Terrorism in Germany

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
GSG9 team returning in 1977 after liberating the passengers of Lufthansa Flight 181

Germany has experienced significant terrorism in its history, particularly during the Weimar Republic and during the Cold War, carried out by far-left and far-right German groups as well as by foreign terrorist organisations.

In recent years, both far left, far right and Islamist groups have been suspected of terrorism or terrorism plans.

Weimar Republic[edit]

Germany's loss in the First World War resulted in a chaotic situation, with multiple far-left and far-right organisations attempting to seize power. Both the far left and the far right organised their own militias, and carried out assassinations. For example, the Foreign Minister Walther Rathenau was assassinated in 1922 by a far-right group. Members of the Communist Party of Germany assassinated police captains Paul Anlauf and Franz Lenck in Berlin in 1931.

Islamic terrorism in "Germany"[edit]

Aftermath of the 2016 Berlin truck attack

Turkish and Kurdish Islamist groups are also active in Germany, and Turkish and Kurdish Islamists have co-operated in Germany as in the case of the Sauerland terror cell[3] . Political scientist Guido Steinberg stated that many top leaders of Islamist organizations in Turkey fled to Germany in the 2000s, and that the Turkish (Kurdish) Hizbullah has also "left an imprint on Turkish Kurds in Germany."[3] Also many Kurds from Iraq (there are about 50,000 to 80,000 Iraqi Kurds in Germany) financially supported Kurdish-Islamist groups like Ansar al Islam.[3] Many Islamists in Germany are ethnic Kurds (Iraqi and Turkish Kurds) or Turks. Before 2006, the German Islamist scene was dominated by Iraqi Kurds and Palestinians, but since 2006 Kurds and Turks from Turkey are dominant.[3]

Since 2010, 15 people have died in Islamic terrorist attacks in Germany and an additional 74 have been injured. There is also a number of violent incidents which are disputed to either have been conducted by Lone-wolf Islamic terrorists or if they were conducted by psychologically sick people.[citation needed]

In 2015, 11 verdicts concerning jihadist terrororism related offences were issued by German courts.[4] In 2016, 28 verdicts for jihadist terrorism related offences were delivered.[5] In 2017 there were 27 verdicts.[6]

Terrorism in (or involving) West Germany and reunified Germany[edit]

During the Cold War, especially in the 1970s, West Germany experienced severe terrorism, mostly perpetrated by far-left terrorist groups and culminating in the German Autumn of 1977, the country's most serious national crisis in postwar history. Terrorist incidents also took place in the 1980s and 1990s. Some of the terrorist groups had connections to international terrorism, notably Palestinian militant groups, and were aided and abetted by the communist regime of East Germany.

Known groups responsible for attacks in Germany
Red Army Faction

A left-wing extremist, communist group. Held responsible for numerous bomb attacks, arson, kidnapping and murder of 34 people between 1970 and 1998.

Revolutionary Cells

A left-wing extremist, communist group. Held responsible for 1 murder, 296 bomb attacks, arson and other attacks between 1973 and 1995.

Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine

A communist, pro-Palestinian group.

Black September National Socialist Underground

A right-wing national-socialist group .Held responsible for the murder of 10 people, 3 bomb attacks and 15 bank-robberies between 1999 and 2007.

Tupamaros West-Berlin

A Berlin based left-wing extremist terror group responsible for numerous bombings and arson attacks active in the late 1960's.

Movement 2 June

An Anarchist terrorist group active between 1972-1980 responsible for numerous bombings,kidnappings and 1 murder.

Anti-Imperialist Cell

Held responsible for 9 terrorist attacks in the 1990s.

Militante gruppe (mg)

Held responsible for 25 arson attacks between 2001 and 2007.

Rote Zora
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

ISIL is directly responsible for 3 terrorist attacks in Germany and additionally is partly responsible for the radicalization of other lone-wolf Islamist attacks.

