|Manul at Rotterdam Zoo|
|Pallas's cat range|
The Pallas's cat (Otocolobus manul), also called manul, is a small wild cat with a broad but fragmented distribution in the grasslands and montane steppes of Central Asia. It is negatively affected by habitat degradation, prey base decline and hunting, and has therefore been classified as Near Threatened on the IUCN Red List since 2002.
The Pallas's cat is about the size of a domestic cat. Its body is 46 to 65 cm (18 to 26 in) long and its tail 21 to 31 cm (8.3 to 12.2 in) . It weighs 2.5 to 4.5 kg (5.5 to 9.9 lb). The combination of its stocky posture and long, dense fur makes it appear stout and plush. Its fur is ochre with dark vertical bars on the torso and forelegs. The winter coat is greyer and less patterned than the summer coat. There are clear black rings on the tail and dark spots on the forehead. The cheeks are white with narrow black stripes running from the corners of the eyes. The chin and throat are also white, merging into the greyish, silky fur of the underparts. Concentric white and black rims around the eyes accentuate their rounded shape. The legs are proportionately shorter than those of other cats, the ears are set very low and wide apart, and the claws are unusually short. The face is shortened compared with other cats, giving it a flattened look. The pupils are circular rather than vertical slits. The short jaw has fewer teeth than is typical among cats, with the first pair of upper premolars missing, but the canine teeth are large.
Distribution and habitat
The Pallas's cat is native to the steppe regions of Central Asia, where it inhabits elevations of up to 5,050 m (16,570 ft) in the Tibetan Plateau. It is also found in parts of Afghanistan, Mongolia, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Nepal, India, Kazakhstan, and Pakistan, and occur across much of western China. In the south of Russia it occurs in the Transbaikal Krai, and, less frequently, in the Altai, Tyva, and Buryatia Republics. In 1997, it was reported for the first time as being present in the eastern Sayan Mountains.
Until the early 1970s, only two Pallas's cats were recorded in the Transcaucasus, both encountered near the Aras River in northwestern Iran. Populations in the Caspian Sea region, in Afghanistan and Pakistan, are thought to be declining and becoming increasingly isolated.
In recent years, several Pallas' cats were photographed for the first time during camera trapping surveys:
- in Iran's Khojir National Park in 2008;
- in the Eastern Himalayas: in Bhutan's Wangchuck Centennial Park in April 2012; and above 4,100 m (13,500 ft) in the Jigme Dorji National Park in autumn 2012;
- in Pakistan's Qurumber National Park above 3,400 m (11,200 ft) in July 2012;
- in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area above 4,200 m (13,800 ft) in December 2012 and December 2013.
Ecology and behaviour
Pallas's cats are solitary. Both males and females scent mark their territory. They spend the day in caves, rock crevices, or marmot burrows, and emerge in the late afternoon to begin hunting. They are not fast runners, and hunt primarily by ambush or stalking, using low vegetation and rocky terrain for cover. They feed largely on diurnally active prey species such as gerbils, pikas, voles and chukar partridges, and sometimes catch young marmots.
The breeding season is relatively short due to the extreme climate in the cat's native range. Estrus lasts between 26 and 42 hours, which is also shorter than in many other felids. Pallas's cats give birth to a litter of around two to six kittens after a gestation period of 66 to 75 days, typically in April or May. Such large litters may compensate for a high rate of infant mortality in the harsh environment. The young are born in sheltered dens lined with dried vegetation, feathers, and fur. The kittens weigh around 90 g (3.2 oz) at birth, and have a thick coat of fuzzy fur, which is replaced by the adult coat after around two months. They are able to begin hunting at four months, and reach adult size at six months. Pallas's cats have been reported to live up to 11 years in captivity.
The Pallas's cat has been hunted for its fur in relatively large numbers in China, Mongolia, and Russia; international trade in manul pelts largely ceased since the late 1980s. About 1,000 hunters of Pallas's cats remain in Mongolia, with a mean estimated take of 2,000 cats per year. Cats are also shot when mistaken for the commonly hunted marmot, and trapped incidentally in both legholds set for wolves and foxes and snares set for marmots and hares. They are also killed by herding dogs. Their fat and organs are used as medicine in Mongolia and Russia. While Mongolia has not recorded any trophy exports, pelt exports have grown since 2000, with 143 reported exported in 2007.
The Pallas's cat is listed in CITES Appendix II. Hunting is prohibited in all range countries except Mongolia, where the species has no legal protection despite being classified as Near Threatened in the country. Since 2009, it is legally protected in Afghanistan, where all hunting and trade in its parts is banned. It is listed as an endangered species in Pakistan-administered Kashmir.
As of 2010, there were 47 Pallas's cats in 19 member institutions of the Association of Zoos and Aquariums; four litters were expected. No births and three deaths occurred in 2009. The 30-day mortality of 44.9% is the highest mortality rate of any small wild cat. The seasonality of its reproduction makes it difficult to control reproductive cycles. Keeping Pallas's cats healthy in captivity is difficult. They breed well, but survival rates are low owing to infections, which are attributed to an underdeveloped immune system and exposure to viruses not present in their natural high-altitude habitat.
