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Total population
Currently none;
10,000–15,000 (c.1900)
Dios Buhawi
Regions with significant populations
Philippines (Visayas)
Folk Catholicism
Bible, texts relating to Philippine mythology
Visayan languages, Spanish, Tagalog

The Pulahan (literally "those wearing red"; pl: Pulahanes; Spanish: Pulajan), also known as Dios-Dios, are the members of a religious revival of Philippine beliefs that developed in the Visayas prior to the Philippine Revolution. At its peak, it numbered around 10,000–15,000 adherents. The movement was severely crippled during the Philippine Revolution after the Philippine Constabulary took over patrols in Samar, when the U.S. military declared the island as "pacified".


Pulahanes practiced a syncretic religious revival centered mostly on Philippine mythology and Folk Catholicism. Individual beliefs include the anting-antings as well as the revival of the babaylan.[1] Indigenous fighting techniques such as eskrima were also utilized in the elite and ferocious combat style.[2] They practiced a form indigenous martial arts called Derobio Eskrima and they specialize using a heavy, crescent-shaped bolo knife in their battles. Religious rituals using bottles of holy oil, prayer books such as the Bible, consecrated anting-anting, as blessings before battles.

Americans have described Pulahanes as notorious fighters and are experts in hand-to-hand combat. War cries were also common among their fighters. They have also been described as lacking in strategy due to their high casualty figures in battles such as the Massacre at Dolores. They were the subject of many laws passed during the early American colonial period and have often been accused of banditry.[3]


  1. ^ "Severino: Cinco de Noviembre: Revolution or Hacienda?". Sun.Star Bacolod. 2006-11-04. Archived from the original on 2008-12-11. Retrieved 2010-03-06.
  2. ^ "Ola`a-Nalo Eskrima". Ola`a-Nalo Eskrima. 1992-07-29. Archived from the original on 2012-09-05. Retrieved 2010-03-06.
  3. ^ "A History of Philippine Baptist Pastors 1898-2002". Bwa-baptist-heritage.org. 1983-08-29. Archived from the original on 2009-09-14. Retrieved 2010-03-06.

Further reading[edit]

  • Alejandrino, Jose M. (1949). The Price of Freedom.
  • Constantino, Renato (1972). The Philippines: A Past Revisited. Manila.
  • Ileto, Reynaldo (1979). Pasyon and revolution: Popular Movements in the Philippines, 1840–1910. Quezon City.
  • Linn, Brian McAllister (1999). "The Pulahan Campaign: A Study in US Pacification". War in History. 6 (1): 45–71. doi:10.1177/096834459900600102.
  • May, Glenn Anthony (1981). Battle for Batangas, a Philippine province at war. New Haven.
  • Ochosa, Orlino A (1989). The Tinio Brigade: Anti-American resistance in the Ilocos provinces 1899–1901. Quezon City.
  • Roth, Russell (1981). Muddy Glory: America’s "Indian Wars" in the Philippines 1899–1935. Boston.
  • Sturtevant, David R (1976). Popular Uprisings in the Philippines 1840–1940. Ithaca.

External links[edit]