|Studio album by Marilyn Manson|
|Released||October 8, 1996|
|Studio||Nothing Studios, New Orleans|
|Marilyn Manson chronology|
|Singles from Antichrist Superstar|
Antichrist Superstar is the second studio album by American rock band Marilyn Manson, released on October 8, 1996 by Nothing and Interscope Records. It was recorded at Nothing Studios in New Orleans and produced by the band's eponymous vocalist along with Sean Beavan, former Skinny Puppy member Dave Ogilvie and Trent Reznor of Nine Inch Nails. It is the band's last studio album to feature founding guitarist Daisy Berkowitz, who quit the band acrimoniously halfway through its recording.
A rock opera and a concept album, it was the first installment in a trilogy which included succeeding releases Mechanical Animals (1998) and Holy Wood (In the Shadow of the Valley of Death) (2000). The band supported the album with the controversial "Dead to the World Tour", which was heavily criticized by elements of the Christian right. Nearly every North American venue the band visited during the tour was picketed by religious organizations, mainly as a result of unfounded, exaggerated claims of onstage drug abuse, bestiality, and satanic rituals including animal and human sacrifice.
Preceded by hit single "The Beautiful People", whose music video was nominated for three awards at the 1997 MTV Video Music Awards, the record was a critical and commercial success upon release. It debuted at number three on the Billboard 200, and went on to sell almost 2 million copies in the United States alone. As of 2011, worldwide album sales have surpassed over 7 million copies. Lorraine Ali of Rolling Stone credited Antichrist Superstar with bringing to an end the dominance of grunge within popular music. It has since been heralded by numerous publications as the band's finest work, as well as one of the best hard rock recordings ever released.
Background and recording
Antichrist Superstar was recorded at Nothing Studios in New Orleans by an extensive group of musicians, including members of Marilyn Manson (namely the band's eponymous vocalist, Twiggy Ramirez, Madonna Wayne Gacy, Daisy Berkowitz, and Ginger Fish) and Nine Inch Nails (guitarists Robin Finck and Danny Lohner, and drummer Chris Vrenna). Manson, Trent Reznor and frequent Nine Inch Nails mixer Sean Beavan produced the record, alongside former Skinny Puppy member and longtime producer Dave Ogilvie. The process of creating the album was reputedly a long and difficult one, highlighted by experiments involving sleep deprivation, near-constant drug use, as well as self-harm, with Manson indicating that he would regularly insert sewing needles underneath his own fingernails. During this time, antagonism between band members was high, with most of this directed toward founding member Daisy Berkowitz.
Berkowitz (real name Scott Putesky) later claimed to have been "shut out" of recording sessions, and alleged that other band members destroyed much of his equipment—the four-track recorder, which had been used to produce many of the band's early demos, had been microwaved, and his drum machine had been discarded. The latter was subsequently revealed to have been thrown from a second-story window. He was also highly critical of Reznor, whom he alleged destroyed a Fender Jaguar which had been given to him by his father as a child, saying: "I was in the studio, and they were all in the control room, and I'm playing guitar. At the end, Trent says, 'Do it again, but do it more like this.' We went through this three times, and he says, 'Hold on. I'll come in there. Let me show you what I'm talking about.' So I take my guitar off, hand it to him—and he smashes it, just to fuck with me. Then he laughed and left the room."
As a result of this tension, Twiggy Ramirez performed much of the guitar work on the record. Berkowitz's replacement, Timothy Linton, joined the band after responding to an advert. Breaking the six-year tradition of naming members after female icons and serial killers, the band chose Zim Zum as Linton's stage name, which was derived from the Lurianic Kabbalah concept of Tzimtzum. Keyboardist Madonna Wayne Gacy was responsible for the inclusion of Kabbalah as one of the major inspirations for the album. The song "1996" was the subject of legal action brought against the band by former bassist Gidget Gein over alleged similarities to a demo titled "She's Not My Girlfriend". The latter had first been recorded in 1990, four years before Twiggy Ramirez joined the group.
Concept and artwork
Antichrist Superstar is a rock opera concept album, and its title is based on the 1971 Andrew Lloyd Webber musical Jesus Christ Superstar. It is primarily an industrial metal record, and contains material which has been described as industrial rock and death metal, as well as progressive metal, new wave and gothic rock. The album's central storyline revolves around a supernatural being who seizes power in order to initiate an apocalyptic end event. The record is a social critique which utilizes this premise as a metaphor for the fascist elements of the Christian right in North America. The band's frontman has said that the underlying concept of Antichrist Superstar was both inspired by and a tribute to the work of German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, specifically his philosophical concept of an Übermensch.
