Portal:Puerto Rico

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Location of Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico (Spanish for 'rich port'; abbreviated PR; Taino: Borikén or Borinquen), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Spanish: Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, lit.'Free Associated State of Puerto Rico'), is a Caribbean island, Commonwealth, and unincorporated territory of the United States. It is located in the northeast Caribbean Sea, approximately 1,000 miles (1,600 km) southeast of Miami, Florida, between the Dominican Republic and the U.S. Virgin Islands, and includes the eponymous main island and several smaller islands, such as Mona, Culebra, and Vieques. With roughly 3.2 million residents, it is divided into 78 municipalities, of which the most populous is the capital municipality of San Juan. Spanish and English are the official languages of the executive branch of government, though Spanish predominates.

Puerto Rico was settled by a succession of peoples beginning 2,000 to 4,000 years ago; these included the Ortoiroid, Saladoid, and Taíno. It was then colonized by Spain following the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1493. Puerto Rico was contested by other European powers, but remained a Spanish possession for the next four centuries. An influx of African slaves and settlers primarily from the Canary Islands and Andalusia vastly changed the cultural and demographic landscape of the island. Within the Spanish Empire, Puerto Rico played a secondary but strategic role compared to wealthier colonies like Peru and New Spain. By the late 19th century, a distinct Puerto Rican identity began to emerge, centered around a fusion of indigenous, African, and European elements. In 1898, following the Spanish–American War, Puerto Rico was acquired by the United States.

Puerto Ricans have been U.S. citizens since 1917, and can move freely between the island and the mainland. However, when resident in the unincorporated territory of Puerto Rico, Puerto Ricans are disenfranchised at the national level, do not vote for the president or vice president, and generally do not pay federal income tax. In common with four other territories, Puerto Rico sends a nonvoting representative to the U.S. Congress, called a Resident Commissioner, and participates in presidential primaries; as it is not a state, Puerto Rico does not have a vote in Congress, which governs it under the Puerto Rico Federal Relations Act of 1950. Congress approved a local constitution in 1952, allowing U.S. citizens residing on the island to elect a governor. Puerto Rico's current and future political status has consistently been a matter of significant debate.

Beginning in the mid-20th century, the U.S. government, together with the Puerto Rico Industrial Development Company, launched a series of economic projects to develop Puerto Rico into an industrial high-income economy. It is classified by the International Monetary Fund as a developed jurisdiction with an advanced, high-income economy; it ranks 40th on the Human Development Index. The major sectors of Puerto Rico's economy are manufacturing (primarily pharmaceuticals, petrochemicals, and electronics) followed by services (namely tourism and hospitality). (Full article...)

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The Puerto Rican spindalis, known locally as Reina Mora, is the national bird of Puerto Rico. It forms an important part of the local ecosystem, because of its help in seed dispersal and plant reproduction.

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The Historic 1911 Casa Salazar-Candal in Barrio Tercero
Casa Salazar-Candal (English: Salazar–Candal House) is a historic building located on the southeast corner of Isabel and Mayor Cantera streets in Ponce, Puerto Rico, in the city's historic district. The building dates from 1911. It was designed by the architect Blas Silva. The architecture consists of 19th Classical revival, Art Nouveau and Spanish Revival architectural styles. Today the Salazar–Candal Residence houses the Museum of the History of Ponce. (Full article...)
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Cepeda with the San Francisco Giants in 1965

Orlando Manuel Cepeda Pennes (Spanish pronunciation: [oɾˈlando seˈpeða]; born September 17, 1937), nicknamed "the Baby Bull" and "Peruchin", is a Puerto Rican former first baseman in Major League Baseball who played for six teams from 1958 to 1974, primarily the San Francisco Giants. A 7-time All-Star, Cepeda was one of the most consistent power hitters in the National League (NL) through the 1960s. Breaking in with the Giants in their first season after relocating to San Francisco, he was named the NL Rookie of the Year by unanimous vote in 1958 after batting .312 with 25 home runs and 96 runs batted in (RBI), also leading the NL with 38 doubles. Every year from 1958 through 1963, he was among the league leaders in batting, home runs, RBI, slugging percentage and total bases. In 1959 he became the first Puerto Rican player to start an All-Star Game, and in 1961 he was runner-up in voting for the NL Most Valuable Player (MVP) after leading the league with 46 home runs and 142 RBI, which remains the club record for right-handed hitters.

Cepeda had been succeeded as Rookie of the Year by fellow Giant Willie McCovey, and in the ensuing years the team had struggled to fit both first basemen into their lineup, unsuccessfully trying to shift each of them to left field at different points. After longstanding knee injuries forced Cepeda to miss most of the 1965 season, limiting him to pinch hitting duties and a .176 average, he was traded in May 1966 to the St. Louis Cardinals, coming back to finish the year with a .301 average. In 1967 he hit a career-high .325 with 25 home runs and a league-leading 111 RBI, carrying the team to the NL pennant; he won the MVP Award, again by unanimous vote. Another trade brought him to the Atlanta Braves, and he helped that team win the inaugural West Division title in 1969. Cepeda's 254 home runs and 896 RBI in the 1960s each ranked fifth among NL hitters. With his play increasingly limited by knee problems, he switched to the American League shortly before its adoption of the designated hitter, and won the first Outstanding Designated Hitter Award with the Boston Red Sox in 1973 before his career came to an end the following year. (Full article...)

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Juan Ponce de León II
José María Marxuach Echavarría

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Related Wikimedia

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  1. ^ Hispanic Americans in Congress
  2. ^ Biographies of Alcaldes of San Juan (in Spanish)[dead link]
  3. ^ Biografia[dead link]
  4. ^ Meaning of "Independentista"
  5. ^ Mercedes - La primera Independentista Puertorriquena[dead link]
  6. ^ CNN, Gregory Krieg. "A 28-year-old Democratic Socialist just ousted a powerful, 10-term congressman in New York". CNN. Retrieved 2018-07-03. {{cite news}}: |last= has generic name (help)
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