|Full name||Robson de Souza|
|Date of birth||25 January 1984|
|Place of birth||São Vicente, Brazil|
|Height||1.72 m (5 ft 8 in)|
|2010||→ Santos (loan)||14||(5)|
|2014–2015||→ Santos (loan)||33||(11)|
|*Club domestic league appearances and goals|
Robson de Souza (Brazilian Portuguese: [ˈʁɔb(i)sõ d(ʒi) ˈsowzɐ]; born 25 January 1984), known as Robinho (Brazilian Portuguese: [ʁɔˈbĩɲu]), is a Brazilian former professional footballer who played as a forward.
In 1999, at 15 years of age, Robinho was picked by Brazil legend Pelé as his heir apparent and, in 2002, went on to lead Santos to their first Campeonato Brasileiro title since Pelé himself played for the club. Afterwards he went on to win a second title with Santos, two more with Spanish club Real Madrid, and the Italian Serie A title in his first season at Milan. At international level, Robinho has won one Copa América title and two FIFA Confederations Cups with the Brazilian national team, and played at two FIFA World Cups.
In 2017, an Italian court convicted Robinho of sexual assault in the 2013 gang rape of a 23-year-old Albanian woman at a Milan nightclub. This conviction was upheld by the Milan Court of Appeals in December 2020, and subsequently upheld by Italy's top court in January 2022. Italy's request for extradition has been rejected by Brazil, because the Constitution of Brazil does not allow extradition of Brazilian nationals.
Robinho was born in São Vicente, São Paulo State. In his early years, Robinho played a lot of futsal which was responsible for developing his dribbling and acceleration skills. He signed his first professional contract with Santos in 2002 at the age of 18. He made 24 appearances in his debut season and scored one goal as Santos won the 2002 Campeonato Brasileiro. He reached the final of the 2003 Copa Libertadores with Santos, but lost in the final to Boca Juniors. In 2004, Robinho finished with 21 goals in 37 games and led Santos to win another Campeonato Brasileiro.
His form had brought him to the attention of many European clubs in the summer of 2004, but Robinho remained with Santos after the Brazilian club rejected all offers. His form suffered in the 2005 season, however, after his mother, Marina da Silva Souza, was kidnapped by gunmen at her Praia Grande home on 6 November; she was released unharmed six weeks later after a ransom was paid.
Robinho scored nine goals in 12 league games, and his value continued to increase as his talent became more and more apparent to the powers of European football. Santos began to realise it would become increasingly difficult to hold on to their star player. In July 2005, Spanish giants Real Madrid signed Robinho by agreeing to pay a fee equal to 60% of the buyout clause in his contract belonging to Santos (€24 million).
Robinho was given the number 10 shirt for Real Madrid, previously worn by Luís Figo. Robinho ended up making 37 appearances and scored 14 goals in his first season. At the start of the 2006–07 season, Robinho spent much of the first few months of the season selected as a substitute by manager Fabio Capello, even after being Man of the Match in the first Clásico against Barcelona that year. Only after the winter break did Robinho find himself in the starting XI, later playing a crucial role as Real Madrid won their 30th La Liga title that year. The title was the third league championship of his career.
Capello was subsequently fired, however, and Bernd Schuster was appointed as head coach of Real Madrid. Robinho finished with 11 league goals and eight assists for Madrid in the 2007–08 La Liga season, as well as four goals during Real Madrid's Champions League campaign. Robinho then got injured at the beginning of the second half of the season. He did not recover fully enough to help Madrid against Roma in the Champions League. The week before, however, Robinho saved Real Madrid's La Liga title hopes with a two-goal performance on 3 March 2008 as Madrid defeated Recreativo de Huelva away from home. That game kept a resurgent Barcelona at bay and ultimately secured Real Madrid's 31st league title and Robinho's fourth.
Robinho was Real Madrid's third-highest scorer during his Madrid years, behind strikers Raúl and Ruud van Nistelrooy. He was also the player with the second-most assists, behind Guti, and the only Madrid player, along with goalkeeper Iker Casillas, to finish in the top ten of the Ballon d'Or and FIFA World Player of the Year nominations for 2007–08.
Real Madrid president Ramón Calderón had promised to negotiate a new contract with Robinho at the midpoint of the 2007–08 season, which never materialised. Calderón, however, insisted talks would occur in the summer; again Calderón went back on his word. Robinho subsequently revealed talks never began because Madrid hoped to use him as part of the deal to bring Cristiano Ronaldo to Real Madrid in the summer of 2008. After the failed move for Ronaldo, Madrid finally attempted to negotiate a new contract with Robinho, which he rejected and led to him wanting a transfer to Chelsea.
On 1 September 2008, the final day of the Premier League summer transfer window, Robinho completed a €41–42 million (£32.5M) move to Manchester City on a four-year deal. This occurred on the same day the club was bought out by the Arab investment company Abu Dhabi United Group.
