Panaji

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Panjim
Ponnje / पणजी
Nova Goa
City
Panaji
Panjim is located in Goa
Panjim
Panjim
Panjim is located in India
Panjim
Panjim
Location of Panjim in Goa
Coordinates: 15°29′56″N 73°49′40″E / 15.49889°N 73.82778°E / 15.49889; 73.82778Coordinates: 15°29′56″N 73°49′40″E / 15.49889°N 73.82778°E / 15.49889; 73.82778
Country (1961-present)  India
State Goa
District North Goa
Sub-district Ilhas de Goa
Past country (1510-1961)  Portugal
Government
 • Mayor Surendra Furtado[2][3]
 • Deputy Mayor Lata Parekh[4][5]
 • Member of the Legislative Assembly of Goa Siddharth Kunkolienkar (BJP) [6]
Area
 • City 21.01 km2 (8.11 sq mi)
 • Metro 76.3 km2 (29.5 sq mi)
Elevation 7 m (23 ft)
Population (2011)
 • City 40,017 [1]
 • Rank 3rd in Goa
 • Metro 114,759[7]
Demonym(s) Ponnjekar, Panjimites, Panajikar
Languages
 • Official Konkani
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 403 00x
Telephone code 0832
Vehicle registration GA-01, GA-07
Website www.ccpgoa.com

Panaji /ˈpʌnə/ or Panjim (Konkani: Ponnje / पणजी [pɔɳɟĩ], Portuguese: Pangim) is the capital of the Indian state of Goa and the headquarters of North Goa district. It lies on the banks of the Mandovi River estuary in the Ilhas de Goa sub-district (taluka). With a population of 114,759 in the metropolitan area, Panjim is Goa's largest Urban agglomeration, ahead of Margao and Vasco da Gama.

Panjim means "land that never floods".[inconsistent] It has terraced hills, concrete buildings with balconies and red-tiled roofs, churches, and a riverside promenade. There are avenues lined with gulmohar, acacia and other trees. The Baroque Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception Church is located overlooking the main square known as Praça da Igreja. Colourful villas, cobbled streets and interesting buildings help Panjim retain its Portuguese ambiance and culture.

Panaji is the first city in India to be built on a planned grid system.[8] Panaji has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under PM Narendra Modi's flagship Smart Cities Mission.

Etymology[edit]

The word Panaji is derived from the words panjani and khali, which mean a boat and a small creek respectively, in Sanskrit. Thus the modern word Panaji is a corrupt form of the old word Panjanakhani as inscribed on the discovered Panaji copper-plates dated 1059 CE, belonging to the rule of Kadamba king Jayakesi I.[9][10] The name of the city was first mentioned in the stone inscription of Kadamba king Jayakesi I dated 1054 CE as 'Panjanakhani', giving him the epithet of Padavalendra which is Kannada for lord of the western ocean.[11]

The city's present official name is Panaji. The Portuguese current name was Pangim, although officially named Nova Goa. The city is popularly also called Panjim (in English). It has been renamed Panaji since the 1960s after the Indian administration of Goa. The city is called Ponnjé in Konkani.

Earlier a small village on the river front, in 1843 the city had been renamed Nova Goa (Portuguese for "New Goa") when it officially replaced the city of Goa (now Old Goa) as the capital of Portuguese India, though the Viceroy had already moved there in 1759.

History[edit]

Panjim was annexed by India with the rest of Goa and the former Portuguese territories after the Indian invasion of Portuguese India in 1961. It became a state-capital on Goa's elevation to statehood in 1987. Between 1961 and 1987, it was the capital of the Union Territory of Goa, Daman and Diu. A new Legislative Assembly complex was inaugurated in March 2000, across the Mandovi River, in Alto Porvorim. Panaji is also the administrative headquarters of North Goa district.

Geography[edit]

Panaji is located at 15°29′56″N 73°49′40″E / 15.49889°N 73.82778°E / 15.49889; 73.82778.[12] It has an average elevation of 7 meters (23 feet). Panaji has various vāde or sub-divisions, some of which are São Tomé, Fontainhas, Mala, Portais, Altinho, Cortin, Praça da Igreja, Tar (near the ferry wharf), Bāzār, Japão (near Don Bosco), and Boca de Vaca. Some areas outlying it are Cāmpāl, Santa Inez, Chinchollem, Batulem, and Pātto. Besides lying on the banks of the Mandovi River, Panaji is bounded by two creeks, locally called pői in the singular, namely Ourém and Santa Inêz.

Demographics[edit]

During the 2011 census of India,[13] Panjim had a population of 114,405. Males constituted 52% of the population and females 48%. It had an average literacy rate of 90.9%; male literacy was 94.6% and female literacy 86.9%. In Panjim, 9.6% of the population was under 7 years of age.

Climate[edit]

Panaji features a tropical monsoon climate (Köppen climate classification Am). The climate in Panaji is hot in summer and equable in winter. During summers (from March to May) the temperature reaches up to 32 °C and in winters (from December to February) it is usually between 31 °C and 23 °C.

