Magazine, Vol 15. No 1, January 12, 1990, p. 285 
  201. ^ "Tablet history dates back two decades before iPad". www.newsday.com. November 4, 2013. Retrieved 2016-03-02. 
  202. ^ "DigiBarn Systems: GRiDpad Pen Computer". www.digibarn.com. Retrieved 2015-11-16. 
  203. ^ Neil Hughes (21 March 2013). "The War For Your Wrist". happleinsider.com. Retrieved 12 October 2014. 
  204. ^ "Samsung Debuts World's First Curved Display Smartphone". Scientific American. Retrieved 4 April 2017. 
  205. ^ "Did you know that Samsung launched the first solar-powered cell phone?". Phone Arena. Retrieved 4 April 2017. 
  206. ^ "Solar Cell Phones Change the Way the World Communicates". Solar Energy For Homes. Retrieved 4 April 2017. 
  207. ^ "Samsung Electronics Introduces EYECAN+, Next-Generation Mouse for People with Disabilities". Samsung Newsroom. Retrieved 4 April 2017. 
  208. ^ "Samsung's 'eye mouse' enables users to control their computer with a glance". CNET. Retrieved 4 April 2017. 
  209. ^ "SAMSUNG Electronics Develops Watch Phone". Samsung US Newsroom. Mar 31, 1999. Retrieved 4 April 2017. 
  210. ^ "World's First Completely Touch Screen Mobile Phone". 3G. Archived from the original on 10 September 2012. 
  211. ^ "LG and PRADA Develop the World's First Touch Screen Mobile Phone". Technology Marketing Corporation. Retrieved 5 April 2017. 
  212. ^ a b "Vintage Mobiles". GSM History: History of GSM, Mobile Networks, Vintage Mobiles. 18 November 2014. Retrieved 5 April 2017. 
  213. ^ Erickson, Christine. "The Touching History of Touchscreen Tech". Mashable. Retrieved 5 April 2017. 
  214. ^ "Samsung Craft, the world’s first 4G LTE phone, now available at MetroPCS". Unwired View. 21 September 2010. Retrieved 5 April 2017. 
  215. ^ "MetroPCS debuts first 4G LTE Android phone, Samsung Galaxy Indulge". Android and Me. 9 February 2011. Retrieved 5 April 2017. 
  216. ^ "LG Looks to Leave Apple Behind With 5-Inch Retina Display". DailyTech. Retrieved 5 April 2017. 
  217. ^ "Korean scientists have developed a legitimate 3D hologram you can view from any angle". Digital Trends. 7 December 2015. Retrieved 5 April 2017. 
  218. ^ "Samsung unveils world's first UFS memory cards — the successor to microSD". The Verge. Retrieved 5 April 2017. 
  219. ^ Shilov, Anton. "Samsung Rolls Out Its First UFS Cards: SSD Performance in Card Form-Factor". AnandTech. Retrieved 5 April 2017. 
  220. ^ "LG Rolly is the world's first solid rollable keyboard for smartphones and tablets". Phone Arena. Retrieved 5 April 2017. 
  221. ^ "LG's new Rolly wireless keyboard turns into a pocket stick". The Verge. 27 August 2015. Retrieved 5 April 2017. 
  222. ^ "Bendable battery and LED make up the first functional all-flexible electronic system". Phys.org. Retrieved 5 April 2017. 
  223. ^ "World's First Flexible Li-Ion Battery Unveiled by Researchers". Laptop Mag. Retrieved 5 April 2017. 
  224. ^ "Wearable Device Is Powered By Its Owners' Body Heat - PSFK". PSFK. 14 April 2014. Retrieved 5 April 2017. 
  225. ^ "Thermoelectric generator on glass fabric for wearable electronic devices". KAIST. Retrieved 5 April 2017. 
  226. ^ Kim, Sun Jin; We, Ju Hyung; Cho, Byung Jin (22 May 2014). "A wearable thermoelectric generator fabricated on a glass fabric". Energy & Environmental Science. 7 (6): 1959. ISSN 1754-5706. doi:10.1039/C4EE00242C. Retrieved 5 April 2017. 
  227. ^ "The Clear Future of Electronics: Transparent Memory Device". Laboratory Equipment. 10 December 2008. Retrieved 5 April 2017. 
  228. ^ "NEW ELECTRONIC INVENTIONS". Inventor-Strategies.com. Retrieved 5 April 2017. 
  229. ^ "Korean electric vehicle solution". New Atlas. Retrieved 5 April 2017. 
  230. ^ "Wireless Online Electric Vehicle, OLEV, runs inner city roads". Phys.org. Retrieved 5 April 2017. 