Robinho had previously been linked with a transfer to Chelsea, and he had emphasised his desire to play for the London club up to the eve of the transfer. On 27 August, Chelsea chief executive Peter Kenyon said that the club were "confident" that the transaction would go through, and Madrid had also given their consent for the player to leave. Robinho's expectancy to move to Chelsea was such that upon signing for Manchester City he accidentally stated, "On the last day, Chelsea made a great proposal and I accepted." To this comment, a reporter then replied, "You mean Manchester, right?" "Yeah, Manchester, sorry!" answered Robinho.
In an interview with The Guardian, Robinho stated that Manchester City being a big club and the presence of Brazilian friends Jô and Elano were incentives for him to join the team. He made his team debut and scored his first Premier League goal on 13 September 2008, coincidentally in a 3–1 home defeat to Chelsea. On 26 October, he scored his first Premier League hat-trick against Stoke City, and he scored his first European goal for Manchester City in a 3–2 UEFA Cup group stage win over Twente on 6 November. He was given the captain's armband for the match against Hull City, due to Richard Dunne's suspension, which ended in a 2–2 draw.
On 19 April, Robinho scored his 13th league goal for Manchester City in the 2–1 win away at Everton on 25 April, City's first away win since 31 August 2008. The following week, he scored his third consecutive goal in three games, against Blackburn Rovers, to help Manchester City to a 3–1 win. Robinho finished the season as City's top goalscorer with 14 and the fourth top scorer in the league.
His second season at Manchester City did not go as well. He missed three months of the season due to injury and only played 12 games in total (ten in the Premier League), and scored one goal (against lower league club Scunthorpe United in the FA Cup). Due to this, he fell down the pecking order and sought a move away from the club in the January transfer window.
Return to Santos (loan)
On 28 January 2010, Robinho returned to his home club Santos due to moving down the pecking order at Manchester City, joining them on a six-month loan deal. He had publicly stated that at Manchester City he would play every other game, and because of the upcoming World Cup, he wanted to play every game, and so returned to Brazil with Santos after declining a move to São Paulo. On his return to Santos, Robinho scored a backheel against aforementioned admirers São Paulo with five minutes to spare to complete a 2–1 victory for the Peixe. In the final match of his loan deal on 4 August, Robinho helped Santos win the Copa do Brasil. Although Santos lost 2–1 to Vitória, they won the tie 3–2 on aggregate to win the competition for the first time in their history. Shortly afterwards, Robinho stated that he wanted to remain with Santos rather than return to England. Manchester City, however, refused to extend the loan deal and Santos failed to make a transfer bid.
Robinho returned to training with Manchester City in August 2010, but stated that he was seeking a move away from the club before the end of the summer transfer window on 31 August. Turkish clubs Fenerbahçe and Beşiktaş opened transfer negotiations with City, but Robinho rejected a move to Turkey, declaring that he would rather move to a club in Spain or Italy.
On 31 August 2010, Robinho moved to AC Milan from Manchester City for a fee of £15 million (€18M), signing a four-year contract. He made his debut as a substitute in a 2–0 defeat to newly promoted Cesena. He started his first game with Milan in their 1–0 win over Genoa. He scored his first goal in injury time against Chievo to make the score 3–1 on 16 October 2010. He continued his goalscoring form with a goal the following week in a Serie A match against Napoli on 25 October 2010. He then scored the first goal for Milan against Sampdoria, but Giampaolo Pazzini equalised on the hour mark to end as a draw.
On 4 December 2010, Robinho scored the second goal for Milan against Brescia in their 3–0 win at the San Siro. Eight days later, on 12 December, he again scored the second goal in a 3–0 victory for Milan against Bologna. He scored his first goal of 2011 against Bari to give Milan another 3–0 victory. On 29 January, he scored against Catania following a deflection from a Zlatan Ibrahimović free-kick to give Milan a 1–0 lead, then assisted Ibrahimović to give Milan a 2–0 win. On 12 February 2011, he scored his first brace for Milan against Parma to help Milan to a 4–0 win. Against Cagliari, Robinho scored a brace in the 37th week of Serie-A on 14 May 2011, leading to celebrations of the Scudetto winners after the match.
He started the 2011–12 Serie A season well, taking part in Milan's win over Inter Milan in the Supercoppa Italiana. Scoring 11 goals in all competitions, Robinho helped Milan to a second-place finish in the Serie A.
After Alexandre Pato took the number 9 jersey at Milan following the departure of club legend Filippo Inzaghi, Robinho was handed the number 7 jersey that previously belonged to Pato. Robinho started in Milan's first game of the 2012–13 Serie A against Sampdoria, but was replaced by Urby Emanuelson due to an injury. Robinho made his comeback as a substitute against Cagliari, where Milan won 2–0. Four days later, Milan drew against Parma in an away match where Robinho came on as a substitute. Robinho came on as a substitute again against Inter, but Milan eventually lost 1–0. Robinho was then injured in training and was sidelined for the next five games. He made his comeback against Málaga as a substitute in the 80th minute; the game ended as a draw. He scored his first goal of the season against Juventus, which was the winner in a 1–0 victory on 25 November 2012.