Al-Qaeda Deutsche Aktionsgruppen Tupamaros München

Responsible for 24 minor arson- and bombing attacks between 1970-1971 which targeted at the German judiciary and Police.[7]

Wehrsportgruppe Hoffmann
Freikorps Havelland Gruppe Freital Rachekommando Barbara Kistler Atomwaffendivision Antimilitaristische Gruppe Provisional Irish Republican Army

Targeted British interests in the country.

List of significant terrorist incidents in Germany[edit]

  0 people were killed/injured by the incident.
  1–5 people were killed/injured by the incident.
  6–10 people were killed/injured by the incident.
  11–24 people were killed/injured by the incident.
  25+ people were killed/injured by the incident.
Germany
Date Sub Location Deaths Injuries Type Perpetrator or motives Description
2 April 1968 Hesse Frankfurt 0- 0- Arson Attack Red Army Faction -- Shopping Mall
Two founding fathers of the RAF, Andreas Baader and Gudrun Ensslin, set fire to a shopping mall in Frankfurt as a political statement against capitalism.[8]
10 February 1970 Bavaria Munich 01 023 Grenade & Small arms fire PDFLP (Palestinian nationalists) -- Airports & airlines
Three terrorists attack El Al passengers in a bus at the Munich-Riem Airport with guns and grenades; one passenger is killed and 23 injured.[9] All three terrorists were captured by airport police. The Popular Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine and the Action Organization for the Liberation of Palestine claim responsibility for the attack.[10]
2 February 1972 Berlin Berlin 01 0- Improvised Explosive Device 2 June Movement -- British Military Vehicles and a British yacht-club (British Armed Forces)
As a reaction to the Bloody Sunday, an event during The Troubles, the 2nd June Momevent bombed two vehicles of the British Armed Forces as well as a British yacht-club.
11 May 1972 Hesse Frankfurt 01 013 Improvised Explosive Device Red Army Faction -- Government institutions (Foreign: United States Army)
A bomb explodes at the Headquarters, V Corps (US Army) in the Abrams Building (IG Farben Building) in Frankfurt, killing US Army officer Paul A. Bloomquist and injuring a further 13.[11][12]
24 May 1972 Baden-Württemberg Heidelberg 03 005 Car bomb Red Army Faction -- Government institutions (Foreign: United States Army)
Two large car bombs are detonated at the US Army Supreme European Command within the Campbell Barracks in Heidelberg, killing three. The dead are identified as Ronald A. Woodward, Charles L. Peck and Captain Clyde R. Bonner[11][12][13][14]
5 September 1972 Bavaria Munich 17
(5 perps.)
- Hostage taking

(2 days)

