List of pterosaur genera

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This list of pterosaurs is a comprehensive listing of all genera that have ever been included in the order Pterosauria, excluding purely vernacular terms. The list includes all commonly accepted genera, but also genera that are now considered invalid, doubtful (nomen dubium), or were not formally published (nomen nudum), as well as junior synonyms of more established names, and genera that are no longer considered pterosaurian. The list currently includes 166 genera.

Scope and terminology

There is no official, canonical list of pterosaur genera, but the most thorough attempts can be found at the Pterosauria section of Mikko Haaramo's Phylogeny Archive,[1] the Genus Index at Mike Hanson's The Pterosauria,[2] supplemented by the Pterosaur Species List,[3] and in the fourth supplement of Donald F. Glut's Dinosaurs: The Encyclopedia series.[4]

Authors and Year

The authors column lists the authors of the formal description responsible for the erection of the genus listed. They are not necessarily the same as the authors of the type species as sometimes a species from one genus is determined sufficiently distinct to warrant the erection of a new genus to house it. If this is the case, only the latter authors will be listed. The year column notes the year the description was published.

Status

Naming conventions and terminology follow the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Technical terms used include:

  • Junior synonym: A name which describes the same taxon as a previously published name. If two or more genera are formally designated and the type specimens are later assigned to the same genus, the first to be published (in chronological order) is the senior synonym, and all other instances are junior synonyms. Senior synonyms are generally used, except by special decision of the ICZN, but junior synonyms cannot be used again, even if deprecated. Junior synonymy is often subjective, unless the genera described were both based on the same type specimen.
  • Nomen nudum (Latin for "naked name"): A name that has appeared in print but has not yet been formally published by the standards of the ICZN. Nomina nuda (the plural form) are invalid, and are therefore not italicized as a proper generic name would be. If the name is later formally published, that name is no longer a nomen nudum and will be italicized on this list. Often, the formally published name will differ from any nomina nuda that describe the same specimen.
  • Preoccupied name: A name that is formally published, but which has already been used for another taxon. This second use is invalid (as are all subsequent uses) and the name must be replaced. As preoccupied names are not valid generic names, they will also go unitalicized on this list.
  • Nomen dubium (Latin for "dubious name"): A name describing a fossil with no unique diagnostic features. As this can be an extremely subjective and controversial designation, this term is not used on this list.

Age

The age column denotes the epoch of geologic time to which the fossils date. The abbreviations are as follows.

Genera that are invalid, misidentified, or otherwise do not represent a valid pterosaur are listed as age N/A because there was never a time in which a pterosaur by that generic name actually lived.

Location and Notes

The location column designates the geographic region where remains of the relevant genus have been found. The regions used are continents except in the case of smaller landmasses (eg. Cuba). Political bodies, being non-existent in the Mesozoic are not used to indicate genera locations. Genera that are invalid, misidentified, or otherwise do not represent a valid pterosaur are listed as location N/A because there was never a place in which a pterosaur by that generic name actually lived. The notes column is a collection of annotations on the scientific significance and taxonomic history of listed genera, as well as elaborations on the information presented in other columns.

The list

Genera

Genus Authors Year Status Age Location Notes

Aetodactylus[5]

Myers

2010

Valid.

Late Cretaceous

N. America

Aidachar[6]

Nesov

1981

Misidentification.

N/A

N/A

Actually a teleost fish whose remains were originally mistaken for jaw fragments of a ctenochasmatid. The mistake was corrected in 1986.

Alanqa[7]

Ibrahim
et al.

2010

Valid

Late Cretaceous

Africa

Amblydectes

Hooley

1870

Jr. synonym.

N/A

N/A

Junior synonym of Coloborhynchus.

Angustinaripterus[8]

He
Xinlu
et al.

1983

Valid.

Middle Jurassic

Asia

Known from a single skull recovered from the Dashanpu Formation. Its Dorygnathus-like teeth suggest it had a piscivorous diet.

Anhanguera[9]

Campos
Kellner

1985

Valid.

Early Cretaceous

S. America

A piscivorous ornithocheirid from the Santana Formation. A study of its anatomy helped resolve controversy regarding pterodacyloids' posture while on the ground.