Robinho was close to signing with old club Santos in both January 2013 and July 2013, but the move fell through on both occasions due to the player's wage demands. On both occasions, Santos managed to reach an agreement with Milan over the transfer fee.
Robinho suffered a groin strain early in the pre-season against Valencia on 27 July 2013, which disrupted his preparation for the upcoming season. Before he suffered the injury in the match, he missed a penalty, but scored a goal from open play less than a minute later.
On 22 October, Robinho scored the opening goal in the 2013–14 Champions League match against Group H favourites Barcelona, from a pass by his compatriot Kaká. After Lionel Messi's equaliser, however, he missed an excellent opportunity to score another goal in the second half, after which the match ended in a 1–1 draw. In November, he was sidelined again, this time due to a dislocated shoulder, an injury he picked up during the match against Celtic in the Champions League.
Robinho scored his only goal in Milan's Coppa Italia campaign at the San Siro in the quarter-finals against Spezia on 15 January 2014. He opened the scoring with a close-range header in a 3–1 victory against the Serie B club. In February, an injury of his left thigh prevented him from playing in the first leg of the Champions League first knockout round against Atlético Madrid. He made a substitute appearance during the second leg in Spain, but was unable to prevent a 5–1 aggregate defeat against the Rojiblancos.
Second return to Santos (loan)
On 6 August 2014, Robinho arrived in São Paulo–Guarulhos International Airport and subsequently returned to Santos in a one-year loan deal. Despite being out of new coach Filippo Inzaghi's plans, the Italian side still will pay Robinho's wages—while Peixe pays R$600,000 per month, Milan will pay another R$400,000.
Robinho was presented on the following day, stating a desire to play in the following match against fierce rivals Corinthians. He made his re-debut for Peixe on 10 August, starting in a 0–1 eventual home loss.
Robinho scored his first goal after his return four days later, netting the first and assisting Rildo in a 2–0 home success over Londrina in the Copa do Brasil championship. His second goal came on the 29th, in a 2–0 away win over Grêmio in the same tournament.
On 13 September, Robinho scored his first Brasileirão goal, netting his side's second in a 2–1 home win over Coritiba. He scored again on 21 September with a left-footed strike in a 3–1 victory over Figueirense. On 30 June 2015, after already rescinding his link with Milan in May, he left Peixe after his contract expired.
On 16 July 2015, Robinho signed a six-month contract with Chinese Super League side Guangzhou Evergrande Taobao, managed by compatriot Luiz Felipe Scolari and linking up with his international teammate Paulinho. On 23 July 2015, he made his unofficial debut for Guangzhou in an international friendly against Bayern Munich. He won the Chinese Super League in the 2015 season.
On 1 February 2016, Robinho became a free agent after his contract expired with Guangzhou.
Robinho was the highest goal scorer in Brazil in 2016, with 25 goals. He was selected for the Campeonato Brasileiro team of the year, in both the Craque do Brasileirão and the Bola de Prata awards.
He left the club at the expiry of his contract in December 2017, having scored a total of 38 goals in 109 matches.
Sivasspor and İstanbul Başakşehir
On 23 January 2018, Robinho signed for Turkish Süper Lig club Sivasspor. On 1 January 2019, he signed for İstanbul Başakşehir in the same league for a fee of $2.78m. He was a member of the 2019–20 Süper Lig winning squad, the first top flight title in the club's history.
Third return to Santos
On 10 October 2020, Robinho rejoined Santos on a deal running until February 2021, with the option for an extension until December 2022. The announcement was met with criticism due to Robinho's trial court conviction of sexual assault in Italy. One of Santos' sponsors ended their deal with the club, stating that the signing was 'disrespectful to women', while others also pressed against it. On 16 October, Santos announced the suspension of his contract, stating that he would focus exclusively on his defence.
In July 2003, Robinho was called up for the 2003 CONCACAF Gold Cup, along with his Santos teammates Alex and Diego. Although Brazil chose to send their under-23 team, the CONCACAF Gold Cup matches are considered as full international matches by FIFA. He earned his first cap in the opening match on 13 July, which Brazil lost 1–0 to Mexico, and played four further matches including the golden goal defeat to the same team in the final.
Robinho's first cap with the full Brazil team came on 4 September 2004, as a 74th-minute substitute for Edu in a 3–1 home win over Bolivia in 2006 FIFA World Cup qualification. The following 9 February, he scored his first international goal in a 7–1 win away to Hong Kong. He went to the 2005 FIFA Confederations Cup in Germany, which Brazil went on to win. During the tournament, he partnered Adriano in attack and scored in group matches against Greece and Japan.
Robinho was named in Brazil's squad for the 2006 FIFA World Cup in Germany. During the tournament, he was mainly used as a substitute, with the established forwards Ronaldo, Ronaldinho, Adriano and Kaká starting in attack. However, he was named in the starting line-up for Brazil's third group match; a 4–1 defeat of Japan. He made a third substitute appearance of the tournament in Brazil's 1–0 quarter-final defeat by France.
