Nova (Richard Rider)
|First appearance||The Man Called Nova #1 (September 1976)|
John Romita, Sr.
|Alter ego||Richard Rider|
|Place of origin||Earth|
Champions of Xandar
|Notable aliases||Nova Prime, Kid Nova, Nova #11249-44396, The Human Rocket, Quasar|
Nova (Richard Rider) is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The character appeared historically as the star of his own series, and at other times, as a supporting character in team books such as The New Warriors. He is a member of the intergalactic police force known as the Nova Corps, for which he gained superhuman abilities including enhanced strength, flight and resistance to injury.
- 1 Publication history
- 2 Fictional character biography
- 3 Powers and abilities
- 4 Reception and legacy
- 5 Marv Wolfman lawsuit
- 6 Other versions
- 7 In other media
- 8 Collected editions
- 9 References
- 10 Sources
- 11 External links
The character was created in 1966 by writer Marv Wolfman in issue #3 of his fanzine, Super Adventures. Then known as The Star, he was an alien doctor named Denteen who found a spaceship containing pills which gave him a different super-power every five minutes. In issue #6, Wolfman and writer Len Wein reimagined the character, now a prisioner named Kraken Roo who turns out to become the superhero Black Nova. Years later, Wolfman (working for Marvel Comics) and artist John Romita, Sr. tweaked the design of the character's uniform and created a new origin story.
Nova debuted in The Man Called Nova #1 in 1976, written by Wolfman and drawn by John Buscema. Wolfman intended the teenage character to be an homage to Stan Lee and Steve Ditko's Spider-Man, down to his humble working-class roots and alliterative alter-ego. The original series lasted 25 issues from September 1976 to May 1979. Dangling plot lines were resolved in issues 206-214 of Fantastic Four (also by Wolfman) and issue 24 of Rom the Spaceknight. The character then disappeared into obscurity until returning as a member of the original New Warriors team debuting in The Mighty Thor #411 (December 1989), and continuing through New Warriors #1-75, Annual #1-4 (July 1990—September 1996).
Following two subsequent Nova titles, Nova vol. 2 #1-18 (Jan 94 - June 95) and Nova, The Human Rocket vol. 3 #1-7 (May - Nov 1999), Nova would return in New Warriors vol. 2 #0-10 (October 1999—July 2000) and New Warriors vol. 3 #1-6 (July 2005 - December 2005). After a four issue miniseries titled Annihilation: Nova and a leading role in Annihilation 1-6, a fourth volume of Nova ran for 36 issues (April 2007 - April 2010). This series tied into Annihilation: Conquest, Secret Invasion, and War of Kings. After the cancellation of volume four, some remaining plot threads were addressed in The Thanos Imperative, a six-issue miniseries with two bookend one-shots (May 2010 - Feb 2011).
Fictional character biography
When the last surviving member of the planet Xandar's elite Nova Corps, Rhomann Dey, is dying, he selects New York high school student Richard Rider to replace him. Rider is given the uniform and powers of a Nova Centurion but little instruction on how to use them. Calling himself Nova, Rider becomes a superhero, fighting costumed supervillains such as Condor, Powerhouse, Diamondhead, the Corruptor, and the Sphinx, and teaming with heroes such as Spider-Man and Thor. He initially hides his identity, but later reveals it to his family.
Rider discovers Dey's space ship orbiting Earth and uses it to journey to Xandar with Doctor Sun, Powerhouse, Comet, and Crimebuster and the Sphinx, where they join Xandar's war against the Skrulls. With the help of Rom the Space Knight, the Skrulls are defeated. Wanting to return to Earth, Rider is released from his duties on Xandar and relinquishes his powers.
Upon his return to Earth, Rider struggles to readjust due to his failure to complete high school. Unknown to him, the planet Xandar is utterly destroyed in an attack by the space pirate Nebula. With the help of Night Thrasher, Rider regains his powers and joins the New Warriors superhero team, where he becomes close friends with Speedball. Richard briefly dates Yale student Laura Dunham and teammate Namorita.
