|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
|Licence data||US FDA:|
|Bioavailability||90 to 95% oral|
|Metabolism||Hepatic and intestinal wall|
|Biological half-life||3-4 hours|
|Excretion||Urine (~30%), faeces (60-65%)|
|CAS Registry Number|
|ATC code||J04 QJ54|
|PDB ligand ID||RFP (, )|
|Molecular mass||822.94 g/mol|
|Melting point||183 to 188 °C (361 to 370 °F)|
|Boiling point||1,004.42 °C (1,839.96 °F) |
|(what is this?)|
Rifampicin, also known as rifampin, is a antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections. This includes tuberculosis, leprosy, and legionella, among others. Often it is used along with other antibiotics. It is also used to prevent Haemophilus influenzae type b and meningococcal disease in those who have been exposed. Before treating someone for a long period of time testing the liver function and bloods counts are recommended. It is avaliable by mouth and intravenously.
Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and loss of appetite. It may also turn urine, sweat, and tears a red color. Liver problems or allergic reactions may occur. It is part of the recommended treatment of active tuberculosis during pregnancy even though safety is not clear in pregnancy. Rifampicin is of the rifamycin group of antibiotics. It works by stopping the making of RNA by the bacteria.
Rifampicin was first isolated in 1957 and first sold in 1971. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system. It is avaliable as a generic medication. The wholesale the cost is about 3.90 USD a month. In the United States it is expensive with a month of treatment being about 120 USD. Rifampicin is make from Amycolatopsis rifamycinica.
Rifampicin is used in the treatment of tuberculosis and inactive meningitis along with other antibiotics which may include pyrazinamide, isoniazid, ethambutol, and streptomycin ("PIERS"). It must be administered regularly daily for several months without a break, otherwise, the risk of drug-resistant tuberculosis is greatly increased. In fact, this is the primary reason it is used in tandem with the four aforementioned drugs, particularly isoniazid. This is also the primary motivation behind directly observed therapy for tuberculosis.
Rifampicin resistance develops quickly during treatment, so monotherapy should not be used to treat these infections — it should be used in combination with other antibiotics.
Most doctors recommend taking rifampicin on an empty stomach with one glass (200ml/8 oz.) of water. It is generally taken either one hour before meals or two hours after meals. However, it is important to discuss how to take any medicine with your doctor.
Rifampicin is typically used to treat Mycobacterium infections, including tuberculosis and leprosy (Hansen's disease). It can be used to treat abscesses, as an uncommon complication of BCG vaccination for tuberculosis.
No difference exists between a three- to four-month regimen of rifampicin and a six- to nine-month regimen for preventing active tuberculosis in those with HIV-negative latent tuberculosis. The quality of the evidence was, however, low.
Other bacteria and protozoans
Rifampicin is used in the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in combination with fusidic acid, including in difficult-to-treat infections such as osteomyelitis and prosthetic joint infections. It is also used in prophylactic therapy against Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcal) infection. Rifampicin is also recommended as an alternative treatment for infections with the tick-borne disease pathogens, Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum when treatment with doxycycline is contraindicated, such as in pregnant women or in patients with a history of allergy to tetracycline antibiotics.
It is also used to treat infections by Listeria species, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Legionella pneumophila. For these nonstandard indications, sensitivity testing should be done (if possible) before starting rifampicin therapy.
Rifampicin can be used as monotherapy for a few days as prophylaxis against meningitis, but resistance develops quickly during long-term treatment of active infections, so the drug is always used against active infections in combination with other antibiotics. Give 30 minute before meal or 2 hours after meal and antacids should be given at least one hour after meal.
The following represents minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) data for a few medically significant pathogens:
- Mycobacterium tuberculosis - 0.002 µg/mL - 64 µg/mL
- Mycobacterium bovis - 0.125 µg/mL
- Stapylococcus aureus (methicillin resistant) - ≤0.006 µg/mL - 256 µg/mL
- Chlamydia pneumoniae - 0.005 µg/mL
Rifampicin is an effective liver enzyme-inducer, promoting the upregulation of hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes (such as CYP2C9 and CYP3A4), increasing the rate of metabolism of many other drugs that are cleared by the liver through these enzymes. As a consequence, rifampicin can cause a range of adverse reactions when taken concurrently with other drugs. For instance, patients undergoing long-term anticoagulation therapy with warfarin have to be especially cautious and increase their dosage of warfarin accordingly. Failure to do so could lead to undertreating with anticoagulation, resulting in serious consequences of thromboembolism.