In the absence of Brazil's World Cup forwards, Robinho was a regular starter for the team at the 2007 Copa América a year later. For the tournament, he wore the number 11 shirt, the same number that his childhood hero Romário wore. He scored all four of Brazil's group stage goals via a hat-trick in the 3–0 win against Chile, and a penalty in a 1–0 win over Ecuador. He then scored two goals in a 6–1 quarter-final win over Chile. Brazil went on to win the tournament, beating Argentina 3–0 in the final. Robinho finished as the Golden Boot winner in addition to being named the best player of the tournament.
In 2009, he was a member of the Brazil team that won the 2009 Confederations Cup in South Africa. He played in every game in the competition, as Brazil defeated the United States 3–2 in the final to win the tournament.
Robinho was named in Brazil's squad for the 2010 World Cup, where he played alongside Luís Fabiano in attack. He scored in the second round match against Chile as Brazil won 3–0 to advance to the quarter-finals. He then scored the opener in the quarter-final match against the Netherlands, but Brazil eventually lost 2–1 and was eliminated. A poor performance at the 2011 Copa América saw Robinho dropped and replaced by Jádson in the Brazilian line-up.
On 31 October 2013, after a hiatus of two years, Robinho was recalled to the Seleção by coach Luiz Felipe Scolari. He took part in two games against Honduras and Chile on 16 and 19 November respectively. During the game against Chile, he scored his first international goal since 2011. However, he was not included in Scolari's squad for the 2014 World Cup.
After the World Cup, returning coach Dunga recalled Robinho to the Brazilian national squad. On 6 September 2014, he played 13 minutes as a substitute in Brazil's 1–0 win against Colombia in Miami. In May 2015, Robinho was included in Brazil's 23-man squad for the 2015 Copa América held in Chile. He started their final group game against Venezuela after Neymar was suspended for the entire tournament. In the ninth minute, Robinho sent in the corner from which Thiago Silva volleyed Brazil into the lead in an eventual 2–1 victory which sent them into the quarter-finals as group winners. On 27 June, Robinho scored the opening goal of the quarter-final with Paraguay, which Brazil eventually lost 4–3 in a penalty shootout.
Eighteen months after his 99th game, Robinho won his 100th international cap on 25 January 2017 in a 1–0 win against Colombia at the Olympic Stadium in Rio de Janeiro. An entirely home-based squad was chosen in tribute to the Chapecoense squad killed in LaMia Flight 2933 in Colombia weeks earlier, and Robinho lined up alongside his former Santos partner Diego.
Style of play
A quick, creative, agile and technically gifted player, Robinho is mainly known for his flair, ball control, attacking instinct and dribbling skills, as well as his use of tricks and feints, such as the step over and the flip flap, due to his quick feet; his precocious performances and ability on the ball drew comparisons with compatriot Pelé in his youth. Usually deployed in a free role, he was capable of playing in several offensive positions, and often played as a winger, although he has also been used as a supporting forward, as a main striker, and even as an attacking midfielder on occasion, due to his tendency to be involved in the buildup of his teams' attacking plays, as well as his capacity to both score and create goals. Robinho has been criticised for his poor work-rate, lack of tactical discipline, and for his slender physique, which often leads him to go to ground easily. Despite the talent he demonstrated in his youth, his career has also been marked by inconsistency, and he has been accused by some in the sport of failing to live up to his potential.
In 2009, Robinho married Vivian Guglielminetti. The couple have two sons, born in 2007 and 2011.
Sexual crimes and conviction
On 23 November 2017, an Italian court sentenced Robinho to nine years in prison after he and five other males were convicted of sexual assault in the January 2013 gang rape of a 23-year-old Albanian woman at a Milan nightclub. As part of the judgment, transcripts of Robinho's messages intercepted by police were released, including one from Robinho to a friend in January 2013 that said: "I'm laughing because I couldn't care less, the woman was completely drunk, she has no idea what happened." In a different chat, a friend of Robinho sent the message "I saw you when you put your penis inside her mouth", to which Robinho replied: "That doesn't mean having sex." Under Italian law, his sentencing would not be enforced until after the completion of the appeal process. At the time of the sentencing, Robinho was in Brazil, and under Brazilian law, a Brazilian citizen cannot be extradited to a foreign country.
On 10 December 2020, Robinho's nine-year prison sentence was upheld by the Italian courts after appeal. The Milan Court of Appeals found that Robinho had "belittled" and "brutally humiliated" the victim, while he also tried to mislead investigators from the onset by providing a false version of events he had agreed upon with his friend. Italy's highest court, the Supreme Court of Cassation, upheld the conviction again in January 2022. In February 2022, an arrest warrant was given internationally against Robinho by the Ministry of Justice of Italy.