Rider encounters Garthan Saal, a former Nova Corps Centurion who had been driven insane by absorbing too much Nova Force, the source of power for Nova Centurions. Saal seeks more power so he can restore Xandar to its former glory. He strips Rider of his powers and transports him to Xandar. Saal is defeated. Rider witnesses the reformation of the Nova Corps and receives the rank of Centurion Prime.
Assigned to Earth, Rider is confronted with the challenge of balancing dual lives as a member of both the Nova Corps and the New Warriors. Rider encounters a Nova Corps member from an alternate timeline named Nova 0:0, who prepares him to stop the Deathstorm, which is coming to destroy Earth. Because Rider defies Xandar's Queen Adora to stop the Deathstorm, he is temporarily stripped of his powers and rank, but is given back his powers when his replacement sacrifices himself.
Nova briefly travels the US with the reformed New Warriors as part of a reality television show. Rider leaves the group when he is summoned to Xandar alongside the entire Nova Corps, which has been fully mobilized to respond to the Annihilation Wave, a force from the Negative Zone led by Annihilus. The wave decimates Xandar and the corps in a surprise attack. As the only surviving centurion, Rider makes contact with the Xandarian Worldmind, a living supercomputer that regulates the Nova Force and is caretaker of the entire database of Xandarian civilization. The Worldmind uploads itself and the entire Nova Force into Rider, greatly enhancing his abilities. During the Annihilation War, Rider takes command of the United Front, a loose collaboration of soldiers. In a nearly year-long campaign, Rider resists the Wave's advance across the galaxy until the United Front suffers a swift defeat. He leads a small team into the Wave's conquered territory and eventually engages Annihilus in personal combat, killing him.
After the Annihilation War, Rider returns to Earth to rest. However, finding out that his pleas for help in the Annihilation War were ignored by Earth's superheroes because of a Civil War, and meeting Penance - his old friend Speedball, who was mentally scarred by the events leading up to said war - Rider returns to space, feeling out of place on Earth and disturbed by what Penance had become.
Attempting to aid the Kree against an assault from the Phalanx, Rider is wounded and crash lands on a sparsely populated Kree outpost. While Rider's unconscious body recovers, Worldmind deputizes a local Kree commander, Ko-Rel, to guard him. Rider is infected by the transmode virus and joins the Phalanx. Now tasked with killing Rider before the Worldmind falls into enemy hands, Ko-Rel attacks him, only to be killed by Gamora in retaliation. Upon her death, her fraction of the Nova force returns to Rider and enables him to overcome the transmode virus. He flees Kree space pursued by Gamora and a Phalanx-controlled Drax. Seeking a cure for the transmode virus, Rider eventually arrives on Kvch, home planet of the Technarchy. Rider enlists the help of the mutant Warlock and his son Tyro, who cure Rider, Drax, and Gamora of the transmode virus. The five return to Hala to engage the Phalanx.
When ambushed by Skrulls during the Secret Invasion storyline, Rider is aided by Kl'rt. He learns about the Secret Invasion and heads for Earth. Rider learns that Project Pegasus, the base where his brother now works, is under Skrull attack. Working with Darkhawk, Rider successfully stops the Skrulls' advance. The scientists of the facility extract the Worldmind from his brain and use the supercomputer to jump-start a project known as the quantum flask, which restores Quasar to life. A Skrull warship is about to attack Project Pegasus but is destroyed by a band of alien Nova Centurions who then declare their allegiance to Rider.
Rider learns that Worldmind has been recruiting for the Corps without telling him. When he learns that Ego the Living Planet is among the new recruits, he becomes enraged and tries to battle Worldmind. As a result, he is stripped of his rank and ejected from the Nova Corps. Because his body has become dependent on the Nova Force, Rider will die if he is without it for too long. As a temporary measure, he borrows the quantum bands from Wendell Vaughn and becomes Quasar. Using his new abilities, Rider rescues the Corps from the War of Kings. Ego is removed as a Centurion and Rider regains his Nova Prime status, but not before most of the new recruits are slaughtered by the Shi'ar Imperial Guard. Nova agrees to train the remaining new Centurions, including his younger brother Robert.