Upregulation of hepatic metabolism of hormones decreases their levels, and rifampicin can also in similar fashion reduce the efficacy of hormonal contraception, to the extent the unintended pregnancies have been reported among users of oral contraceptives taking rifampicin in even short courses (for example, as prophylaxis against exposure to bacterial meningitis).
The more common unwanted effects include fever, gastrointestinal disturbances, rashes, and immunological reactions. Taking rifampicin can cause certain bodily fluids, such as urine and tears, to become orange-red in color, a benign side effect which can be frightening if it is not expected and prepared for. This effect may also be used to monitor effective absorption of the drug (if drug color is not seen in the urine, the patient may wish to move the drug dose farther in time from food or milk intake). The discolorizion of sweat and tears is not directly noticeable, but sweat may stain light clothing orange, and tears may permanently stain soft contact lenses. Since rifampicin may be excreted in breast milk, breast feeding should be avoided while it is being taken.
Adverse effects include:
- Hepatotoxic - hepatitis, liver failure in severe cases
- Respiratory - breathlessness
- Cutaneous - flushing, pruritus, rash, redness and watering of eyes
- Abdominal - nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps with or without diarrhea
- Flu-like symptoms - with chills, fever, headache, arthralgia, and malaise, rifampin has good penetration into the brain, and this may directly explain some malaise and dysphoria in a minority of users.
Allergic reactions may occur to rifampicin. Signs of these include rash, itching, swelling of the tongue or throat, severe dizziness, and trouble breathing.
Rifampicin is an inducer of many enzymes of the cytochrome P450 superfamily, including CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP3A7. Thus it will speed up the metabolism of any drug metabolized by any of these enzymes in the body. Other possible interactions which may not be listed include antiretroviral agents, everolimus, atorvastatin, rosiglitazone/pioglitazone, celecoxib, clarithromycin, caspofungin, and lorazepam.
Rifampicin is antagonistic to the effect of gentamicin and amikacin.
Mechanism of action
Crystal structure data and biochemical data indicate that rifampicin binds to RNA polymerase at a site adjacent to the RNA polymerase active center and blocks RNA synthesis by physically blocking the formation of the phosphodiester bond in the RNA backbone, preventing extension of RNA products beyond a length of 2-3 nucleotides ("steric-occlusion" mechanism).
Resistance to rifampicin arises from mutations that alter residues of the rifampicin binding site on RNA polymerase, resulting in decreased affinity for rifampicin. Resistant mutations map to the rpoB gene, encoding RNA polymerase beta subunit.
Orally administered rifampicin results in peak plasma concentrations in about two to four hours. 4-Aminosalicylic acid (another antituberculosis drug) significantly reduces absorption of rifampicin, and peak concentrations may be lower. If these two drugs must be used concurrently (which happens often in treatment of TB), they must be given separately with an interval of eight to 12 hours between administrations.
Rifampicin is easily absorbed from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract; its ester functional group is quickly hydrolyzed in the bile, and it is catalyzed by a high pH and substrate-specific esterases. After about six hours, almost all of the drug is deacetylated. Even in this deacetylated form, rifampin is still a potent antibiotic; however, it can no longer be reabsorbed by the intestines and it is subsequently eliminated from the body. Only about 7% of the administered drug will be excreted unchanged through the urine, though urinary elimination accounts for only about 30% of the drug excretion. About 60% to 65% is excreted through the feces.
The half-life of rifampicin ranges from 1.5 to 5.0 hours, though hepatic impairment will significantly increase it. Food consumption, though, inhibits absorption from the GI tract, and the drug is more quickly eliminated. When rifampicin is taken with a meal, peak blood concentration falls by 36%. Antacids do not affect absorption, however. The decrease in rifampin absorption with food is sometimes enough to noticeably affect urine color, which can be used as a marker for whether or not a dose of the drug has been effectively absorbed.
Distribution of the drug is high throughout the body, and reaches effective concentrations in many organs and body fluids, including the cerebrospinal fluid. Since the substance itself is red, this high distribution is the reason for the orange-red color of the saliva, tears, sweat, urine, and feces. About 60% to 90% of the drug is bound to plasma proteins.
Use in biotechnology
Rifampicin inhibits bacterial RNA polymerase, thus it is commonly used to inhibit the synthesis of host bacterial proteins during recombinant protein expression in bacteria. Since the RNA encoding for the recombinant gene is usually transcribed from DNA by a viral T7 RNA polymerase, its expression is not affected by the antibiotic.