  231. ^ "무선충전 전기버스 구미시내 ‘씽씽’". The Hankyoreh (in Korean). 25 March 2014. Retrieved 5 April 2017. 
  232. ^ "3D nanoprinting pen". Chemistry World. Retrieved 6 April 2017. 
  233. ^ "Scientists Develop HYPER 3D Printing Pen That Works in Nanoscale". 3DPrint.com. Retrieved 6 April 2017. 
  234. ^ "LG Electronics Introduces Digital Refrigerator". appliance DESIGN. Retrieved 29 March 2017. 
  235. ^ "Hot and steamy: LG will bring its Styler steam closet to the US and China". CNET. Retrieved 5 April 2017. 
  236. ^ Hwang, Ui Kun; Lee, Ju Dong (2016). "Wall-mounted drum type washing machine". Google Patents. Retrieved 26 September 2016. 
  237. ^ Sood, Gaurav (24 August 2012). "Mini is world’s first wall mounted washing machine that is ultra-light weight". HomeCrux. Retrieved 29 March 2017. 
  238. ^ "LG Twin Wash System Allows Two Separate Loads to Be Washed Simultaneously". Tuvie. Retrieved 29 March 2017. 
  239. ^ "WITH TWIN WASH, LG TURNS HEADS WITH BOLD NEW WASHER DESIGN". LG Newsroom. 6 January 2015. Retrieved 29 March 2017. 
  240. ^ Ja-young, Yoon. "Kimchi refrigerator maintains taste of fermented food". The Korea Times. Retrieved 5 July 2016. 
  241. ^ Salmon, Andrew (5 January 2012). "Korea's Rebel With a Steam Mop". Forbes. Retrieved 29 March 2017. 
  242. ^ "The woman who liberated South Korea's housewives". BBC News. 22 May 2015. Retrieved 29 March 2017. 
  243. ^ Chirico, Ugo. Smart Card Programming. Lulu.com. p. 77. ISBN 9781291610505. Retrieved 31 March 2017. 
  244. ^ "4th Asian Transport Revenue Collection Forum". Asia Pacific Smart Card Association. Retrieved 31 March 2017. 
  245. ^ Lee, Byeong Gi; Choi, Sunghyun. Broadband Wireless Access and Local Networks: Mobile WiMax and WiFi. Artech House. p. 315. ISBN 9781596932944. Retrieved 31 March 2017. 
  246. ^ Iwacz, Grzegorz; Jajszczyk, Andrzej; Zajaczkowski, Michal. Multimedia Broadcasting and Multicasting in Mobile Networks. John Wiley & Sons. p. 78. ISBN 9780470714164. Retrieved 31 March 2017. 
  247. ^ a b Oh, Myung; Larson, James. Digital Development in Korea: Building an Information Society. Taylor & Francis. p. 101. ISBN 9781136813139. Retrieved 31 March 2017. 
  248. ^ "A virtual store with no products". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 31 March 2017. 
  249. ^ Montgomery, Lucy. China's Creative Industries: Copyright, Social Network Markets and the Business of Culture in a Digital Age. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 71. ISBN 9781849804707. Retrieved 31 March 2017. 
  250. ^ Gopinath, Sumanth. The Ringtone Dialectic: Economy and Cultural Form. MIT Press. pp. 17–18. ISBN 9780262019156. Retrieved 31 March 2017. 
  251. ^ "아장아장 걷던 휴보, 내년엔 성큼성큼 걷게 됩니다". 한국일보 (in Korean). Retrieved 31 March 2017. 
  252. ^ "S. Korean scientists want android to walk". Phys.org. Science X network. Retrieved 31 March 2017. 
  253. ^ "Korea Unveils World's Second Android". Chosunilbo. Retrieved 31 March 2017. 
  254. ^ Design of Android type Humanoid Robot Albert HUBO (PDF). 
  255. ^ "Albert Einstein HUBO". Hanson Robotics. Retrieved 31 March 2017. 
  256. ^ "Major Achievements". KIST Korea Institute of Science and Technology. Retrieved 31 March 2017. 
  257. ^ Kraiss, K.-F. Advanced Man-Machine Interaction: Fundamentals and Implementation. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 319. ISBN 9783540306184. Retrieved 31 March 2017. 
  258. ^ "Meet Crabster, the giant robotic CRAB set to explore the seas". Mail Online. Retrieved 31 March 2017. 
  259. ^ "World's first robot prison guard on trial in South Korea". The Verge. 16 April 2012. Retrieved 31 March 2017. 