Nova is recruited for the Secret Avengers by Steve Rogers and sent to Mars to investigate Roxxon's operations on that planet. While there, Rider discovers a second Serpent Crown secreted there, only to fall under its influence until rescued by Rogers and his team of Avengers. Shortly after this mission, Nova is called away to deal with the events of The Thanos Imperative and Steve Rogers confirms he has left the team.
"Realm of Kings" and Thanos Imperative
A lost Nova Corps ship appears from a tear in space-time known as the Fault. Onboard is Zan Philo, a long-missing Nova centurion who is assigned to train the new recruits. Later, Rider and Darkhawk find themselves inside the Fault, where they are called to do battle for the Sphinx against his younger self. Because of the unstable timestream inside the Fault, Nova is able to return with Namorita, his old girlfriend who had died a few years earlier. Rider returns to Project Pegasus, where he confronts an alternate Quasar who originates from the Cancerverse, a universe within the Fault.
Catching up to the alternate Quasar, Rider returns to the Fault to see the Universal Church of Truth rip it wide open. Assisted by others, he confronts Lord Mar-Vell, the evil alternate version of Captain Marvel, but cannot stop him. Entering the Fault to assist the Guardians of the Galaxy, Rider and the Guardians watch Thanos destroy Mar-Vell. Now facing an enraged Thanos, Rider pulls the Nova Force from the rest of the Corps for extra strength. He and Star-Lord are able to hold Thanos back for the few minutes it takes for the Fault to close, trapping all three of them in the Cancerverse. The two heroes continue to fight Thanos for a Cosmic Cube which has the power to send them home. Rider charges the Cube with the Nova Force to create a doorway for Star-Lord, intending to remain behind and keep Thanos from escaping too. Star-Lord escapes, but Rider is unable to prevent Thanos from escaping as well. Because no one is immediately aware Star-Lord survived, Nova and Star-Lord receive a statue in their honor on Hala.
The latest Nova, Sam Alexander, locates the Xandarian Worldmind. Rider's consciousness awakens within the Worldmind during the encounter. It is later revealed that Rider and the Worldmind survived the closure of the Fault and remain trapped in the Cancerverse. Using the Nova Force, Rider manages to escape the Cancerverse, returns to Earth to visit his mother, and learns that his father has died. He encounters Alexander and they begin working together. However, in his escape, Rider has become a portal to the Cancerverse, which repeatedly attempts to invade Earth through him. Rider returns to the Cancerverse in hopes of closing the portal and thus saving his own universe. Despite his resistance, he is co-opted by the Cancerverse, but is freed by Alexander, who has followed him. The two escape the Cancerverse once more, using the Cosmic Cube carried by Thanos' Cancerverse doppelganger. Rider and Alexander resume their lives and relationships on Earth while continuing as Nova Corpsmen.
Powers and abilities
Nova derives his powers from an energy source called the Nova Force which all Nova Corps Centurions wield. This energy was transferred to Rider by the Nova-Centurion Rhomann Dey. The Nova Force affords Rider superhuman powers including flight, superhuman strength, speed, and durability, as well as the power to absorb energy directed against him and release it as gravimetric pulses and beams, either from specific parts of his body or from his entire body. Nova is a good hand-to-hand combatant, and has been coached by Chord.