Anurognathus[10]

Döderlein

1923

Valid.

Late Jurassic.[11]

Europe.[11]

A tiny (50 cm wingspan) insectivore known only from two skeletons recovered from the Solnhofen Formation.

Apatomerus[12]

Williston

1903

Misidentification.[2]

Lower Cretaceous

N. America

Probably a misidentified plesiosaur.[2]

Arambourgiania[13]

Nesov
Kanznyshkina
Cherepanov

1987

Valid.

Late Cretaceous

Asia

Aralazhdarcho[14]

Averianov

2007

Valid.

Late Cretaceous

Asia

Araripedactylus

Wellnhofer

1977

Valid.

Early Cretaceous

S. America

Araripesaurus

Price

1971

Valid.

Early Cretaceous

S. America

Arthurdactylus

Frey
Martill

1994

Valid.

Early Cretaceous

S. America

Austriadactylus[8]

Dalla Vecchia
Wild
Reitner

2002

Valid.

Upper Triassic

Europe

Avgodectes[15]

Peters

2004

Jr. synonym.

N/A

N/A

Probable junior synonym of Haopterus.

Azhdarcho[16]

Nesov

1984

Valid.

Late Cretaceous

Asia

Bakonydraco[17]

Weishampel
Jianu

2005

Valid.

Late Cretaceous

Europe

Batrachognathus[18]

Rjabinin

1948

Valid.

Late Jurassic.[19]

Asia.[19]

Beipiaopterus[20]

J.-C. Lü

2003

Valid.

Early Cretaceous

Asia

Belonochasma[2]

Broili

1939

Misidentification.[2]

N/A

N/A

A non-pterosaurian gnathostome.[2]

Bennettazhia

Nesov

1991

Valid.

Early Cretaceous

N. America

Bogolubovia[21]

Nesov
A. A. Yarkov

1989

Valid.

Late Cretaceous

Asia

Boreopterus[22]


Qiang

2005

Valid.

Early Cretaceous

Asia

Brachytrachelus

Giebel

1852

Preoccupied.

N/A

N/A

preoccupied name; now known as Scaphognathus

Brasileodactylus[23]

Kellner

1984

Valid.

Early Cretaceous

S. America

Cacibupteryx[24]

Gasparini
Fernández
de la Fuente

2004

Valid.

Late Jurassic

Cuba

"Campylognathus"[25]

Plieninger

1894

Preoccupied.

N/A

N/A

preoccupied name; now known as Campylognathoides

Campylognathoides[8]

Strand

1928

Valid.

Middle Jurassic[26]

Europe.[26]

Carniadactylus[27]

Dalla Vecchia

2009

Valid.

Late Triassic

Europe

Formerly Eudimorphodon rosenfeldi.[27]

Cathayopterus[28][29]

Wang
Zhonghe

2006

Valid.

Early Cretaceous

Asia

Caulkicephalus[30]

Steel
Martill
et al.

2005

Valid.

Early Cretaceous

Europe

Caviramus [31]

Fröbisch
Fröbisch

2006

Valid.

Upper Triassic

Europe

Cearadactylus[32]

Leonardi
Borgomanero

1985

Valid.

Early Cretaceous

S. America

Changchengopterus[33]

2009

Valid.

Late Jurassic

Asia

Chaoyangopterus[34]

Wang
Zhou

2003

Valid.

Early Cretaceous

Asia

Cimoliornis

Owen

1846

Jr. synonym.

N/A

N/A

Jr. synonym of Ornithocheirus.

Coloborhynchus[8]

Owen

1874

Valid.

Early Cretaceous

Europe
N. America
S. America

Comodactylus[35]

Galton

1981

Valid.

Late Jurassic

N. America

Cretornis

Fritsch

1880

Jr. synonym.

N/A

N/A

Jr. synonym of Ornithocheirus.

Criorhynchus

Owen

1874

Jr. synonym.

N/A

N/A

Jr. synonym of Ornithocheirus.

Ctenochasma[36]

von Meyer

1852

Valid.