|Club||Season||League||State League||National Cup||League Cup||Continental||Other||Total|
|Real Madrid||2005–06||La Liga||37||8||—||6||4||—||8[e]||0||—||51||12|
|Manchester City||2008–09||Premier League||31||14||—||0||0||0||0||10[g]||1||0||0||41||15|
|Santos (loan)||2010||Série A||2||0||12[b]||5||8||6||—||0||0||—||22||11|
|AC Milan||2010–11||Serie A||34||14||—||4||1||—||7[e]||0||—||45||15|
|Santos (loan)||2014||Série A||16||4||—||5||5||—||—||—||21||9|
|Guangzhou Evergrande||2015||Chinese Super League||10||3||—||0||0||—||—||1[i]||0||11||3|
|Atlético Mineiro||2016||Série A||30||12||10[j]||9||8||3||—||7[d]||1||—||55||25|
|Istanbul Basaksehir||2018–19||Süper Lig||17||4||—||1||0||—||0||0||—||18||4|
- Appearances in Torneio Rio–São Paulo
- Appearances in Campeonato Paulista
- Appearances in Copa Libertadores and Copa Sudamericana
- Appearances in Copa Libertadores
- Appearances in UEFA Champions League
- Appearance(s) in Supercopa de España
- Appearances in UEFA Europa League
- Appearance in Supercoppa Italiana
- Appearance in FIFA Club World Cup
- Appearances in Campeonato Mineiro
- Appearances in Primeira Liga
- Appearances in UEFA Champions League and UEFA Europa League
- Scores and results list Brazil's goal tally first
|1||9 February 2005||Hong Kong Stadium, Wanchai, Hong Kong||Hong Kong||6–0||7–1||2005 Lunar New Year Cup|
|2||5 June 2005||Estádio Beira-Rio, Porto Alegre, Brazil||Paraguay||4–1||4–1||2006 FIFA World Cup qualification|
|3||16 June 2005||Red Bull Arena, Leipzig, Germany||Greece||2–0||3–0||2005 FIFA Confederations Cup|
|4||22 June 2005||RheinEnergieStadion, Cologne, Germany||Japan||1–0||2–2||2005 FIFA Confederations Cup|
|5||4 September 2005||Estádio Nacional Mané Garrincha, Brasília, Brazil||Chile||2–0||5–0||2006 FIFA World Cup qualification|
|6||1 July 2007||Estadio Monumental de Maturín, Maturín, Venezuela||Chile||1–0||3–0||2007 Copa América|
|9||4 July 2007||Estadio José Antonio Anzoátegui, Barcelona, Venezuela||Ecuador||1–0||1–0||2007 Copa América|
|10||7 July 2007||Estadio José Antonio Anzoátegui, Barcelona, Venezuela||Chile||3–0||6–1||2007 Copa América|
|12||6 February 2008||Croke Park, Dublin, Ireland||Republic of Ireland||1–0||1–0||Friendly|
|13||31 May 2008||CenturyLink Field, Seattle, United States||Canada||3–2||3–2||Friendly|
|14||7 September 2008||Estadio Nacional Julio Martínez Prádanos, Santiago, Chile||Chile||2–0||3–0||2010 FIFA World Cup qualification|
|15||12 October 2008||Estadio Polideportivo de Pueblo Nuevo, San Cristóbal, Venezuela||Venezuela||2–0||4–0||2010 FIFA World Cup qualification|
|17||10 February 2009||Emirates Stadium, London, England||Italy||2–0||2–0||Friendly|
|18||10 June 2009||Estádio do Arruda, Recife, Brazil||Paraguay||1–1||2–1||2010 FIFA World Cup qualification|
|19||18 June 2009||Loftus Versfeld Stadium, Pretoria, South Africa||United States||2–0||3–0||2009 FIFA Confederations Cup|
|20||2 March 2010||Emirates Stadium, London, England||Republic of Ireland||2–0||2–0||Friendly|
|21||2 June 2010||National Sports Stadium, Harare, Zimbabwe||Zimbabwe||2–0||3–0||Friendly|
|22||7 June 2010||National Stadium, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania||Tanzania||1–0||5–1||Friendly|
|24||28 June 2010||Ellis Park Stadium, Johannesburg, South Africa||Chile||3–0||3–0||2010 FIFA World Cup|
|25||2 July 2010||Nelson Mandela Bay Stadium, Port Elizabeth, South Africa||Netherlands||1–0||1–2||2010 FIFA World Cup|
|26||10 August 2011||Mercedes-Benz Arena, Stuttgart, Germany||Germany||1–2||2–3||Friendly|
|27||19 November 2013||Rogers Centre, Toronto, Canada||Chile||2–1||2–1||Friendly|
|28||27 June 2015||Estadio Ester Roa, Concepción, Chile||Paraguay||1–0||1–1 (a.e.t.),
|2015 Copa América|
- South American Team of the Year: 2002, 2003, 2004
- Bola de Prata: 2002, 2004, 2016
- Bola de Ouro: 2004
- World Soccer Young Player of the Year: 2005
- Copa América Best Player: 2007
- Copa América Golden Boot: 2007
- Campeonato Paulista Team of the Year: 2015
- Campeonato Brasileiro Série A Team of the Year: 2016
- "2006 FIFA World Cup Germany: List of Players: Brazil" (PDF). FIFA. 21 March 2014. p. 4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 June 2019.
- "Robinho: Overview". Premier League. Retrieved 17 December 2022.