Nova wears a standard Xandarian StarCorps uniform, designed to accommodate his powers without being damaged by them. The uniform is highly resistant to damage, including outer space conditions, and is airtight. In addition, the uniform has a built-in life support function that can sustain Rider under the most extreme environmental conditions, including acting as a life-support suit by locking off the mouth and eyes of the helmet. The helmet contains a radio, telescopic sights, night vision sensors, and heat imaging sensors, as well as a visual heads-up display for tracking energy signatures. Nova's helmet has a rigid construction and shape when worn, but becomes as malleable as cloth when it is not, allowing Rider to hide it in his civilian clothes when desired. Nova's uniform is not only extremely malleable, but contains specific functions to aid Rider in his role as a Nova Corps Centurion. Among these features are an electromagnetic discharge that can nullify gravity and an interface to stargates that allow him to enter hyperspace, where he can move at velocities exceeding the speed of light. Rider can also alter the appearance and nature of his uniform to suit his needs. However, as Rider learns the hard way, the Nova Corps keeps a strict dress code. When he makes major cosmetic changes to his uniform after rejoining the New Warriors, Nova is summarily ordered to conform to standard.
During Annihilation, Rider's uniform is altered and enhanced to house the Xandarian Worldmind as well as the entire Nova Force, which was previously used by all members of the Nova Corps. With the Worldmind and the Nova Force, Rider possesses tremendously augmented strength and durability as well as nearly limitless quantities of energy. The Worldmind consists of the entire culture and history of Xandar as well as the individual minds of thousands of years of dead Xandarians. The consensus voice of the Worldmind can speak directly to Rider, helping him to control the Nova Force, fight enemies, sense energy, interface with electronics, and protect against psionic abilities. The Worldmind can also assume direct control of Rider's body when he is asleep.
Reception and legacy
IGN ranked Nova as the 98th greatest comic book character, calling Nova a blend of Spider-Man and Green Lantern. They also stated that Nova experiences a growth into maturity through the Annihilation Wave storyline where Nova embraces his destiny as a premier defender of a battered galaxy.
Marv Wolfman lawsuit
In 1997, on the eve of the impending release of the Blade motion picture, Marv Wolfman sued Marvel Characters Inc. over ownership of all characters he had created for Marvel Comics, including Nova and Blade. A ruling in Marvel's favor was handed down on November 6, 2000. Wolfman's stance was that he had not signed work-for-hire contracts when he created characters including Blade and Nova. In a nonjury trial, the judge ruled that Marvel's later use of the characters was sufficiently different to protect it from Wolfman's claim of copyright ownership.
In the alternate future of Earth X, Nova resides in the afterlife. He and two other deceased heroes, Ms. Marvel and Star-Lord, lead an initial charge against Mephisto but are swiftly defeated.[volume & issue needed]
Nova is featured in Marvel Zombies: Dead Days. Unable to overcome his fear and horror of the slaughter occurring around him, Nova fails to act in his own defense when Spider-Man attacks him. Fortunately for Nova, Daredevil intervenes but is bitten when Nova is too shocked to assist. He and Thor are rescued by the Fantastic Four and united with the other surviving heroes on the S.H.I.E.L.D. Helicarrier. Nova panics further when Nick Fury formulates a desperate last stand defense, citing that this was nothing like previous global threats; and that the world was as good as dead. Regardless, Nova helps in the battle until he is bitten by Ms. Marvel.[volume & issue needed] As a zombie, he participates in a failed attack on Doctor Doom's castle, in an effort to get at the humans inside.[volume & issue needed] A zombie version of Nova can be seen in the Marvel Zombies limited series, being shredded by a hail of metal fragments hurled by Magneto.[volume & issue needed]
He is still mobile, as a zombie, when a swarm of zombies attack and attempt to consume the Silver Surfer. During the incident, Zombie Hulk crushes Zombie Hercules when the latter attempts to steal the Silver Surfer's head. Nova backs away, saying "On second thought, you keep that, big guy". He is later killed by the cosmic zombies.
Richard Rider appears frequently in the Spider-Girl series, which is set in an alternate future. The MC2 Nova (co-created by Tom DeFalco and Ron Frenz) first appeared in Spider-Girl #7 and wrongly believed Spider-Girl was a supervillain since she was fighting Darkdevil at the time. After a brief battle Nova later realizes his mistake.