Late Jurassic.[37]

Europe.[37]

Cycnorhamphus[8]

Seeley

1870

Valid.

Late Jurassic.[38]

Europe.[38]

"Daitingopterus"[39]

Maisch
Matzke
Ge Sun

2004

Nomen nudum.

Late Jurassic

Europe

Darwinopterus[40]


Unwin
et al.

2009

Valid.

Middle Jurassic

Asia

Intermediate form between rhamphorhynchoids and pterodactyloids.

Dawndraco[41]

Kellner

2010

Valid.

Late Cretaceous

N. America

Dendrorhynchoides[42]

S.-A. Ji
Q. Ji
Padian

1999

Valid.

Late Jurassic or Early Cretaceous

Asia

"Dendrorhynchus"[43]

S.-A. Ji
Q. Ji

1998

Preoccupied.

N/A

N/A

Preoccupied name; now known as Dendrorhynchoides.

Dermodactylus

Marsh

1881

Valid.

Late Jurassic

N. America

Dimorphodon[8]

Owen

1859

Valid.

Early Jurassic[44]

Europe.[44]

Diopecephalus

Seeley

1871

Jr. synonym.

N/A

N/A

Jr. synonym of Pterodactylus.

Dolichorhamphus

Seeley

1880

Jr. synonym.

N/A

N/A

Jr. synonym of Rhamphocephalus.

Domeykodactylus[45]

Martill
Frey
et al.

2000

Valid.

Early Cretaceous

S. America

Doratorhynchus[46]

Seeley

1875

Nomen vanum

Late Jurassic or Early Cretaceous

Europe

Dorygnathus[8]

Wagner

1860

Valid.

Middle Jurassic[47]

Europe.[47]

Dsungaripterus[8]

Young

1964

Valid.

Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous[48]

Africa.[48]
Asia.[48]

Elanodactylus[49]

Andres
Ji, Q.

2008

Valid.

Early Cretaceous

Asia

Eoazhdarcho[50]


Qiang

2005

Valid.

Early Cretaceous

Asia

Eopteranodon[51]

Lü, J.C.
Zhang

2005

Valid.

Early Cretaceous

Asia

Eosipterus[8]

Ji
Ji

1997

Valid.

Early Cretaceous

Asia

Eudimorphodon[8]

Zambelli

1973

Valid.

Middle Triassic[52]

Europe.[52]

Faxinalipterus[53]

Bonaparte,
et al.

2010

Valid.

Late Triassic

S. America

Feilongus[54]

Wang,
Kellner,
et al.

2005

Valid.

Early Cretaceous

Asia

Gallodactylus

Fabre

1974

Jr. synonym. N/A N/A Jr. synonym of Cycnorhamphus.

Geosternbergia

Miller

1978

Jr. synonym.

N/A

N/A

Jr. synonym of Pteranodon.

Gegepterus[55]

X. Wang
Kellner
et al.

2007

Valid.

Early Cretaceous

Asia

Germanodactylus[8]

Yang

1964

Valid.

Late Jurassic.[56]

Europe.[56]

Gnathosaurus[8]

von Meyer

1833

Valid.

Late Jurassic.[57]

Europe.[57]

Haopterus[58]

Wang X.
Lü J.

2001

Valid.

Early Cretaceous

Asia

Harpactognathus[59]

Carpenter
Unwin
et al.

2003

Valid.

Late Jurassic

N. America

Hatzegopteryx[60]

Buffetaut
Grigorescu
Csiki

2002

Valid.

Late Cretaceous

Europe

Herbstosaurus[8]

Casamiquela

1974

Valid.

Late Jurassic

S. America

Hongshanopterus[61]

X. Wang
Campos
et al.

2008

Valid.

Early Cretaceous

Asia

Huanhepterus[62]

Dong

1982

Valid.

Late Jurassic

Asia

Huaxiapterus[63]

J. Lü
C. Yuan

2005

Valid.

Early Cretaceous

Asia

Ingridia[64]

Unwin
Martill

2007

Jr. synonym.

N/A

N/A

Objective Jr. synonym of Tupandactylus.

Istiodactylus[8]

Howse
Milner
Martill

2001

Valid.