The monsoon period is from June to September with heavy rainfall and gusty winds. The annual average rainfall is 2,932 mm (115.43 in).

Climate data for Panaji (1971–1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 36.6
(97.9)
39.2
(102.6)
39.0
(102.2)
39.8
(103.6)
38.6
(101.5)
35.9
(96.6)
32.3
(90.1)
34.0
(93.2)
33.2
(91.8)
37.2
(99)
37.2
(99)
36.6
(97.9)
39.8
(103.6)
Average high °C (°F) 32.0
(89.6)
31.7
(89.1)
32.2
(90)
33.1
(91.6)
33.4
(92.1)
30.3
(86.5)
29.1
(84.4)
28.7
(83.7)
29.8
(85.6)
31.8
(89.2)
32.9
(91.2)
32.7
(90.9)
31.5
(88.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.0
(78.8)
26.3
(79.3)
27.7
(81.9)
29.3
(84.7)
30.0
(86)
27.6
(81.7)
26.7
(80.1)
26.4
(79.5)
26.9
(80.4)
27.9
(82.2)
27.6
(81.7)
26.9
(80.4)
27.4
(81.3)
Average low °C (°F) 19.9
(67.8)
20.7
(69.3)
23.2
(73.8)
25.5
(77.9)
26.5
(79.7)
24.8
(76.6)
24.3
(75.7)
24.0
(75.2)
24.0
(75.2)
23.9
(75)
22.2
(72)
21.0
(69.8)
23.3
(73.9)
Record low °C (°F) 14.4
(57.9)
13.3
(55.9)
17.5
(63.5)
19.4
(66.9)
20.9
(69.6)
20.9
(69.6)
20.5
(68.9)
21.7
(71.1)
21.0
(69.8)
20.0
(68)
15.3
(59.5)
15.7
(60.3)
13.3
(55.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 0
(0)
0
(0)
1
(0.04)
5
(0.2)
56
(2.2)
861
(33.9)
853
(33.58)
622
(24.49)
237
(9.33)
111
(4.37)
35
(1.38)
2
(0.08)
2,813
(110.75)
Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.6 3.8 24.0 28.2 27.2 14.9 6.6 3.5 0.3 109.3
Average relative humidity (%) 67 69 71 71 71 85 88 89 86 80 70 64 76
Mean monthly sunshine hours 311.8 290.2 291.0 289.0 296.5 125.1 105.7 122.1 177.1 247.7 272.6 299.3 2,828.1
Source #1: NOAA[14]
Source #2: India Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)[15]

Landmarks[edit]

The heart of the city is the Praça da Igreja (Church Square) or Municipal Garden (Garcia de Orta) with the Portuguese Baroque Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception Church, originally built in 1541. Other tourist attractions include the old and rebuilt Adilshahi Palace (or Idalçao Palace), dating from the sixteenth century, the Institute Menezes Braganza, the Mahalaxmi Temple, the Jama Masjid Mosque, the Chapel of St. Sebastian and the Fontainhas area—which is considered to be the old Latin Quarter—as well as the nearby beach of Miramar. Hanuman Mandir at Malā on the hill top (Altinho) and its annual zatrā in February are a major attraction of Panaji. Panaji hosted the relics of Saint John Bosco (also known as Don Bosco) till 21 August 2011 at the Don Bosco Oratory.

The carnival celebrations in February include a colourful parade on the streets. This is followed by the Shigmo/xigmo, or Holi. The Narkāsūr parade on the night before Diwali in the city is very colourful.

Well-known places in Panaji are the 18th June Road (a busy thoroughfare in the heart of the town and a shopping area for tourists and locals), Mala area, Miramar beach and the Kala Academy (a cultural centre known for its structure built by architect Charles Correa). Kala Academy is a place where Goa showcases its art and culture.

Other attractions[edit]

Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary is a bird sanctuary named after the ornithologist Dr Salim Ali. The sanctuary, located in the village of Chorão, near Panaji, plays host to rare and endangered bird species—both migratory and resident.

Goa is famous for its beaches, and Miramar, Bambolim, and Dona Paula are three popular beaches located near Panaji.

Dona Paula is the meeting point for two of Goa’s famous rivers, Zuari and Mandovi. These two rivers meet at the Arabian Sea. The official residence of the Governor of Goa, known as Cabo Raj Bhavan, is situated on the westernmost tip of Dona Paula.

Miramar Beach is one of the more crowded beaches in Goa, which remains full with local and international tourists throughout the year.

Also located near Panaji, is the Goa Science Centre which was opened to the public in December 2001. The Caculo Mall is also located in St. Inez near Panaji.