Over time, the MC2 Nova attempts to tutor Spider-Girl on the importance of being a superhero. His arrogance and lack of patience with younger heroes causes his lessons to be largely ignored. However, the fact that Nova was a founding member of the New Warriors gave Spider-Girl the inspiration to form a new MC2 version of the Warriors.
By the time of the series, Nova has served as a temporary Avenger. He also appears in the Last Hero Standing and Avengers Next limited series. Nova also assisted in the battle against Galactus in Last Planet Standing.[volume & issue needed] The Nova in the MC2/Spider-Girl future is eventually confirmed to be Richard Rider in Avengers Next #2. His attitude toward Spider-Girl is often arrogant and dismissive, bordering on the contemptuous; but later he becomes impressed by her, after her surviving a battle against the Avengers' enemy Seth.
Nova appears as the sole Caucasian member of a team of Avengers from a parallel reality where the Middle East is the dominant superpower. He serves the ruler of this alternate Earth, the tyrannical female Sphinx. He is shown the truth of how the female Sphinx used the energy of the Ka Stone to reshape reality by the original Sphinx's former advisor Sayge. Nova betrays the Sphinx to join Marvel Man (Vance Astrovik) and Firestar of that world's Mutant Liberation Front as well as Night Thrasher whose parents were murdered in this reality on the orders of the Sphinx. When Nova threatens to murder the Sphinx's cat, she restores reality.
The second Nova series Nova deals with Nova 0:0, who is much more adept at using his powers than Richard Rider. He often fights Nova in order to test him and to push Nova into using his powers in new ways. It is revealed that this Nova is in fact the alternate reality version of Richard's younger brother Robert. In that reality Robert gained the Nova Force powers instead of Richard and stayed behind to lead the Nova Corps and help Xandar rebuild after the war with the Skrulls. Robert's earth had been destroyed by the Deathstorm while he was off in space. Nova 0:0 would later sacrifice his life preventing the Deathstorm from destroying the 616-version of Earth. He died and was buried on Mars. In the fourth Nova series the Robert Rider of the 616-version of Earth also becomes a member of the Nova Corps (alongside various other humans and non-humans) and again proves capable of using his powers in ways his brother Richard had not.
In What If? Annihilation, the Annihilation Wave reaches Earth in the climactic battle of the super hero Civil War. Nova, Captain America, and Iron Man work together and sacrifice themselves while using a weapon to destroy the wave and save Earth.
In other media
- The Richard Rider incarnation of Nova appeared in the Silver Surfer animated series. He is in a background cameo in the episode "Learning Curve Part 1".
- The Richard Rider incarnation of Nova appears in The Super Hero Squad Show, voiced by Jason Marsden. He is seen in the episode "So Pretty When They Explode".
- Richard Rider's voice was featured in an audio log for the New Warriors in Marvel: Ultimate Alliance 2, voiced by Robert Tinkler.
- Nova appears as a playable character in the Marvel Super Hero Squad: The Infinity Gauntlet video game, again voiced by Jason Marsden.
- The Richard Rider iteration of Nova is a playable character in Ultimate Marvel vs. Capcom 3, voiced by Troy Baker. His Quasar and Kid Nova costumes are available as alternate attires as well as Sam Alexander's costume from the Ultimate Spider-Man TV series.
- Nova is a playable character in Marvel Super Hero Squad Online.
- The Richard Rider version of Nova appears as a playable character in Marvel Heroes, again voiced by Troy Baker. Nova is referenced in the item descriptions for Xandarian Artifacts. Sam Alexander's Nova costume also appears as an alternate, enhanced costume.
- Nova appears as a playable character in Marvel vs. Capcom: Infinite, voiced by Benjamin Diskin.