In 1957, a soil sample from a pine forest on the French Riviera was brought for analysis to the Lepetit Pharmaceuticals research lab in Milan, Italy. There, a research group headed by Piero Sensi) and Maria Teresa Timbal discovered a new bacterium. This new species appeared of interest since it was producing a new class of molecules with antibiotic activity. Because Sensi, Timbal and the researchers were particularly fond of the French crime story Rififi (about a jewel heist and rival gangs), they decided to call these compounds "rifamycins". After two years of attempts to obtain more stable semisynthetic products, a new molecule with high efficacy and good tolerability was produced in 1959 and was named "rifampicin".
Rifampicin was first sold in 1971.
Other names include
- 5,6,9,17,19,21-Hexahydroxy-23-methoxy-2,4,12,16,18,20,22-heptamethyl-8-[N-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)formimidoyl]-2,7-(epoxypentadeca[1,11,13]trienimino)-naphtho[2,1-b]furan-1,11(2H)-dione 21-acetate
Rifampicin is available as
- Bulgaria as Tubocin (by Actavis/Balkanpharma)
- Romania as Sinerdol (Sicomed)
- UK as Rifadin (Aventis), Rimactan (Sandoz), Rifater (a combination with isoniazid and pyrazinamide) (Aventis), Rifinah (a combination with isoniazid) (Aventis), and Rimactazid (a combination with isoniazid) (Sandoz)
- U.S. as Rifadin (Aventis), Rifater (combination with isoniazid and pyrazinamide) (Aventis), Rimactane (Novartis)
- France as Rifadine (Aventis)
- India R-Cinex 600 (Lupin Limited)/Micox (a combination of rifampicin and isoniazid)
- Australia as Rimycin (Alphapharm)
- Egypt as Rimactan (Sandoz)
- Germany as Eremfat (Riemser)
- "Rifampicin (CAS 13292-46-1)". Santa Cruz Biotechnology Product Block. Santa Cruz Biotechnology. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- "Rifampin". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Retrieved Aug 1, 2015.
- Oxford Handbook of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology. OUP Oxford. 2009. p. 56. ISBN 9780191039621.
- McHugh, Timothy D. (2011). Tuberculosis : diagnosis and treatment. Wallingford, Oxfordshire: CABI. p. 219. ISBN 9781845938079.
- "19th WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (April 2015)" (PDF). WHO. April 2015. Retrieved May 10, 2015.
- "Rifampicin". International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Retrieved 24 August 2015.
- Hamilton, Richard J. (2014). Tarascon pocket pharmacopoeia : 2014 deluxe lab-pocket edition (15 ed.). Sudbury: Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 39. ISBN 9781284053999.
- Long, James W. (1991). Essential Guide to Prescription Drugs 1992. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. pp. 925–929. ISBN 0-06-273090-8.
- Erlich, Henry, W Ford Doolittle, Volker Neuhoff, and et al. . Molecular Biology of Rifomycin. New York, NY: MSS Information Corporation, 1973. pp. 44-45, 66-75, 124-130.
- Hofmann, AF (2002). "Rifampicin and treatment of cholestatic pruritus". Gut 2002;50:436–9 51 (5): 756–757. doi:10.1136/gut.51.5.756. PMC 1773428. PMID 12377823.
- "rifampin oral : Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Pictures, Warnings & Dosing - WebMD". WebMD. WebMD. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
- Sharma, SK; Sharma, A; Kadhiravan, T; Tharyan, P (July 5, 2013). "Rifamycins (rifampicin, rifabutin and rifapentine) compared to isoniazid for preventing tuberculosis in HIV-negative people at risk of active TB". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews 7: CD007545. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007545.pub2. PMID 23828580.
- Aboltins CA, Page MA, Buising KL et al. (June 2007). "Treatment of staphylococcal prosthetic joint infections with debridement, prosthesis retention and oral rifampicin and fusidic acid". Clinical Microbiology and Infection 13 (6): 586–591. doi:10.1111/j.1469-0691.2007.01691.x. PMID 17331125.
- Wormser, Gary P.; Dattwyler, Raymond J.; Shapiro, Eugene D.; Halperin, John J.; Steere, Allen C.; Klempner, Mark S.; Krause, Peter J.; Bakken, Johan S.; Strle, Franc; Stanek, Gerold; Bockenstedt, Linda; Fish, Durland; Stephen Dumler, J.; Nadelman, Robert B. (1 November 2006). "The Clinical Assessment, Treatment, and Prevention of Lyme Disease, Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis, and Babesiosis: Clinical Practice Guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America". Clinical Infectious Diseases 43 (9): 1089–1134. doi:10.1086/508667. PMID 17029130.