Black September (Palestinian nationalists) -- Olympic Games
Eight armed terrorists stage an attack during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, West Germany on 11 members of the Israeli Olympic team, who were taken hostage and eventually killed, along with a German police officer. Five of the attackers also died in the raid to free the hostages.[15][16][17][18]
7 April 1977 Baden-Württemberg Karlsruhe 03 - Small arms fire Red Army Faction -- Government institutions
Shortly after 9:00 CET, a motorcycle pulls up next to the car of Germany's chief federal prosecutor, Siegfried Buback, a stoplight on the outskirts of Karlsruhe in western Germany. The motorcycle passenger proceedes to fire at least 15 bullets into the car. Buback and his 30-year-old driver Wolfgang Göbel die at the scene; the head of the chauffeur service Georg Wurster, 33, succumbs to his injuries six days later.[19]
30 July 1977 Hesse Oberursel 01 - Small arms fire Red Army Faction -- Business
Jürgen Ponto, the head of Dresdner Bank, is shot and killed in his house in Oberursel. It is thought that three assailants attempted to kidnap Ponto, and after he resisted they shot him. He was shot five times and later died of his serious wounds. Susanne Albrecht, the daughter of a good friend of the Pontos, was later identified as one of the attackers.[20]
5 September 1977 North Rhine-Westphalia Cologne 05 - Small arms fire Red Army Faction -- Business
A group of armed terrorists attack the chauffeured car carrying Hanns Martin Schleyer, then president of the German employers' association, in Cologne. Four masked RAF members sprayed bullets into the two vehicles, killing Marcisz and a police officer, Roland Pieler. The driver of the police escort vehicle, Reinhold Brändle, and a third police officer, Helmut Ulmer, were also killed.
Schleyer was abducted and held prisoner in an apartment in a residential neighborhood near Cologne. He was forced to appeal to the West German government under Helmut Schmidt for several RAF members -- then imprisoned -- to be exchanged for him. On 18 October 1977, three of the imprisoned RAF members were found dead in their cells. In response, Schleyer was shot dead en route to Mulhouse, France, where his body was left in an Audi 100.[21]
22 August 1980 Hamburg Hamburg 2
- Arson attack Deutsche Aktionsgruppen Right-wing terrorism -- Private citizens (Refugees) & property
An Arson attack perpetrated by the Right-Wing terrorist group Deutsche Aktionsgruppen targeted a Refugee home for Vietnamese.[22]
27 September 1980 Bavaria Munich 12
(one perp.)
213 Suicide bombing Right-Wing Terrorism (perpetrator: Gundolf Köhler) -- Private citizens & property
A bomb detonates at the Oktoberfest fairgrounds in Theresienwiese, Munich, killing twelve and injuring over two hundred more. The dead include the alleged bomber Gundolf Kohler, a member of the neo-Nazi Military Sport Group Hoffman.[23][24]
11 May 1982 Hesse Seckbach (Frankfurt am Main) 01 - High Standard .22 Pistol Revolutionary Cells (German group) -- German Politician Heinz-Herbert Karry
German Politician and Ministry of the economy of Hesse was murdered in his house by the Revolutionary Cells for supporting further construction of Frankfurt's Airport as well as further construction of the Nuclear power plant Biblis.[25][26]
15 January 1982 Berlin Berlin 01 046 Improvised Explosive Device Palestinian Nationalists -- Private citizens & property
An explosion at the Mifgash-Israel, a Jewish owned restaurant in West Berlin, injures 46 people. An infant girl, who was in critical condition after the blast, later dies of her injuries.[27][28]
25 August 1983 Berlin Berlin 02 023 Improvised Explosive Device ASALA (Armenian nationalists) and Carlos the Jackal -- Diplomatic (French)
A bomb detonates on the fifth floor of the six-story French consulate building in West Berlin, causing extensive damage on the floor below, in which the consulate offices and a visitor's lounge were situated. The 11:20am explosion collapsed sections of the front facade and attic and catapulted parts of interior walls to the street below, although all dead and injured had all been inside the building.[29]
1 February 1985 Bavaria Munich 01 - Small arms fire Red Army Faction -- Business