Trade paperbacks include:
- Essential Nova (collects Nova (vol. 1) #1-25, Marvel Two-In-One Annual #3, The Amazing Spider-Man #171, Essential Marvel, March 2006, ISBN 0-7851-2093-9)
- Nova Classic: Volume 1 (collects Nova #1-12, The Amazing Spider-Man #171)
- Nova Classic: Volume 2 (collects Nova #13-19, The Defenders #62-64, Fantastic Four Annual #12, Marvel Two-In-One Annual #3)
- Nova Classic: Volume 3 (collects Nova #20-25, Fantastic Four #204-206, 208-214)
- The New Warriors:
- The New Warriors: Beginnings (collects Thor #411-412 and The New Warriors #1-4, September 1992, ISBN 0-87135-916-2)
- New Warriors Classic: Volume 1 (collects The New Warriors (vol. 1) #1-6 and Thor #411-412, 208 pages, August 2009, ISBN 0-7851-3742-4)
- New Warriors Classic: Volume 2 (collects The New Warriors (vol. 1) #7-10, Annual #1; New Mutants (Vol.1) Annual #7, Uncanny X-Men Annual #15 and X-Factor (Vol.1) Annual #6, 256 pages, May 2009, ISBN 0-7851-4263-0)
- New Warriors: Reality Check (collects The New Warriors (vol. 3) #1-6, 144 pages, March 2006, ISBN 0-7851-1661-3)
- Nova vol. 4 (by co-authors Dan Abnett and Andy Lanning, 2007-2010):
- Volume 1 (hardcover, 328 pages, January 2009, ISBN 0-7851-3654-1):
- Annihilation - Conquest (with pencils by Sean Chen and inks by Scott Hanna, collects Nova #1-7, 168 pages, December 2007, ISBN 0-7851-2631-7)
- Knowhere (with pencils by Wellington Alves and inks by Wellington Diaz and Nelson Pereira, collects Nova #8-12 and Annual #1, 144 pages, August 2008, ISBN 0-7851-2632-5)
- Secret Invasion (collects Nova #13-18, March 2009, ISBN 0-7851-2662-7)
- Nova Corps (collects Nova #19-22, and "Nova: Origin of Richard Rider", 144 pages, May 2009, ISBN 0-7851-3188-4)
- War of Kings (collects Nova #23-28, 144 pages, December 2009, ISBN 0-7851-4066-2)
- Realm of Kings (collects Nova #29-36, 168 pages, softcover, June 2010, ISBN 0-7851-4067-0)
- Volume 1 (hardcover, 328 pages, January 2009, ISBN 0-7851-3654-1):
- "IGN's Top 100 Comic Book Heroes". Retrieved 2011-05-09.
- "The Top 50 Avengers". IGN. April 30, 2012. Retrieved July 28, 2015.
- "Genesis Of Nova!". Nova Prime Page. Retrieved May 12, 2018.
- Cover of Nova #1 (Marvel Comics, Sept. 1976)
- "Nova Newsline!" (letter column), Nova #6 (Marvel Comics, Feb. 1977): Reader Michael Biegel writes "Marv Wolfman approached the character of Richard Rider specially by introducing similarities between him and Peter Parker. . . " and the editor responds "We wanted to recapture the essence of Spider-Man with a totally different character."
- Abnett & Lanning: On the Eve of Nova's Return to Monthly Fun Archived 2009-04-10 at the Wayback Machine., Comics Bulletin, April 9, 2007
- Galactus, and Surfer and Skrulls - Oh My! Abnett & Lanning on Nova Archived 2010-12-22 at WebCite, Newsarama, April 10, 2008
- JK Parkin (April 14, 2010). "And your Secret Avengers line-up is ..." Comic Book Resources. Retrieved April 16, 2010.