In June 2010, five kittens were born in the Red River Zoo in Fargo, USA. A female was artificially inseminated for the first time at the Cincinnati Zoo, also in the United States, and gave birth to three kittens in June 2011. In May 2013, three kittens were born at the Nordens Ark zoo in Sweden. In May 2016, four kittens were born at the Korkeasaari zoo in Finland. In March 2017, five kittens were born in the Hogle Zoo in Salt Lake City, Utah. In April 2017, five kittens were again born in the Red River Zoo in Fargo.
In 1776, Peter Simon Pallas first described a Pallas’s cat using the scientific name Felis manul. Pallas encountered Pallas’s cats during his travels in eastern Siberia. Several Pallas's cat zoological specimens were subsequently described:
- Felis nigripectus by Hodgson in 1842 was based on three specimens from Tibet.
- Otocolobus manul ferrugineus by Ognev in 1928 was a specimen from the Transcaspian region.
Otocolobus was proposed as generic name in 1858 by the Russian explorer and naturalist Nikolai Severtzov. The zoologist Reginald Innes Pocock recognized the taxonomic classification of Otocolobus in 1907, described several Pallas's cat skulls in detail, and considered the Pallas's cat an aberrant form of Felis.
- the nominate subspecies Felis manul manul occurring from Jida River south of Lake Baikal to eastern Siberia;
- F. m. nigripecta occurring in Tibet and Kashmir;
- F. m. ferruginea occurring in the mountain ridge of Missanev, Kopet-Dag Mountains, Transcaspia, southwestern Turkestan, northern Iran, Baluchistan and Afghanistan.
- O. m. manul syn. O. m. ferrugineus in the western and northern part of Central Asia from Iran to Mongolia;
- O. m. nigripectus in the Himalayas from Kashmir to Bhutan.
Following genetic studies, the monotypic genus Otocolobus has been proposed to be placed in the tribe Felini together with the genera Felis and Prionailurus, because of their close phylogenetic relationship. Otocolobus manul is estimated to have diverged from a leopard cat ancestor about 5.19 million years ago.
- Ross, S.; Barashkova, A.; Farhadinia, M. S.; Appel, A.; Riordan, P.; Sanderson, J. & Munkhtsog, B. (2016). "Otocolobus manul". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2016: e.T15640A87840229. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T15640A87840229.en.
- Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Felis manul". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 535. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
- Pallas, P. S. (1776). "Felis manul". Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des russischen Reichs in einem ausführlichen Auszuge. Volume 3. Frankfurt und Leipzig: J. G. Fleischer. p. 490.
- Pallas, P. S. (1811). "Felis Manul". Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica, sistens omnium Animalium in extenso Imperio Rossico et adjacentibus maribus observatorum recensionem, domicillia, mores et descriptiones, anatomen atque icones plurimorum. Volume 1. Petropoli: Officina Caes. Acadamiae scientiarum. pp. 20–23.
- Sunquist, Mel; Sunquist, Fiona (2002). Wild cats of the World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 219–224. ISBN 0-226-77999-8.
- Fox, J. L.; Dorji, T. (2007). "High elevation record for occurrence of the manul or Pallas' Cat on the northwestern Tibetan plateau, China". Cat News (46): 35.
- Koshkarev, E. (1998). "Discovery of manul in eastern Sayan". Cat News (29): 12–13.
- Geptner, V. G., Sludskii, A. A. (1992) . "Manul. Felis (Otocolobus) manul Pallas, 1776". Mlekopitaiuščie Sovetskogo Soiuza. Vysšaia Škola, Moskva [Mammals of the Soviet Union. Volume II, Part 2: Carnivora (Hyaenas and Cats)]. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution and the National Science Foundation. pp. 665–696.
- Belousova, A. V. (1993). "Small Felidae of Eastern Europe, Central Asia and Far East. Survey of the state of populations". Lutreola. 2: 16.
- Habibi, K. (2003). Mammals of Afghanistan. Coimbatore, India: Zoo Outreach Organisation with assistance from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. ISBN 8188722065. OCLC 61347929.
- Chalani, M.; Ghoddousi, A.; Ghadirian, T.; Goljani, R. (2008). "First Pallas's Cat Photo-trapped in Khojir National Park, Iran" (PDF). Cat News (49): 7.
- WWF Bhutan (2012). Near threatened Pallas' Cat found in WCP. Wangchuck Centennial Park and WWF, 16 October 2012.
- Thinley, P. (2013). "First photographic evidence of a Pallas's cat in Jigme Dorji National Park, Bhutan". Cat News (58): 27–28.