- Robinho Official football website (in Portuguese)
- Pelé pede validação de títulos nacionais do Santos nos anos 60 UOL Esporte (in Portuguese)
- "Italian court sentences Robinho to nine years in jail for rape". The Guardian. 23 November 2017. Retrieved 23 November 2017.
- Garcia, Adriana (11 March 2021). "Milan court: Robinho 'brutally humiliated' rape victim". ESPN. Retrieved 24 July 2021.
- "Robinho's 9-year rape conviction upheld in Italy". ESPN. 19 January 2022. Retrieved 19 January 2022.
- Futsalfeed.com (14 March 2020). "Top 10 Footballers Who Played Futsal!", "futsalfeed.com". Retrieved 14 March 2020.
- Footballer's plea for kidnapped mother The Guardian
- "Real add Robinho to their galaxy". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 13 January 2009. Retrieved 28 January 2008.
- Spanish Primera División – Top Assists – 2007/2008 ESPN Soccernet
- Spanish Primera División – Top Assists – 2007/2008 ESPN Soccernet
- La Liga Week 26: Robinho saves Real Madrid, Agüero destroys Barcelona Soccerlens – The best in football
- Real Madrid's Robinho reveals Cristiano Ronaldo swap deal. mirrorfootball.co.uk. 2 June 2008. Retrieved 3 June 2008.
- Robinho hints at Ronaldo swap. Metro.
- "Arab group agrees Man City deal". BBC Sport. 1 September 2008. Retrieved 2 September 2008.
- "Robinho joins City" (Press release). Manchester City F.C. 2 September 2008. Retrieved 2 September 2008.
- Taylor, Daniel (2 September 2008). "City beat Chelsea to sign £32.5m Robinho". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 September 2014.
- Morgan, Richard (1 September 2008). "Manchester City sign Robinho for £32.5 million". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 2 September 2014.
- "Man City beat Chelsea to Robinho". BBC Sport. 1 September 2008. Retrieved 1 September 2008.
- "Robinho intent on joining Chelsea". BBC Sport (Press release). 31 August 2008. Retrieved 2 September 2008.
- "Chelsea set to seal Robinho deal". BBC Sport. 27 August 2008. Retrieved 1 September 2008.
- "Robinho makes Man City move gaffe". BBC Sport. 4 September 2008. Retrieved 4 September 2008.
- Man City 1–3 Chelsea BBC Sport, 13 September 2008
- "Robinho puts gloss on Manchester City". The Times. 27 October 2008.
- "Manchester City's Robinho to join Santos on loan". BBC Sport. 28 January 2010. Retrieved 3 May 2010.
- Daniel Taylor (24 January 2010). "Robinho wants to go home to Santos after dismal time at Manchester City". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 3 May 2010.
- "Robinho scores on Santos return". Sky Sports. 7 February 2010. Retrieved 3 May 2010.
- "Robinho wants to extend Santos deal after ending six-month loan with Copa Brasil glory". The Daily Telegraph. London. 5 August 2010. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
- "Robinho pleads with Manchester City to let him leave after Santos transfer talks collapse". The Daily Telegraph. London. 30 July 2010. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
- Mole, Giles (25 August 2010). "Robinho back in training with Manchester City as he seeks move to Italy or Spain". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
- Taylor, Daniel (24 August 2010). "Robinho turns down moves to Besiktas and Fenerbahce". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
- "Official: Mi Manda Pele". A.C. Milan. 31 August 2010. Archived from the original on 3 September 2010. Retrieved 31 August 2010.
- "AC Milan complete deal for Robinho". The Independent. London. 31 August 2010. Retrieved 31 August 2010.
- "A.C. Milan 1–0 Juventus: Robinho scores controversial penalty for the Rossoneri". Retrieved 2 December 2012.
- "Santos pede para Robinho reduzir mais o salário e avisa torcida: "não podemos fazer loucura"". Retrieved 24 November 2017.
- "ROBINHO, A.C. MILAN COMUNICATO UFFICIALE" (in Italian). A.C. Milan. 18 July 2013. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
- "Robinho injury concerns Milan". Retrieved 28 July 2013.
- "AC Milan 1–1 Barcelona: Messi strikes to deny Rossoneri". Retrieved 22 October 2013.
- "Robinho and Abate injured". Retrieved 27 November 2013.
- "World Cup hopeful Robinho scores again for AC Milan". Retrieved 15 January 2014.
- "Robinho Injury: Updates on AC Milan Star's Thigh and Return". Retrieved 11 February 2014.