- At Long Last, Learn How Star-Lord Survived the Cancerverse, Marvel.com
- Nova #1
- Nova #2
- Nova #3
- Nova #4
- Nova #6-7, 10-11
- Nova #12; Amazing Spider-Man #171
- Nova #21
- Nova #24-25
- Fantastic Four #206, 208-209
- Rom #24
- Avengers #260
- New Warriors vol 1 #1 (w)Fabian Nicieza (a)Mark Bageley (1990)
- New Warriors Annual #2
- New Warriors #31
- New Warriors #40-42
- Nova vol. 2, #4
- Nova vol. 2, #16
- Nova vol. 2, #17-18
- New Warriors #75, September 1996
- New Warriors vol. 3, #1-6
- Annihilation: Prologue #1
- Annihilation: Nova #1
- Annihilation #1-6. Marvel Comics.
- Nova vol. 4, #3, August 2007. Marvel Comics.
- Nova vol. 4, #4
- Nova vol. 4, #5. Marvel Comics.
- Nova vol. 4, #6 - 7. Marvel Comics.
- Nova vol. 4, #11 - 12. Marvel Comics.
- Annihilation: Conquest #6. Marvel Comics.
- Nova vol. 4, #16. Marvel Comics.
- Nova vol. 4, #17. Marvel Comics.
- Nova #18. Marvel Comics.
- Nova #19-20
- Nova #22. Marvel Comics.
- Nova #24. Marvel Comics.
- Nova #23-25. Marvel Comics.
- Secret Avengers#1-6 (July-Dec. 2010). Marvel Comics.
- Secret Avengers#7 (Jan. 2011). Marvel Comics.
- Nova vol. 4 #30. Marvel Comics.
- Nova vol.4 #32-35
- Nova vol. 4 #36. Marvel Comics.
- The Thanos Imperative: Ignition #1. Marvel Comics.
- The Thanos Imperative #1-6. Marvel Comics.
- Guardians of the Galaxy vol 3 #18-20 (Aug 2014), (w) Brian Bendis (a) Ed McGuinness
- Nova (vol. 6) #10
- Nova (vol. 6) #11
- Nova (vol. 7) #1
- Nova (vol. 7) #6.
- Nova (vol. 7) #7.
- New Warriors vol 1 #2
- New Warriors vol 2 #9
- Annihilation #2, November 2006. Marvel Comics.
- Nova (vol. 4) #2, July 2007. Marvel Comics.
- Nova (vol. 4) #3, August 2007
- Nova (vol.4) #13, May 2008. Marvel Comics.
- "Nova is number 98". Retrieved May 5, 2011.
- Dean, Michael (November 2001). "Post Mortem: Marv Wolfman Talks About His Day in Court". The Comics Journal (239). Fantagraphics Books. Archived from the original on May 10, 2008.
- Dean, Michael (November 16, 2000). "Wolfman loses Blade lawsuit against Marvel". The Comics Journal (229). Fantagraphics Books. Archived from the original on February 24, 2012. Retrieved January 7, 2011.
- Marvel Zombies #5 (December 2006)
- Spider-Girl #7. Marvel Comics.
- Spider-Girl #42. Marvel Comics.
- Avengers Next #2. Marvel Comics.
- New Warriors #11-13. Marvel Comics.
- Nova vol 4 #27 (2009)
- Nova 0:0 at the Appendix to the Handbook of the Marvel Universe
- What If? (vol. 1) #15. Marvel Comics.
- Brendan Sinclair. "GameSpot - Ultimate Marvel vs. Capcom 3 roster leaked". Comic-con.gamespot.com. Archived from the original on 2011-07-22. Retrieved 2011-07-22.
- "2014 Advance Pack". Archived from the original on 2014-05-11.
- Sullivan, Lucas (May 15, 2017). "Every confirmed fighter in the Marvel vs. Capcom: Infinite roster". GamesRadar. Retrieved May 17, 2017.
- Capcom. Marvel vs. Capcom: Infinite. Capcom. Scene: Credits, "Cast".
- Smith, Doug (2009). "Flashback: The Man Called Nova". Back Issue #33. Raleigh: Twomorrows. ISSN 1932-6904.
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