Early Cretaceous

Europe

Jeholopterus[65]

X. Wang
Z. Zhou

2002

Valid.

Middle Jurassic or Early Cretaceous

Asia

Jidapterus[66]

Dong
Sun
Wu

2003

Valid.

Early Cretaceous

Asia

Kepodactylus[67]

Harris
Carpenter

1996

Valid.

Late Jurassic

N. America

Kunpengopterus[68]

X. Wang
Kellner
et al.

2010

Valid.

Middle Jurassic

Asia

Lacusovagus[69]

Witton

2008

Valid.

Early Cretaceous

S. America

Laopteryx

Marsh

1881

Valid.

Late Jurassic

N. America

Liaoningopterus[63]

X.-L. Wang
Z.-H. Zhou

2003

Valid.

Early Cretaceous

Asia

Liaoningopteryx

X. Wang
Zhao

2003

Lapsus calami.

N/A

N/A

Misspelling of Liaoningopterus.

Liaoxipterus[62]

Z. Dong
J. Lü

2005

Valid.

Early Cretaceous

Asia

"Lithosteornis"[70]

Gervais

1844

Nomen nudum.

N/A

N/A

Nomen nudum. Also a Jr. synonym of Ornithocheirus.

Lonchodectes[8]

Hooley

1914

Valid.

Early Cretaceous to Late Cretaceous

Europe

Lonchognathosaurus[39]

Maisch
Matzke
Ge Sun

2004

Valid.

Early Cretaceous

Asia

Longchengpterus[71]

L. Wang
L. Li
et al.

2006

Valid.

Early Cretaceous

Asia

Ludodactylus[72]

Frey
Martill
Buchy

2003

Valid.

Early Cretaceous

S. America

Macrotrachelus

Giebel

1852

Jr. synonym.

N/A

N/A

Jr. synonym of Pterodactylus.

Mesadactylus[73]

Jensen
Padian

1989

Valid.

Late Jurassic

N. America

Montanazhdarcho[74]

Padian
Horner
de Ricqlès

1993

Valid.

Late Cretaceous

N. America

Muzquizopteryx[75]

Frey
Buchy
et al.

2006

Valid.

Late Cretaceous

N. America

Mythunga[76]

Molnar
Thulborn

2008

Valid.

Early Cretaceous

Australia

Nemicolopterus[77]

X. Wang
Kellner
et al.

2008

Valid.

Early Cretaceous

Asia

Nesodactylus[78]

Colbert

1969

Valid.

Late Jurassic

Cuba

Nesodon[79]

Jensen
Ostrom

1977

Lapsus calami.

N/A

N/A

Misspelling of Nesodactylus, also preoccupied by a toxodont.

Ningchengopterus[80]

J. Lu

2009

Valid.

Early Cretaceous

Asia

Noripterus[8]

Yang

1973

Valid.

Early Cretaceous

Asia

Normannognathus[39]

Buffetaut
J.-J. Lepage
G. Lepage

1998

Valid.

Late Jurassic

Europe

Nurhachius

Wang
Kellner
et al.

2003

Valid.

Early Cretaceous

Asia

Nyctodactylus[81]

Marsh

1881

Jr. synonym.

N/A

N/A

Jr. synonym of Nyctosaurus.

Nyctosaurus[82]

Marsh

1876

Valid.

Late Cretaceous[83]

N. America.[83]
S. America.[83]

"Odontorhynchus"

Stolley

1936

Preoccupied.

N/A

N/A

Preoccupied, but no replacement name has yet been coined.

"Oolithorhynchus"[2]

Whalley

2000

Nomen nudum.[2]

Manuscript name[2] about which almost nothing is known.

Ornithocephalus[84]

von Sömmering

1812

Jr. synonym.

N/A

N/A

Jr. synonym of Pterodactylus.

Ornithocheirus[8]

Seeley

1869

Valid.

Late Jurassic.[85]

Africa.[85]
Australia.[85]
Europe.[85]
S. America.[85]

Ornithodesmus[2]

Seeley

1887

Misidentification.[2]

N/A

N/A

Misidentified deinonychosaur.[2]

Ornithopterus[86]

Fitzinger

1843

Jr. synonym.