Head of the Federal Union of German Aerospace and Heavy Industries (BDLI), Ernst Zimmermann, is shot once in the head by a man with a sub-machine gun. The assailant forced his way into the industrialist's home in suburban Munich after his wife opened the door for a woman allegedly claiming to have a letter for Mr. Zimmermann.[30]
19 June 1985 Hesse Frankfurt 03 074 Improvised Explosive Device Abu Nidal Organization -- Airports & airlines
A powerful bomb rips through an international departure lounge of the Frankfurt Airport, killing three people and wounding 42. The dead include a man and two children, and of the many injured, 18 were hospitalized. The explosive device, which the police said appeared to have been placed among seated passengers waiting for their flights, blasted a large hole in the cement floor of the airport terminal, then one of the busiest in Europe.[31][32] German investigators concluded the perpetrator to be the Abu Nidal Organization.[33]
8 August 1985 Hesse Rhein-Main Air Base 02 020 Car bomb Red Army Faction & Action Directe -- Government institutions (Foreign: United States Army)
A car bomb explodes outside the headquarters building at the Rhein-Main Air Base, where members of the United States Armed Forces are stationed, killing two Americans and wounding about 20 people.
The dead were Airman Frank H. Scarton, 19, who was serving with the 437th Military Airlift Wing, and Becky Jo Bristol, the wife of Senior Airman John Bristol, who wss with the Medical Airlift Squadron at the base.[11][34]
4 April 1986 Berlin Berlin 03 231 Improvised Explosive Device Libyan agents -- Private Citizens & Property
A bomb placed on the dance-floor of the La Belle Discotheque, popular with United States military personnel, explodes, killing 3 and injuring hundreds more. Two of the dead were members of the United States military.[35]
9 July 1986 Bavaria Munich 02 - Improvised Explosive Device Red Army Faction -- Business
The physicist Karl-Heinz Beckurts, director of research and technology at the Siemens electronic company, and a driver are killed by a remote controlled bomb planted in his car in a Munich suburb.[36][37]
23 March 1987 North Rhine-Westphalia Rheindahlen - 031 Car bomb Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) -- British military base
19 June 1989 Lower Saxony Osnabrück - - Improvised Explosive Device Provisional Irish Republican Army -- Government institutions (Foreign: British Army)
A PIRA terror cell around Donna Maguire planted five explosive devices at the Quebec Barracks in Osnabrück. Of the five devices, only one exploded causing damage to a building. No casualties.[38][39][40]
30 November 1989 Hesse Bad Homburg vor der Höhe 01 001 Improvised Explosive Device Red Army Faction -- Business
Banker Alfred Herrhausen dies instantly and his driver is seriously wounded in a blast caused by a remote controlled bomb under his vehicle. Mr. Herrhausen, who headed Deutsche Bank A.G., was described as the most powerful person in the West German economy and a dominant figure in European banking.[41]
13 February 1991 North Rhine-Westphalia Bonn 00 000 Sniper Red Army Faction -- Government institutions (Foreign: United States)
RAF members fire sniper bullets at the American embassy.
23 November 1992 Schleswig-Holstein Mölln 03 - Incendiary device - -- Private Citizens & Property
A molotov cocktail is thrown into the house of a Turkish migrant family, destroying the property and killing three occupants. Two known neo-Nazis were convicted of murder a year later.[42][43]
29 May 1993 North Rhine-Westphalia Solingen 05 014 Incendiary device - -- Private Citizens & Property
Four young German men (aged between 16 and 23) belonging to the far right skinhead scene, the oldest with known neo-Nazi ties, set fire to the house of a large Turkish family in Solingen in North Rhine-Westphalia. Three girls and two women died; fourteen other family members, including several children, were injured, some of them severely.[44][45]
17 November 1993 North Rhine-Westphalia Cologne - - Firearm attack Anti-Imperialist Cell -- Property
Multiple shots were fired at the employers Association Gesammtmetall.[46]
27 October 1994 Brandenburg Bad Freienwalde - - Arson attack Das K.O.M.I.T.E.E. -- Bundeswehr Building & Property
A Bundeswehr building of the Verteidigungskreiskommandos 852 was completely destroyed.[47]
28 June 1996 Lower Saxony Osnabrück - - Mortar attack Provisional Irish Republican Army -- Government institutions (Foreign: British Army)