  260. ^ "Robo-guard the South Korean correction service robot says 'stay out of trouble' (video)". Engadget. Retrieved 31 March 2017. 
  261. ^ Carbone, Nick. "South Korea Rolls Out Robotic Prison Guards". Time. Retrieved 31 March 2017. 
  262. ^ "South Korea's 'Method-2': The World's First Supersized Manned Bipedal Robot On Its First Action (Video)". Science World Report. 10 January 2017. Retrieved 24 March 2017. 
  263. ^ "South Korea Has A 13-Foot Robot To Make All Your Manned Mech Dreams Come True". Tech Times. 29 December 2016. Retrieved 24 March 2017. 
  264. ^ "World’s first ciliary microrobots could change the way we take medicine". New Atlas. Retrieved 2 April 2017. 
  265. ^ "World’s first ciliary stroke motion microrobots". ScienceDaily. Retrieved 2 April 2017. 
  266. ^ Kim, Sangwon; Lee, Seungmin; Lee, Jeonghun; Nelson, Bradley J.; Zhang, Li; Choi, Hongsoo (29 July 2016). "Fabrication and Manipulation of Ciliary Microrobots with Non-reciprocal Magnetic Actuation". Scientific Reports. doi:10.1038/srep30713. Retrieved 2 April 2017. 
  267. ^ Park, Sung Jun; Park, Seung-Hwan; Cho, Sunghoon; Kim, Deok-Mi; Lee, Yeonkyung; Ko, Seong Young; Hong, Yeongjin; Choy, Hyon E.; Min, Jung-Joon; Park, Jong-Oh; Park, Sukho (2 December 2013). "New paradigm for tumor theranostic methodology using bacteria-based microrobot". Scientific Reports. 3. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 3844944Freely accessible. PMID 24292152. doi:10.1038/srep03394. 
  268. ^ "Scientists unveil world's first cancer-fighting nanobot". CNET. Retrieved 3 April 2017. 
  269. ^ "Robotic Thyroidectomy". EndocrineWeb. Retrieved 3 April 2017. 
  270. ^ "About 4DX". Cinema City. Retrieved 31 March 2017. 
  271. ^ a b "ScreenX Comes to First U.S. Theatre with Feature Film – the Himalayas – to Start the New Year". DCinemaToday. Retrieved 31 March 2017. 
  272. ^ "270-degree ScreenX technology shows ultra-wide movies on three walls". The Verge. 18 October 2013. Retrieved 31 March 2017. 
  273. ^ http://www.screendaily.com/news/worlds-first-cinema-with-projector-less-led-screen-opens-in-korea/5119928.article
  274. ^ http://www.zdnet.com/article/samsung-beefs-up-cinema-led-with-harman-audio/
  275. ^ "[창간특집] 창간 17주년에 돌이켜본 PC방의 역사". 아이러브PC방 (in Korean). Retrieved 30 March 2017. 
  276. ^ "`PC Bang’ Emerges as New Way of Promotion". The Korea Times. 23 July 2007. Retrieved 30 March 2017. 
  277. ^ a b Hjorth, Larissa. Games and Gaming: An Introduction to New Media. Berg. p. 121. ISBN 9781847888396. Retrieved 30 March 2017. 
  278. ^ "The Kingdom of the Winds". Nexon Computer Museum. Retrieved 30 March 2017. 
  279. ^ Lastowka, F. Gregory. Virtual Justice. Yale University Press. ISBN 0300163169. Retrieved 30 March 2017. 
  280. ^ Hjorth, Larissa; Khoo, Olivia. Routledge Handbook of New Media in Asia. Routledge. p. 421. ISBN 9781317684985. Retrieved 30 March 2017. 
  281. ^ Noveck, Beth Simone. Wiki Government: How Technology Can Make Government Better, Democracy Stronger, and Citizens More Powerful. Brookings Institution Press. p. 117. ISBN 0815703465. Retrieved 30 March 2017. 
  282. ^ Clay, Bruce; Esparza, Susan. Search Engine Optimization All-in-One For Dummies. John Wiley & Sons. p. 619. ISBN 9780470495407. 
  283. ^ Farmer, Randy; Glass, Bryce. Building Web Reputation Systems. "O'Reilly Media, Inc.". p. 243. ISBN 9781449388690. Retrieved 30 March 2017. 
  284. ^ Jin, Dal Yong. Korea's Online Gaming Empire. MIT Press. pp. 66–67. ISBN 9780262288965. Retrieved 30 March 2017. 
  285. ^ Jin, Dal Yong. Korea's Online Gaming Empire. MIT Press. pp. 72–73. ISBN 9780262288965. Retrieved 30 March 2017. 