- Robinho chega ao Brasil para acerto e cartola fala em 'presente ao Santos' (Robinho arrives in Brazil to reach agreement and businessman speaks about 'gift to Santos'); UOL Esporte, 6 August 2014 (in Portuguese)
- Santos ganha presentes do Milan para ter Robinho de volta (Santos wins gifts from Milan to have Robinho back); UOL Esporte, 6 August 2014 (in Portuguese)
- Robinho chega ao Santos e quer jogar contra Corinthians (Robinho arrives at Santos and wants to play against Corinthians); O Estado de S. Paulo, 7 August 2014 (in Portuguese)
- Com um a mais, Corinthians bate Santos e estraga festa de Robinho (With one more, Corinthians defeats Santos and bitters Robinho's party); Globo Esporte, 10 August 2014 (in Portuguese)
- Com gol e assistência de Robinho, Santos despacha Londrina na Vila (With Robinho's goal and assist, Santos kicks out Londrina in Vila); Globo Esporte, 14 August 2014 (in Portuguese)
- Obrigado, Robinho (Thank you, Robinho) Archived 4 July 2015 at archive.today; Santos' official website, 30 June 2015 (in Portuguese)
- 罗比尼奥正式加盟广州队; Guangzhou Evergrande' official website, 16 July 2015 (in Chinese)
- "Robinho to join Guangzhou Evergrande". BBC Sport. Retrieved 20 July 2015.
- "恒大VS拜仁首发：高拉特复出 罗比尼奥迎来首秀". Retrieved 23 December 2015.
- "Robinho reforça o Galo". 11 February 2016. Retrieved 24 November 2017.
- "Pela internet, presidente do Galo anuncia a contratação de Robinho". Retrieved 24 November 2017.
- "Rei das Pedaladas e Artilheiro do Ano: Robinho leva o Prêmio Friedenreich". Globo Esporte. 13 December 2016. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
- "Com Fábio Santos e Robinho, Atlético emplaca dois jogadores na seleção 'Bola de Prata'". superesportes.com. 12 December 2016. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
- "Decisivos, Robinho e Fred comemoram primeiro título pelo Galo: "Representa tudo"". globoesporte.com. 7 May 2017. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
- "Robinho publica mensagem de agradecimento e se despede do Atlético-MG após dois anos". Goal. 2 January 2018. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
- "Robinho Resmi Sözleşmeyi İmzaladı". sivasspor.org.tr. 23 January 2018. Archived from the original on 8 April 2019. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
- Falzon, David (30 December 2018). "Robinho becomes Istanbul Basaksehir's latest reinforcement". Newsbook. NIU Ltd. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
- "Robinho acerta contrato de cinco meses e retorna ao Santos FC: "Sempre foi a minha casa"" [Robinho signs five-month contract and returns to Santos FC: "It has always been my home"]. Santos FC. 10 October 2020. Retrieved 10 October 2020.
- "Robinho signing prompts Santos sponsor to end deal 'out of respect for women'". ESPN. 15 October 2020. Retrieved 16 October 2020.
- "Brazil's Santos suspend Robinho's contract amid public outcry". ESPN. 16 October 2020. Retrieved 16 October 2020.
- "Ricardo Gomes convoca seleção sub-23 para a Copa Ouro". Época (in Portuguese). 1 July 2003. Retrieved 23 February 2022.
- "Brasil perde do México na Copa Ouro" (in Portuguese). Estadão. 13 July 2003. Retrieved 23 February 2022.
- "Mexico wins Gold Cup in overtime". United Press International. 27 July 2003. Retrieved 23 February 2022.
- Azevedo, Marcius (5 September 2004). "Em festa no Morumbi, Brasil bate a Bolívia e segue líder" (in Portuguese). UOL. Retrieved 23 February 2022.
- "Robinho passa no vestibular de Parreira" (in Portuguese). Estadão. 7 February 2005. Retrieved 23 February 2022.
- "Brazil and Robinho dazzle to ease past Greece". 17 June 2005. Retrieved 23 February 2022.
- "Brazil Squeaks Past Japan". Deutsche Welle. 22 June 2005. Retrieved 23 February 2022.
- Lavinas, Thiago (3 July 2007). "Romário diz que Robinho dá show" (in Portuguese). Globo Esporte. Retrieved 23 February 2022.
- "Robinho hat-trick revives Brazil". BBC Sport. 2 July 2007. Retrieved 23 February 2022.
- "Robinho goal sees Brazil progress". BBC Sport. 5 July 2007. Retrieved 23 February 2022.
- "Brazil 6–1 Chile". Raidió Teilifís Éireann. 8 July 2007. Retrieved 23 February 2022.
- Rizzo, Marcel (16 July 2007). "Robinho: um campeão cheio de moral" (in Portuguese). Globo Esporte. Retrieved 23 February 2022.
- Dawkes, Phil (28 June 2009). "US 2–3 Brazil". BBC Sport. Retrieved 30 June 2009.
- Fletcher, Paul (29 June 2010). "Brazil 3–0 Chile". BBC Sport. Retrieved 30 June 2010.
- "Holders Brazil held by Paraguay in Copa America". CNN. 10 July 2011. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
- "Robinho volta à seleção após 2 anos; Lucas fica fora de amistosos – Notícias – UOL Copa do Mundo 2014". Retrieved 24 November 2017.
- "No surprises as Scolari names Brazil's World Cup squad". The Sydney Morning Herald. 8 May 2014. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
- "Brazil 1–0 Colombia". The Guardian. 6 September 2014. Retrieved 4 April 2015.
- "2015 Copa America squad lists". ESPN FC. 28 May 2015.