9 June 2004 North Rhine-Westphalia Cologne - 022 Pipe bomb National Socialist Underground -- Private Citizens & Property
9 September 2000 to 25 April 2007 Baden-Württemberg Heilbronn

Munich

Nuremberg

Heilbronn

Dortmund

Rostock

Kassel

010 001 Serial Killing, Small arms fire National Socialist Underground -- Government institutions, Private Citizens & Property
2 March 2011 Hesse Frankfurt 02 002 Small arms fire Arid Uka -- Government institutions (Foreign: United States Army)
An immigrant from Kosovo fires upon a United States Air Force bus, killing two and wounding two. At the time of the attack the vehicle is parked outside the terminal building waiting to transport 15 U.S. airmen to Ramstein Air Base. The attacker first shoots an airman outside the vehicle, and then enters the bus, shooting and killing the driver and firing three shots at two other airmen, wounding them.[48] Perpetrator had done it to avenge U.S. military operations in Afghanistan[49]
17 October 2015 Berlin Berlin 01
(one perp.)
001 Knife attack Rafik Mohamad Yousef -- Ayad Allawi (Politician)

Plotted to assassinate the Prime Minister of Iraq during his visit to Germany .[50]

17 September 2015 North Rhine-Westphalia Cologne - 005 Knife attack Right-wing extremist Frank S. -- Henriette Reker (Politician)
44 year old Frank S. seriously injured Henriette Reker with a knife in an assassination attempt. He then injured 4 additional people who tried to disarm him.[51]
1 November 2015 Saxony Freital - 1 Explosive attack Gruppe Freital (Right-wing extremists) -- Refugee accommodation
Members of the right-wing terrorist group Gruppe Freital detonate an illegal explosive in front of a window of an refugee housing. One refugee gets injured in the face.[52][53]
5 February 2016 Lower Saxony Hanover - - Arson Attack Saleh S. (Islamist) -- Civilians
The at the time of the attack 17-year old Saleh S. threw two Molotov Cocktails at the entrance of a shopping-mall in Hanover. He was later charged with 7 counts of attempetd murder after admitting that he wanted to kill as many people as possible. Just 3 weeks later his sister Safia S. attacked a Police officer with a knife.[54][55]
26 February 2016 Lower Saxony Hanover - 001 Knife attack to neck Safia S. (Islamist) -- Government institutions (Police)
A policeman was severely injured by a 15-year old girl, Safia S., who was acting "on behalf of the Islamic State"[56][57]
16 April 2016 North Rhine-Westphalia Essen - 3 Improvised Explosive Device Yussuf T. and Mohammed B. Islamic Terrorism -- Sikh temple
Around 7 pm, the two radicalized youths threw an improvised explosive device onto the grounds of a Sikh-temple in Essen. Three people were injured by the bombing.[58]
19 July 2016 Bavaria Würzburg 01
(one perp.)
005 Axe attack Riaz Khan Ahmadzai (Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant) -- Private Citizens & Property
24 July 2016 Bavaria Ansbach 01
(one perp.)
012 Suicide bombing Mohammad Daleel (Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant) -- Private Citizens & Property
26 September 2016 Saxony Dresden - - Pipe bomb Nino K. Right-wing terrorism -- Mosque & International Congress Center Dresden
In the late evening of the 26th September 2016, Nino K. set up two bombs in Dresden, one targeting a Mosque and the other targeting the International Congress Center Dresden. He pledged guilty in February 2018.[59]
19 December 2016 Berlin Berlin 12 480 Truck attack Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant -- Private Citizens & Property
28 July 2017 Hamburg Hamburg 1 50 Knife attack Ahmad Alhaw (Lone wolf (terrorism)) -- Private Citizens
9 March 2018 Baden-Württemberg Lauffen am Neckar - - Arson Attack Kurdish extremists (youths) Spillover of the(Kurdish–Turkish conflict (1978–present)) --Turkish Mosque
As part of a wave of attacks and acts of violence against Turks and Turkish organizations as a response to Operation Olive Branch, Kurdish extremists threw a molotov-cocktail at the Turkish Mosque in Lauffen am Neckar.[60]
11 March 2018 Schleswig-Holstein Itzehoe - - Arson Attack Kurdish extremists (youths) Spillover of the(Kurdish–Turkish conflict (1978–present)) --Turkish Vegetable-market
As part of a wave of attacks and acts of violence against Turks and Turkish organizations as a response to Operation Olive Branch, Kurdish extremists threw a molotov-cocktail at the Turkish Vegetable-market.[61]
11 March 2018 Berlin Berlin - - Arson Attack Kurdish extremists (youths) Spillover of the(Kurdish–Turkish conflict (1978–present)) --Turkish Mosque
As part of a wave of attacks and acts of violence against Turks and Turkish organizations as a response to Operation Olive Branch, Kurdish extremists threw a molotov-cocktail at the Turkish Mosque in Berlin-Reinickendorf.[62]
12 March 2018 North Rhine-Westphalia Ahlen - - Arson Attack Kurdish extremists (youths) Spillover of the(Kurdish–Turkish conflict (1978–present)) --Turkish culture-center
As part of a wave of attacks and acts of violence against Turks and Turkish organizations as a response to Operation Olive Branch, Kurdish extremists threw a molotov-cocktail at the Turkish culture-center in Ahlen .[63]