- Thomas RG, Dumler SJ, Carlyon JA (August 2009). "Current management of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, human monocytic ehrlichiosis and Ehrlichia ewingii ehrlichiosis". Expert Reviews in Anti-Infection Therapies 7 (6): 709–722. doi:10.1586/eri.09.44. PMC 2739015. PMID 19681699.
- "Rifampicin". Retrieved August 22, 2014.
- Leschine, S. B., and E. Canale-Parola. "Rifampin as a selective agent for isolation of oral spirochetes." Journal of clinical microbiology 12.6 (1980): 792.
- Charity JC, Katz E, Moss B (March 2007). "Amino acid substitutions at multiple sites within the vaccinia virus D13 scaffold protein confer resistance to rifampicin". Virology 359 (1): 227–32. doi:10.1016/j.virol.2006.09.031. PMC 1817899. PMID 17055024.
- Sodeik B, Griffiths G, Ericsson M, Moss B, Doms RW (February 1994). "Assembly of vaccinia virus: effects of rifampin on the intracellular distribution of viral protein p65". J. Virol. 68 (2): 1103–14. PMC 236549. PMID 8289340.
- Collins, R Douglas. Atlas of Drug Reactions. New York, NY: ChurchillLivingstone, 1985. pp. 123.
- Stockley, Ivan H. "Anticoagulant Drug Interactions." Drug Interactions. 3rd ed. Boston: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1994. pp. 274-275.
- "rifampin oral : Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Pictures, Warnings & Dosing - WebMD". WebMD. WebMD. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
- "Division of Clinical Pharmacology | Indiana University Department of Medicine". Medicine.iupui.edu. 2011-09-27. Retrieved 2011-11-07.
- Riss, J.; Cloyd, J.; Gates, J.; Collins, S. (Aug 2008). "Benzodiazepines in epilepsy: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics". Acta Neurol Scand 118 (2): 69–86. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01004.x. PMID 18384456.
- Calvori, C.; Frontali, L.; Leoni, L.; Tecce, G. (1965). "Effect of rifamycin on protein synthesis". Nature 207 (995): 417–8. doi:10.1038/207417a0. PMID 4957347.
- Campbell, E.A., Korzheva, N., Mustaev, A., Murakami, K., Nair, S., Goldfarb, A., Darst, S.A. (2001). "Structural mechanism for rifampicin inhibition of bacterial RNA polymerase". Cell 104 (6): 901–12. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(01)00286-0. PMID 11290327.
- Feklistov, A., Mekler, V., Jiang, Q., Westblade, L.F., Irschik, H., Jansen, R., Mustaev, A., Darst, S.A., Ebright, R.H. (2008). "Rifamycins do not function by allosteric modulation of binding of Mg2+ to the RNA polymerase active center". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105 (39): 14820–5. doi:10.1073/pnas.0802822105. PMC 2567451. PMID 18787125.
- G Curci, A Ninni, A.D'Aleccio (1969) Atti Tavola Rotonda Rifampicina, Taormina, page 19. Edizioni Rassegna Medica, Lepetit, Milano
- "Kinetics of Rifampin taken with food and with antacids" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-11-07.
- Hardman, Joel G., Lee E. Limbird, and Alfred G. Gilman, eds. "Rifampin." The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 10th ed. United States of America: The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2001. pp. 1277-1279.
- "When I Use a Word . . .I Mean It". British Medical Journal 1999;319(7215):972 (9 October). Retrieved 2009-07-10.
- Moncalvo F, Moreo G (1966). "Ricerche cliniche preliminari sull'impiego di una nuova rifamicina orale (rifaldazina) nella terapia della tubercolosi polmonare (nota preventiva).". G Ital Mal Torace 20 (3): 120–31. PMID 5974175.
- "Rifampicin". Chemical Safety Information from Intergovernmental Organizations. International Programme on Chemical Safety. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- "US Patent 3963705" (Patent). Google. US Patent Office. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- PubPK - Rifampicin pharmacokinetics
- Prescribing Information for RIFADIN by Sanofi-Aventis
- U.S. National Library of Medicine: Drug Information Portal - Rifampicin
- PDR.net Concise Monograph - Rifadin