N/A

N/A

Jr. synonym of Rhamphorhynchus.

Ornithostoma[8]

Seeley

1871

Valid.

Late Cretaceous

Europe

"Osteornis"[70]

Gervais

1844

Nomen nudum.

N/A

N/A

Nomen nudum, but appeared to be a Jr. synonym of Ornithocheirus anyway.

Pachyrhamphus[86]

Fitzinger

1843

Preoccupied.

N/A

N/A

preoccupied name; now known as Scaphognathus

Palaeornis

Mantell

1835

Preoccupied.

N/A

N/A

preoccupied name but appears to be a Jr. synonym of Ornithocheirus anyway.

Paranurognathus[87]

Peters

2005

Jr. synonym.

N/A

N/A

Jr. synonym of Anurognathus.

Parapsicephalus[88]

von Arthaber

1919

Valid.

Early Jurassic

Europe

Peteinosaurus[8]

Wild

1978

Valid.

Middle Triassic[89]

Europe.[89]

"Phobetor"[2][8]

Bakhurina

1986

Jr. synonym.

N/A

N/A

Jr. synonym of Noripterus[90]

Phosphatodraco[91]

Pereda-Suberbiola

Bardet

et al.

2003

Valid.

Late Cretaceous

Africa

Plataleorhynchus[92]

Howse
Milner

1995

Valid.

Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous

Europe

Prejanopterus[93]

Vidarte
Calvo

2010

Valid.

Early Cretaceous

Europe

Preondactylus[8]

Wild

1983

Valid.

Middle Triassic[94]

Europe[94]

"Pricesaurus"[95]

Bonaparte
Sanchez

1986

Nomen nudum.

Early Cretaceous

S. America

Procoelosaurus[96]

Atanassov

2002

Nomen ex dissertatione.[2]

Ptenodactylus[97]

Seeley

1869

Jr. synonym.

N/A

N/A

Jr. synonym of Pterodactylus.

Ptenodracon[98]

Lydekker

1888

Preoccupied.

N/A

N/A

Preoccupied name, but appears to be a Jr. synonym of Coloborhynchus anyway.

Pteranodon[8]

Marsh

1876

Valid.

Late Cretaceous[99]

N. America.[99]

Ptéro-dactyle

Cuvier

1809

N/A

N/A

Renamed Pterodactylus.

Pterodactylus

Rafinesque

1815

Valid.

Late Jurassic.[100]

Africa.[100]
Europe.[100]

Pterodaustro[8]

Bonaparte

1970

Valid.

Early Cretaceous[101]

S. America.[101]

Pteromimus[96]

Atanassov

2002

Nomen ex dissertatione.[2]

Pteromonodactylus

Teryaev

1967

Jr. synonym.

N/A

N/A

Jr. synonym of Rhamphorhynchus.

Pterorhynchus[102]

Czerkas
Q. Ji

2002

Valid.

Late Jurassic

Asia

Pterotherium[103]

Fischer von Waldheim

1813

Jr. synonym.

N/A

N/A

Jr. synonym of Pterodactylus.

Puntanipterus[104]

Bonaparte
Sanchez

1975

Valid.

Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous

S. America

Quetzalcoatlus[8]

Lawson

1975

Valid.

Late Cretaceous[105]

N. America.[105]

Raeticodactylus[106]

Stecher

2008

Jr. synonym

N/A

N/A

Jr. synonym of Caviramus

Rhabdopelix[2]

Cope

1870

Misidentification.[2] N/A N/A At first it was thought to be a Triassic pterosaur , but is now known to be (at least in part) a kuehneosaurid.[2]

Rhamphinion[107]

Padian

1984

Valid.

Early Jurassic

N. America

Rhamphocephalus[8]

Seeley

1880

Valid.

midjur

Europe

Rhamphorhynchus[8]

von Meyer

1846

Valid.

Late Jurassic.[108]

Africa.[108]
Europe.[108]

Santanadactylus[109]

de Buisonjé

1980

Valid.