- Hameed, S.; Ud Din, J.; Shah, K. A.; Kabir, M.; Ayub, M.; Khan, S.; Bischof, R.; Nawaz, D. A.; Nawaz, M. A. (2014). "Pallas's cat photographed in Qurumber National Park, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan". Cat News (60): 21–22.
- Shrestha, B., Ale, S., R. Jackson, Thapa, N., Gurung, L. P., Adhikari, S., Dangol, L., Basnet, B., Subedi, N., M. Dhakal (2014). "Nepal's first Pallas's cat". Cat News (60): 23–24.
- Pokharel, S. (2014). New wild cat species found in ACAP area. República, 12 February 2014.
- Himalayan News Service (12 February 2014). "Rare wild cat found in Annapurna region". The Himalayan Times.
- Mahar, N., Shrotriya, S., Habib, B., Singh, S., Takpa, J. and Hussain, S. A. (2017). "Recent records of the Pallas's Cat in Changthang Wildlife Sanctuary, Ladakh, India". Cat News (65): 36–37.
- Nowell, K.; Jackson, P. (1996). "Manul Octobulus manul (Pallas, 1776)". Wild Cats: status survey and conservation action plan. IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland.
- Barashkova, A.N., Kirilyuk, V.E. and Smelansky, I.E. 2017. Significance of Protected Areas for the Pallas’s Cat (Otocolobus manul Felidae) Conservation in Russia. Nature Conservation Research. Заповедная наука 2017. 2 (Suppl. 1): 113–124.
- Bray, S. (May 2010). "Pallas' Cat PMP" (PDF). Felid TAG Times. 3.
- Smith, S. (2008). "Himalayan kitten at park" (Video). BBC News.
- Associated Press (August 2010). "ND zoo officials boast litter of 5 Pallas kitten". WDAY News.
- CREW (June 2011). "Pallas' cats born from artificial insemination". Cincinnati Zoo's Center for Conservation and Research of Endangered Wildlife.
- Bohusläningen (June 2013). "pallaskatterna har fått ungar". Bohusläningen.
- "Manuli – Korkeasaaren eläintarha" (in Finnish). Retrieved 2016-09-26.
- "A purr-fect result: 5 rare Pallas cats born at Red River Zoo". Retrieved 2017-05-11.
- Hodgson, B. H. (1842). "Notice of the Mammals of Tibet, with Description and Plates of some new Species: Felis nigripectus Illustration". Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 11: 276–277, Plate 333.
- Ognev, S. I. (1928). "On a new form of the steppe cat from the Transcaspian region [Otocolobus manul ferrugineus]". Doklady Akademii Nauk Soyuza Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik. Seriya A: 308–310.
- Severtzow, M. N. (1858). "Notice sur la classification multisériale des Carnivores, spécialement des Félidés, et les études de zoologie générale qui s'y rattachent". Revue et Magasin de Zoologie Pure et Appliquée. 2e Série (X): 386.
- Pocock, R. I. (1907). "Exhibition of a photograph and the skull of a specimen of the Manul or Pallas' cat (Felis manul) that had recently died in the Society's Menagerie with some remarks on the species". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London: 299–306.
- Ellerman, J. R.; Morrison-Scott, T. C. S. (1966). "Felis manul Pallas, 1776". Checklist of Palaearctic and Indian mammals 1758 to 1946 (2nd ed.). London: British Museum of Natural History.
- Kitchener, A. C.; Breitenmoser-Würsten, C.; Eizirik, E.; Gentry, A.; Werdelin, L.; Wilting, A.; Yamaguchi, N.; Abramov, A. V.; Christiansen, P.; Driscoll, C.; Duckworth, J. W.; Johnson, W.; Luo, S.-J.; Meijaard, E.; O’Donoghue, P.; Sanderson, J.; Seymour, K.; Bruford, M.; Groves, C.; Hoffmann, M.; Nowell, K.; Timmons, Z.; Tobe, S. (2017). "A revised taxonomy of the Felidae: The final report of the Cat Classification Task Force of the IUCN Cat Specialist Group" (PDF). Cat News. Special Issue 11: 21−22.
- Johnson, W.; Eizirik, E.; Pecon-Slattery, J.; Murphy, W. J.; Antunes, A.; Teeling, E.; O'Brien, S. J. (2006). "The Late Miocene Radiation of Modern Felidae: A Genetic Assessment". Science. 311 (5757): 73–77. doi:10.1126/science.1122277. PMID 16400146.
- O'Brien, S. J.; Johnson, W. E. (July 2007). "The evolution of cats". Scientific American: 68–75.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pallas's cat.|
|Wikispecies has information related to Pallas's cat|
- IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group: Pallas's cat Otocolobus manul
- Pallas' Cat Working Group
- Pallas' Cat Study and Conservation Program
- The Pallas's Cat at the Indian Tiger Welfare Society
- news.yahoo.com : Sneaky Cat Caught on Camera in Himalayas
- About Pallas's cats
- Facebook: Short video of a Pallas' cat being chased, caught and radio-collared by researchers in the Daursky Nature Reserve, Russia