Significant foiled terrorism plots[edit]

List of international terrorist incidents with significant German casualties[edit]

Response to terrorism[edit]

The terrorism of the 1970s has formed Germany's political culture and its policy of not negotiating with terrorists. It also led to the formation of the GSG9 counter-terrorism unit. In 1972, a law was passed, the Extremist Act (Radikalenerlass), which banned radicals or those with a 'questionable' political persuasion from public sector jobs.

In popular culture[edit]

Berlin citizens attending the funeral of assassinated police captains Paul Anlauf and Franz Lenck in 1931

A number of books and films address this topic.

Films[edit]

Further reading[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • German Jihad: On the Internationalisation of Islamist Terrorism by Guido Steinberg. Columbia University Press, 2013
  1. ^ National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism. (2016). Global Terrorism Database (globalterrorismdb_0616dist.xlsx). Retrieved from https://www.start.umd.edu/gtd University of Maryland
  2. ^ National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism. (2016). Global Terrorism Database (gtd1993_0616dist.xlsx). Retrieved from https://www.start.umd.edu/gtd University of Maryland
  3. ^ a b c d *German Jihad: On the Internationalisation of Islamist Terrorism by Guido Steinberg. Columbia University Press, 2013
  4. ^ "EU Terrorism Situation and Trend Report (TE-SAT) 2016". EU Terrorism Situation & Trend Report (Te-Sat). Europol: 47. 2016. ISBN 978-92-95200-68-5.
  5. ^ "EU Terrorism Situation and Trend Report (TE-SAT) 2017". EU Terrorism Situation & Trend Report (Te-Sat). Europol: 52. 2017. ISBN 978-92-95200-79-1.
  6. ^ European Union Terrorism Situation and Trend Report 2018 (TE SAT 2018) (PDF). Europol. 2018. p. 58. ISBN 978-92-95200-91-3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 June 2018. Retrieved 23 June 2018.
  7. ^ https://www.historisches-lexikon-bayerns.de/Lexikon/Tupamaros_M%C3%BCnchen#Weltbild_und_Feindbilder_der_Tupamaros
  8. ^ Nettelbeck, Uwe (2006-02-23). "Die Frankfurter Brandstifter" (in German). Zeit Online. Retrieved 2018-03-14.
  9. ^ "West German Government Condemns Arab Terrorist Attack on El Al Airline". JTA. 12 February 1970.
  10. ^ "Significant Terrorist Incidents, 1961-2003: A Brief Chronology". Office of the Historian: Bureau of Public Affairs. United States Department of State. Retrieved 8 February 2014.
  11. ^ a b c "2 Americans killed by car bomb at USAF base in West Germany". Schenectady Gazette. 9 August 1985. Retrieved 8 February 2014.
  12. ^ a b Varon, Jeremy (2004). Bringing the War Home: The Weather Underground, the Red Army Faction, and Revolutionary Violence in the Sixties and Seventies. University of California Press. p. 210. ISBN 9780520930957.
  13. ^ Desmond Butler; Mark Landler (9 September 2002). "THREATS AND RESPONSES: HEIDELBERG; One Terror Plot May Have Been Foiled, but a U.S. Base in Germany Is Still Vulnerable". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 February 2014.
  14. ^ Moncourt, André. The Red Army Faction: A Documentary History. Projectiles for the people. PM Press. p. 178. ISBN 9781604861792.