Early Cretaceous

S. America

Scaphognathus[8]

Wagner

1861

Valid.

Late Jurassic.[110]

Europe.[110]

Sericipterus

Andres
Clark
X. Xing

2010

Valid.

Late Jurassic

Asia

Shenzhoupterus[111]

J. Lü
Unwin
et al.

2008

Valid.

Early Cretaceous

Asia

Sinopterus[63]

X. Wang
Z. Zhou

2003

Valid.

Early Cretaceous

Asia

Siroccopteryx[112]

Mader
Kellner

1999

Jr. synonym.

N/A

N/A

Jr. synonym of Coloborhynchus.

Sordes[8]

Sharov

1971

Valid.

Late Jurassic.[113]

Asia.[113]

Sultanuvaisia[6]

Nesov

1981

Misidentification.

Late Cretaceous

Asia.

Actually a fish.

Tapejara[8]

Kellner

1989

Valid.

Early Cretaceous

S. America

Tendaguripterus[114]

Unwin
Heinrich

1999

Valid.

Late Jurassic

Africa

Thalassodromeus[115]

Kellner
Campos

2002

Valid.

Early Cretaceous

S. America

"Titanopteryx"[116]

Arambourg

1959

Preoccupied.

Late Cretaceous

Asia

Preoccupied by a simuliid blackfly. It was later renamed Arambourgiania.

Tribelesodon

Bassani

1886

Misidentification.

N/A

N/A

At first it was thought to be a Triassic pterosaur but is now known to be a misinterpreted specimen of the prolacertiform Tanystropheus.

Tropeognathus

Wellnhofer

1987

Jr. synonym.

N/A

N/A

Jr. synonym of Ornithocheirus.

Tupandactylus[117]

Kellner
Campos

2007

Valid.

Early Cretaceous

S. America

Tupuxuara[118]

Kellner
Campos

1988

Valid.

Late Cretaceous

N. America
S. America

Uktenadactylus[119]

Rodrigues
Kellner

2008

Disputed.

Early Cretaceous

N. America

Possible junior synonym of Coloborhynchus.

Unwindia[120]

Martill

2010

Valid.

Late Cretaceous

S. America

Utahdactylus[121]

Czerkas
Mickelson

2002

Disputed.

N/A

N/A

Probably a non-pterosaurian reptile.

Volgadraco[122]

Averianov
Arkhangelsky
Pervushov

2008

Valid.

Late Cretaceous.

Asia.

Wukongopterus

X. Wang
Kellner
et al.

2009

Valid.

Middle Jurassic

Asia

"Wyomingopteryx"[123]

Bakker

1994

Nomen nudum. Nomen nudum.

Yixianopterus[124]

J. Lü
S. Ji
et al.

2006

Valid.

Early Cretaceous

Asia

Appears to be valid, but little is known[125]

Zhejiangopterus[126]

Z. Cai
F. Wei

1994

Valid.

Late Cretaceous

Asia

Zhenyuanopterus[127]

J. Lü

2010

Valid.

Early Cretaceous

Asia

Ichnogenera

Genus Authors Year Status Age Location Notes

Agadirichnus

Ambroggi
Lapparent

1954

Valid.

uK

Africa

Haenamichnus[128]

Hwang
Huh
et al.

2002

Valid.

uK[128]

Asia.[128]

More than 5 times as large as Pteraichnus, these tracks were probably made by azhdarchids.[128]

Kouphichnium

Nopcsa

1923

Misidentification.

N/A

N/A

The trackmaker was probably a limulid.

Pteraichnus

Stokes

1957

Disputed.

uJ

Asia[129]
Europe
N. America

Possible junior synonym of Agadirichnus. Some tracks attributed to Pteraichnus have been considered crocodilian in origin by some scientists.

Purbeckopus

Delair

1963

Nomen dubium.

lK

Europe.

Oogenera

Although pterosaur eggs are known, some with complete embryos, no oogenera have been erected to house them. The holotype of the oospecies Oolithes sphaericus was briefly considered by Harry Govier Seeley to be pterosaurian in origin, although this attribution was dismissed before the formal erection of that oogenus.

See also

References

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