  286. ^ Zaphiris, Panayiotis; Ang, Chee Siang. Social Computing and Virtual Communities. CRC Press. p. 271. ISBN 9781420090437. Retrieved 31 March 2017. 
  287. ^ consultant), Ian Brown (Internet; Marsden, Christopher T. Regulating Code: Good Governance and Better Regulation in the Information Age. MIT Press. p. 118. ISBN 9780262018821. Retrieved 31 March 2017. 
  288. ^ Roy, Loriene; Jensen, Kelly; Meyers, Alex Hershey. Service Learning: Linking Library Education and Practice. American Library Association. p. 70. ISBN 9780838909812. Retrieved 31 March 2017. 
  289. ^ Kong, Lily; O'Connor, Justin. Creative Economies, Creative Cities: Asian-European Perspectives. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 38. ISBN 9781402099496. Retrieved 5 April 2017. 
  290. ^ Wolf, Mark J. P.; Iwatani, Toru. Video Games Around the World. MIT Press. p. 512. ISBN 9780262328494. Retrieved 5 April 2017. 
  291. ^ "세계 최초 넥슨의 부분유료화 이야기". 게임플 (in Korean). Retrieved 5 April 2017. 
  292. ^ "Daum Webtoon goes global". The Korea Herald. 17 December 2014. Retrieved 26 April 2017. 
  293. ^ Jin, Dal Yong (3 July 2015). "Digital convergence of Korea’s webtoons: transmedia storytelling". Communication Research and Practice. 1 (3): 193–209. ISSN 2204-1451. doi:10.1080/22041451.2015.1079150. Retrieved 26 April 2017. 
  294. ^ "South Korean 'webtoon' craze makes global waves". The Japan Times. Retrieved 26 April 2017. 
  295. ^ "This Korean Food Phenomenon Is Changing the Internet". Eater. 19 April 2017. Retrieved 26 April 2017. 
  296. ^ "우리나라 최초의 '먹방'을 아세요?". 한국일보 (in Korean). Retrieved 26 April 2017. 
  297. ^ Lamberti, Andrienne P.; Richards, Anne R. Complex Worlds: Digital Culture, Rhetoric and Professional Communication. Routledge. ISBN 9781351845373. Retrieved 28 April 2017. 
  298. ^ Allan, Stuart; Thorsen, Einar. Citizen Journalism: Global Perspectives. Peter Lang. p. 143. ISBN 9781433102950. Retrieved 28 April 2017. 
  299. ^ Thorsen, Einar. Online Reporting of Elections. Routledge. p. 4. ISBN 9781317850014. Retrieved 28 April 2017. 
  300. ^ Russell, Jon (12 July 2013). "Stickers: From Japanese Craze to Global Messaging Phenomenon". The Next Web. Retrieved 28 April 2017. 
  301. ^ "스마트 폰 속 이모티콘, 세상 밖으로". 시사매거진 바이트. Retrieved 28 April 2017. 
  302. ^ "'라인(LINE)'은 일본製일까 한국製일까". 프레스맨 (in Korean). Retrieved 28 April 2017. 
  303. ^ http://koreajoongangdaily.joins.com/news/article/Article.aspx?aid=3038308
  304. ^ Yi, I.-hwa. Korea's Pastimes and Customs: A Social History. Homa & Sekey Books. pp. 21–23. ISBN 9781931907385. Retrieved 3 April 2017. 
  305. ^ Heritage, National Research Institute of Cultural. Sul, Korean Alcoholic Beverages. 길잡이미디어. p. 98. ISBN 9788929901769. Retrieved 4 April 2017. 
  306. ^ "Card Gambling". Encyclopedia of Korean Folk Culture. National Folk Museum of Korea. Retrieved 4 April 2017. 
  307. ^ "투전 [鬪錢]". 한국민속대백과사전 (in Korean). National Folk Museum of Korea. Retrieved 4 April 2017. 
  308. ^ "Government Career Ladder Climbing Game". Encyclopedia of Korean Folk Culture. National Folk Museum of Korea. Retrieved 4 April 2017. 
  309. ^ "승경도놀이". 한국세시풍속사전 (in Korean). National Folk Museum of Korea. Retrieved 4 April 2017. 
  310. ^ "성불도놀이". Encyclopedia of Korean Culture. Academy of Korean Studies. Retrieved 4 April 2017. 
  311. ^ "[커버스토리] 불교세시풍속/성불도 놀이". 불교저널 (in Korean). Retrieved 4 April 2017. 