  15. ^ Juan Sanchez (7 August 2007). Terrorism & Its Effects. Global Media. p. 144. ISBN 978-81-89940-93-5. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  16. ^ The new dimension of international ... Google Books. 11 September 2001. Retrieved 22 June 2010.
  17. ^ Encyclopedia of terrorism . Google Books. Retrieved 22 June 2010.
  18. ^ The terrorist trap: America's ... Google Books. 18 July 1976. Retrieved 22 June 2010.
  19. ^ "Who Assassinated Siegfried Buback? Germany Revisits RAF Terrorism Verdict". Der Spiegel. 23 April 2007. Retrieved 10 February 2014.
  20. ^ Heinrich August Winkler (2007). Germany: 1933-1990. Oxford University Press. p. 318. ISBN 978-0-19-926598-5. Retrieved 13 September 2013.
  21. ^ Büchel, Helmar; Aust, Stefan (17 September 2007). "Dann gibt es Tote" (in German). Der Spiegel.
  22. ^ https://www.ndr.de/kultur/geschichte/chronologie/Deutsche-Aktion-Neonazi-Terror-1980,anschlag185.html
  23. ^ "Neo nazis Arrested in Octoberfest Bombing". Beaver County Times. Associated Press. 28 September 1980. Retrieved 5 February 2014.
  24. ^ Gerber, Larry (29 September 1980). "Neo Nazi group suspected in Munich Oktoberfest bomb". The Lewiston Daily Sun. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
  25. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/1981/05/27/world/germans-link-plo-to-domestic-terror.html
  26. ^ https://www.n-tv.de/politik/Der-Mord-an-Heinz-Herbert-Karry-article143362.html
  27. ^ "Terrorist Incidents against Jewish Communities and Israeli Citizens Abroad, 1968-2003". International Institute for Counter-Terrorism. 20 December 2003.
  28. ^ Rubin, Barry; Rubin, Judith Colp (2015). Chronologies of Modern Terrorism. Routledge. p. 196. ISBN 9781317474654.
  29. ^ "FRENCH CONSULATE BOMBED IN BERLIN". The New York Times. 26 August 1983. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  30. ^ "Guerrillas Kill Top West German Arms Executive". The Glasgow Herald. 2 February 1985. Retrieved 16 February 2014.
  31. ^ "BOMB AT FRANKFURT AIRPORT KILLS 3 AND WOUNDS 42". The New York Times. 20 June 1985. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  32. ^ "ARAB GROUP ASSERTS IT PLANTED BOMB IN FRANKFURT". The New York Times. 22 June 1985. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  33. ^ "Palestinian group blamed for airport bombing". United Press International. 28 July 1988.
  34. ^ Tagliabue, John (9 August 1985). "CAR BOMB KILLS 2 ON A U.S. AIR BASE IN WEST GERMANY". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  35. ^ Chalk, Peter (2012). Encyclopedia of Terrorism. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. pp. 401–402. ISBN 9780313308956.
  36. ^ "Germans Get 3 Suspects In an Ice Cream Parlor". The New York Times. 4 August 1986. Retrieved 8 February 2014.
  37. ^ Tagliabue, John (26 July 1986). "CAR BOMB HITS A WEST GERMAN COMPANY INVOLVED IN 'STAR WARS'". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 February 2014.
  38. ^ Westminster, Department of the Official Report (Hansard), House of Commons,. "House of Commons Hansard Debates for 22 Jun 1989". publications.parliament.uk. Retrieved 2018-07-12.
  39. ^ "German court frees IRA bomber Maguire". The Independent. Retrieved 2018-07-12.