Education[edit]

The renovated building of Goa Medical College

Some educational institutes in Panaji are:

  • V. M. Salgaocar College of Law, Miramar
  • The Progress High School
  • Goa Medical College, Bambolim[16]
  • Santa Cruz High School, Santa Cruz
  • Don Bosco High School
  • Goa Institute of Management
  • Dempo College of Commerce and Economics, Altinho
  • Dhempe College of Arts and Sciences, Miramar
  • Sharada Mandir, Miramar
  • Mary Immaculate Girls High School, São Tomé/Fontainhas
  • Peoples High School, Mala
  • Mushtifund Saunstha
  • Goa College of Pharmacy
  • Goa Polytechnic Panaji
  • Goa College of Fine Arts
  • Dr. Hedgewar High School
  • The Rosary High School, Miramar
  • Our lady of Rosary (Green Rosary), Dona Paula[17]
  • Taleigao Chess Academy

Besides this, the only university in Goa, the Goa University, is situated at Taleigao on the outskirts of Panaji.[18]

Research centres[edit]

The National Institute of Oceanography (CSIR-NIO) is situated at Dona Paula, on the outskirts of Panaji city. It does research in fields related to marine sciences.

Transport[edit]

Panaji Circle under the Mandovi bridge links Panaji city to the road going to Ponda, Ribandar and Marcela

The nearest airport is Dabolim Airport which is 30 kilometres (19 miles) away.[19]

Media and communications[edit]

State-owned All India Radio has a local station in Panaji which transmits various programs of mass interest.

Government offices[edit]

The Goan government, as well as the Indian government, has its major offices in Goa.

The Goa Legislative Assembly is situated at Alto Porvorim, about 2 km (1.2 mi) from Panaji. The hillock called Altinho houses some major central government offices and the residences of prominent officials and politicians.

Politics[edit]

The Member of Legislative Assembly (MLA) for Panaji is Siddharth Kunkolienkar of the BJP

The Corporation of the City of Panaji (CCP)[20] administers the city and its mayor is Surendra Furtado.[21] The Governor of Goa stays at the Cabo Raj Bhavan at Dona Paula, about 8 km (5 mi) from Panaji.[22] The incumbent Governor is Bharat Vir Wanchoo.[23]

Sports[edit]

Two of Indians Premier clubs Dempo S.C. and Sporting Clube de Goa are based in Panaji they both compete in India's top tier league I-League.

Panaji also had a Legendary Stadium called Campal Stadium who was demolished and currently a new Campal stadium is under construction.

International relations[edit]

Twin towns – Sister cities[edit]

Panaji is twinned with:

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.census2011.co.in/data/town/803243-panaji-goa.html
  2. ^ http://www.heraldgoa.in/Goa/Furtado-Parekh-elected-Panjim-Mayor-deputy-unopposed/99951.html
  3. ^ http://www.navhindtimes.in/surendra-set-to-take-over-ccp-reigns/
  4. ^ http://www.heraldgoa.in/Goa/Furtado-Parekh-elected-Panjim-Mayor-deputy-unopposed/99951.html
  5. ^ http://www.navhindtimes.in/surendra-set-to-take-over-ccp-reigns/
  6. ^ http://goavidhansabha.gov.in/member.php?id=161&flag=MLA&aid=7
  7. ^ http://www.census2011.co.in/census/metropolitan/414-panaji.html
  8. ^ http://www.ccpgoa.com/
  9. ^ Title: Gazetteer of the Union Territory Goa, Daman and Diu: district gazetteer, Volume 1; Publisher: Gazetteer Dept., Govt. of the Union Territory of Goa, Daman and Diu, 1979 (Original from the University of Michigan, Digitised: 30 Aug 2008)
  10. ^ "EPIGRAPHICAL AND LITERARY SOURCES ON WORSHIP IN GOA'S PAST" (PDF). ShodhGanga. 
  11. ^ De Souza, Teotonio R. (1990). Goa Through the Ages: An economic history, Volume 2. Concept Publishing Company. p. 129. ISBN 9788170222590. 
  12. ^ "Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Panaji". Fallingrain.com. Retrieved 2012-05-09. 
  13. ^ "Provisional Population Totals Paper 2, Volume 2 of 2011: Goa State Tables" (PDF). censusindia.gov.in. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. Retrieved 9 July 2013. 
  14. ^ "Goa (Panjim) Climate Normals 1971-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 15 April 2015. 
  15. ^ "Ever recorded Maximum and minimum temperatures up to 2010". India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original on 21 May 2013. Retrieved 15 April 2015. 
  16. ^ http://www.gmcmec.gov.in/
  17. ^ http://olorosaryhss.com/index.html
  18. ^ http://www.unigoa.ac.in/
  19. ^ "Airports Authority of India". Aai.aero. 2011-09-21. Retrieved 2012-05-09. 
  20. ^ http://www.ccpgoa.com/
  21. ^ http://www.navhindtimes.in/goa-news/surendra-furtado-elected-ccp-mayor
  22. ^ http://www.rajbhavangoa.org/rajbhavan_past_present.htm
  23. ^ http://www.rajbhavangoa.org/governor_about.htm
  24. ^ "Acordos de Geminação, de Cooperação e/ou Amizade da Cidade de Lisboa" [Lisbon - Twinning Agreements, Cooperation and Friendship]. Camara Municipal de Lisboa (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2013-08-23. 

External links[edit]