  312. ^ "만물보 속의 택견". 문화콘텐츠닷컴 (in Korean). 한국콘텐츠진흥원. Retrieved 29 March 2017. 
  313. ^ Joinau, Benjamin; Rouville, Elodie Dornand de. Sketches of Korea: An Illustrated Guide to Korean Culture. Seoul Selection. ISBN 9781624120510. Retrieved 29 March 2017. 
  314. ^ "Taekkyeon, a traditional Korean martial art". Intangible Heritage. UNESCO. Retrieved 29 March 2017. 
  315. ^ Green, Thomas A.; Svinth, Joseph R. Martial Arts of the World: An Encyclopedia of History and Innovation [2 volumes]: An Encyclopedia of History and Innovation. ABC-CLIO. pp. 192–193. ISBN 9781598842449. Retrieved 29 March 2017. 
  316. ^ "Korean Style Bow". Antique Alive. Retrieved 29 March 2017. 
  317. ^ "K세팍타크로! 아시아 본류에 도전하다". 데일리뉴스. Retrieved 29 March 2017. 
  318. ^ "족구의 개요". 대한민국족구협회. Retrieved 29 March 2017. 
  319. ^ "장치기". 문화콘텐츠닷컴 (in Korean). 한국콘텐츠진흥원. Retrieved 3 April 2017. 
  320. ^ Kim, Monica. "Why I Can’t Live Without My Korean Exfoliating Mitt". Vogue. Retrieved 25 July 2016. 
  321. ^ "라이프 큐레이터 design.co.kr - 피플 & 컬처". www.design.co.kr. Retrieved 25 July 2016. 
  322. ^ "[발명이야기] 한국인의 필수품 '이태리타월'". www.hankooki.com. Hankook Media Network. Retrieved 25 July 2016. 
  323. ^ Lee, Nam Yong; Lee, Hyung Yong (1999). "Electrically heated stone bed with electromagnetic shielding layer". Google Patents. Retrieved 22 September 2016. 
  324. ^ "‘스톤 매트리스’로 돌침대 시장 깨운다". 헤럴드경제 미주판 Heraldk.com. Retrieved 22 September 2016. 
  325. ^ "[Biz] 돌침대 시장". MK News. Retrieved 22 September 2016. 
  326. ^ http://www.kawaiilovebeauty.com/what-are-circle-lenses/#.WQBVKego62c
  327. ^ http://www.synonyms.net/synonym/circle%20contact%20lens
  328. ^ https://glosbe.com/en/fi/circle%20contact%20lens
  329. ^ Sheet masks are face-shaped sheet fabrics soaked in nutrition-packed solution called serum.
  330. ^ a b http://www.mirror.co.uk/tech/worlds-first-braille-smartwatch-blind-9899367
  331. ^ Roman, Joe. Whale. Reaktion Books. p. 24. ISBN 9781861895059. Retrieved 25 March 2017. 
  332. ^ Mannino, Marcello A.; Talamo, Sahra; Tagliacozzo, Antonio; Fiore, Ivana; Nehlich, Olaf; Piperno, Marcello; Tusa, Sebastiano; Collina, Carmine; Salvo, Rosaria Di; Schimmenti, Vittoria; Richards, Michael P. (17 November 2015). "Climate-driven environmental changes around 8,200 years ago favoured increases in cetacean strandings and Mediterranean hunter-gatherers exploited them". Scientific Reports. doi:10.1038/srep16288. Retrieved 25 March 2017. 
  333. ^ "막대풍선이란?". 벌룬스틱스 코리아 주식회사. Retrieved 28 March 2017. 
  334. ^ "전태수 사장이 밝히는 막대풍선의 역사". 동아닷컴 (in Korean). 27 October 2008. Retrieved 28 March 2017. 
  335. ^ Mercer, Bobby. ManVentions: From Cruise Control to Cordless Drills - Inventions Men Can't Live Without. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 9781440510748. Retrieved 28 March 2017. 
  336. ^ https://collection.nam.ac.uk/detail.php?acc=1993-06-28-1
  337. ^ http://koreana.kf.or.kr/view.asp?article_id=4749&lang=English
  338. ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=1I2dAgAAQBAJ&pg=PT80&lpg=PT80&dq=jige+korea&source=bl&ots=0Gw3gjkkVs&sig=bKBoY69g5XviI_RSgmPpZnvDK00&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjQyb2rydXTAhWL6oMKHSMPC1EQ6AEIUTAM#v=onepage&q=%20It%20is%20said%20that%20a%20man%20has%20been%20known%20to%20carry%20a%20load%20of%20five%20hundred%20pounds%20the%20distance%20of%20a&f=false

External links[edit]