- "Brazil 2–1 Venezuela: Thiago Silva and Firmino seal top spot". Goal. 21 June 2015. Retrieved 21 June 2015.
- "Brazil 1–1 Paraguay". BBC Sport. 27 June 2015.
- Almeida, Pedro Ivo; Castro, Vinicius (25 January 2017). "Em tributo à Chapecoense, seleção 'caseira' vence Colômbia no Engenhão" (in Portuguese). UOL. Retrieved 23 February 2022.
- "Player Profile". ESPN Soccernet. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- Andrew Downie (16 February 2005). "Europe awaits the new Pele". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
- Sid Lowe (12 November 2015). "Suddenly Robinho looks like the New Pele ... again". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
- Jason Burt (15 February 2011). "Robinho is reminded of his Manchester City nightmare as Tottenham beat AC Milan in Champions League last-16". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
- Mark Meadows (12 December 2010). "Allegri's tactics and Ibrahimovic magic make Milan fly". Reuters. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
- "Real Madrid attack Chelsea for pursuit of Brazilian winger Robinho". Archived from the original on 11 January 2022.
- Steve Wilson (4 October 2008). "Manchester City's Robinho surprised by Premier League quality". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
- "Former Manchester City striker Robinho set to join Paulinho at Guangzhou Evergrande". Sky Sports. 1 July 2015. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
- Aritz Gabilondo (23 June 2015). "Dunga hopes to recover the 2007 version of Robinho". AS. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
- Tim Vickery (16 August 2010). "Robinho in urgent need of fresh start". BBC Sport. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
- Paul Fletcher (29 June 2010). "Released Robinho vital for Brazil". BBC Sport. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
- "LEGA SERIE A: CLASSIFICA ASSIST, ROBINHO SUL PODIO" (in Italian). A.C. Milan. 23 October 2013. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
- Kirsten Schlewitz (2 April 2011). "A.C. Milan Vs. Internazionale: Robinho Booked For Diving, Because Yes, Serie A Punishes These Things". SB Nation. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
- Ian Chadband (18 June 2010). "World Cup 2010: Brazil manager Carlos Dunga puts faith in rejuvenated Robinho". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
- "Robinho – Player profile". BBC Sport. Archived from the original on 18 November 2015. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
- Chetwynd, Gareth (10 November 2004). "Footballer's plea for kidnapped mother". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 8 January 2011.
- "Abductors free Robinho's mother". Rediff. 17 December 2004. Retrieved 8 January 2011.
- "Nasce segundo filho de Robinho". ListOwn. Archived from the original on 29 July 2012. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
- Phillips, Tom (22 October 2020). "'Lack of shame': Robinho scandal highlights Brazil's rape crisis". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 July 2021.
- "Robinho sentenced to nine years in prison after being found guilty of sexual assault". Metro (UK edition). 23 November 2017. Retrieved 23 November 2017.
- "Robinho can't be extradited". Football Italia. London. 24 November 2017. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
- "Robinho's nine-year prison sentence for sex assault upheld by Milan court". ESPN. 10 December 2020.
- "Robinho's 9-year rape conviction upheld in Italy". ESPN. 19 January 2022. Retrieved 19 January 2022.
- "Italy issues arrest warrant for ex AC Milan and Man City forward after rape conviction". The Standard. Retrieved 20 February 2022.
- "Italian prosecutors issue arrest and extradition order for Robinho". Marca. Madrid. 15 February 2022. Retrieved 19 February 2022.
- "Robinho". A.C. Milan. Archived from the original on 4 April 2014. Retrieved 14 March 2014.
- "Robinho". Soccerway. Retrieved 9 April 2014.
- "Seleção Brasileira (Brazilian National Team) 2004–2005". Rsssfbrasil.com. Retrieved 3 May 2010.
- "Seleção Brasileira (Brazilian National Team) 2006–2007". Rsssfbrasil.com. Retrieved 3 May 2010.
- "Seleção Brasileira (Brazilian National Team) 2008–2009". Rsssfbrasil.com. Retrieved 3 May 2010.
- "Seleção Brasileira Restritiva (Brazilian National Restrictive Team) 2000–2003". Rsssfbrasil.com. Retrieved 3 May 2010.
- "Seleção Brasileira Restritiva (Brazilian National Restrictive Team) 2004–2008". Rsssfbrasil.com. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
- "Robinho". National Football Teams. Retrieved 18 April 2017.
- "Robinho". Soccerway. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
- "Istanbul's Medipol Başakşehir wins first ever Turkish Süper Lig title". Daily Sabah. 19 July 2020. Retrieved 19 July 2020.
- "South American Team of the Year". 16 January 2009. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
- ""World Soccer" Awards". Retrieved 21 November 2015.
- "Finalistas, Palmeiras e Santos dominam a seleção do Paulistão" [Finalists, Palmeiras and Santos dominate Paulistão's team of the year]. Globo Esporte (in Portuguese). 30 April 2015. Retrieved 30 April 2015.
- "Palmeiras tem oito na seleção do Brasileirão, Gabriel Jesus é o craque". sportv.com (in Brazilian Portuguese).