  40. ^ "Man jailed over IRA base bombing". 2006-04-04. Retrieved 2018-07-12.
  41. ^ Protzman, Ferdinand (1 December 1989). "Head of Top West German Bank Is Killed in Bombing by Terrorists". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 February 2014.
  42. ^ Charles Hawley; Daryl Lindsey (24 August 2012). "Twenty Years after Rostock: Racism and Xenophobia Still Prevalent in Germany". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 20 September 2015.
  43. ^ "Mölln 1992: Neonazis ermorden drei Menschen" (in German). Norddeutscher Rundfunk. 15 November 2012. Archived from the original on 28 February 2017. Retrieved 15 October 2017.
  44. ^ Kinzer, Stephen (4 June 1993). "Thousands of Germans Rally for the Slain Turks". New York Times. Retrieved 20 September 2015.
  45. ^ "Neo-Nazi Asks Forgiveness for Death of Turks". New York Times. 14 April 1994. Retrieved 20 September 2015.
  46. ^ http://www.mik.nrw.de/en/verfassungsschutz/linksextremismus/linksterrorismus/aiz.html
  47. ^ https://www.nadir.org/nadir/archiv/PolitischeStroemungen/Undogmatische_Linke/komitee0411.html
  48. ^ "US soldiers shot dead in Germany". Al Jazeera English. March 2, 2011.
  49. ^ CNN, From Frederik Pleitgen,. "Killer of U.S. airmen is radical Muslim, German official says". Retrieved 2018-04-04.
  50. ^ Editorial, Reuters. "Berlin police shoot dead convicted militant after knife attack". U.S. Retrieved 2018-04-04.
  51. ^ http://www.bpb.de/politik/extremismus/rechtsextremismus/214657/der-anschlag-auf-henriette-reker-ein-fall-von-lone-wolf-terrorismus
  52. ^ http://www.sz-online.de/sachsen/wie-die-buergerwehr-angst-verbreitet-3243759.html
  53. ^ https://www.mdr.de/sachsen/dresden/urteil-gruppe-freital-dresden-100.html
  54. ^ https://www.ruhrnachrichten.de/Nachrichten/Bruder-von-Safia-S-erhaelt-wegen-Anschlags-acht-Jahre-Haft-16184.html
  55. ^ http://www.faz.net/aktuell/gesellschaft/kriminalitaet/bruder-von-safia-s-erhaelt-wegen-anschlags-acht-jahre-jugendhaft-15052197.html
  56. ^ http://www.sueddeutsche.de/politik/anschlag-in-hannover-jaehrige-soll-im-auftrag-des-is-polizisten-verletzt-haben-1.3011720
  57. ^ http://www.thelocal.de/20160531/teen-who-stabbed-police-officer-linked-to-isis
  58. ^ https://www.tz.de/politik/anschlag-sikh-gebetshaus-essen-zwei-festnahmen-zr-6331766.html
  59. ^ http://www.zeit.de/gesellschaft/zeitgeschehen/2018-02/dresden-anschlag-moschee-icc-gestaendnis-angeklagter
  60. ^ https://www.swr.de/swraktuell/bw/heilbronn/angriff-auf-moschee-in-lauffen-brandanschlag-mit-molotowcocktails/-/id=1562/did=21307792/nid=1562/1jztl8d/index.html
  61. ^ https://www.shz.de/regionales/schleswig-holstein/schutt-und-asche-kurdischer-appell-an-jugendliche-bereitet-sorgen-id19315851.html
  62. ^ https://www.tagesspiegel.de/berlin/koca-sinan-moschee-in-berlin-reinickendorf-die-lage-nach-dem-brandanschlag/21058216.html
  63. ^ https://www.wa.de/nordrhein-westfalen/ahlen-brandsaetze-tuerkisches-kulturzentrum-geworfen-9686308.html
  64. ^ Park, Andrew (10 October 2012). "Bali bombings: Full list of victims' names". SBS Australia. Retrieved 28 June 2015.
  65. ^ "Al-Qaeda claims Tunisia attack". BBC News. 23 June 2002. Retrieved 29 June 2015.
  66. ^ Der Baader Meinhof Komplex vs RAF Film Chronicle by Ron Holloway, accessed 19 April 2009