The record is separated into three sections: "The Heirophant", "Inauguration of the Worm", and "Disintegrator Rising". In the final section, the central character transforms into the Antichrist Superstar: an epicurean demagogue whose motivations transcend any conceivable sense of morality. Nihilistic and disgusted by humankind, it initiates a genocidal extermination of the human race, eventually destroying the entire planet. The album is also cyclical, with both its opening and closing seconds consisting of the distorted phrase "When you are suffering, know that I have betrayed you".
Antichrist Superstar features elaborate artwork. Images in the booklet consist of various medical diagrams and Kabbalah symbols, a visual worm-to-angel metamorphosis, as well as references to verses one through five of Revelation 12, and liner notes—a note found under the lyrics of "Irresponsible Hate Anthem" claim the song was recorded live on February 14, 1997, despite the album being released in October 1996. After the release of Holy Wood (In the Shadow of the Valley of Death) in 2000, Manson revealed that Antichrist Superstar formed a conceptual trilogy alongside both the aforementioned album and 1998's Mechanical Animals. He explained that the trilogy was an autobiographical story told in a reverse timeline (chronologically reverse from their release dates), with the storyline beginning on Holy Wood, followed by Mechanical Animals, and Antichrist Superstar acting as its conclusion. Furthermore, although Antichrist Superstar and Mechanical Animals made sense as individual concept albums, there was an overarching story running through each release.
Release and promotion
"The Beautiful People" was released as the album's lead single, and both the song and its accompanying music video were critical and commercial successes. The song became a hit on alternative rock charts in the US, reaching number 26 on Billboard's Modern Rock Tracks, and number 29 on Mainstream Rock. It was also an international hit, peaking within the top fifty in both Australia and New Zealand, as well as at number 18 on the UK Singles Chart. Floria Sigismondi directed its music video. It appeared at number fifty-four on MTV's list of the "100 Greatest Music Videos Ever Made", as well as at number one-hundred on MuchMusic's "100 Greatest Videos Ever", while VH1 included the song at number eighty-six on their list of the "100 Greatest Hard Rock Songs". The video was also nominated in the categories of Best Rock Video, Best Special Effects and Best Art Direction at the 1997 MTV Video Music Awards, where the band also performed the song live. This performance would prove controversial, and has been listed as one of the most iconic in the shows' history. It would later be credited with helping to establish the band in mainstream culture. By the end of 1997, Manson appeared on the cover of Rolling Stone, who awarded the band their "Best New Artist" accolade.
The album was promoted by the year-long "Dead to the World Tour", which began in September 1996. It was their longest and widest-ranging tour yet, with the band performing 175 shows throughout Europe, Japan, Oceania, and North and South America. "Antichrist Superstar" was released as a promotional single in late 1996, with music videos for both that song and "Cryptorchid" being created by E. Elias Merhige. The video for "Cryptorchid" heavily incorporated imagery from Merhige's experimental 1991 silent film Begotten, while the one for "Antichrist Superstar" would remain unreleased until 2010, when it was leaked onto YouTube. The latter had been screened at the 1997 San Francisco International Film Festival, where it won a Golden Gate Certificate of Merit Award. However, its release was blocked by Interscope Records, whom Manson described as being "appalled by it." It combined performance footage and fascist iconography, namely the Nuremberg rallies, along with US military footage and images of a Ku Klux Klan lynching.
Numerous outtakes and previously unreleased recordings were also issued on movie soundtracks throughout 1997. "Apple of Sodom" appeared on the Reznor-produced soundtrack to David Lynch's Lost Highway in February. A music video for the song was created in 1998, although this would remain unreleased until its director, Joseph Cultice, uploaded it to his website in 2009. Also in February 1997, "The Suck for Your Solution" appeared on the soundtrack to the Howard Stern biopic Private Parts. "Long Hard Road Out of Hell", featuring backing vocals from Sneaker Pimps vocalist Kelli Ali, was released on the soundtrack to Spawn in August. The following month, "Tourniquet" was issued as the album's second and final commercially released single. Its music video was also directed by Sigismondi. W.I.Z. directed the final music video created for Antichrist Superstar, "Man That You Fear". Its concept was adapted from the plot of Shirley Jackson's 1948 short story The Lottery, and the video contains aesthetic and symbolic references to the 1989 Alejandro Jodorowsky film Santa Sangre.
The band's second EP, Remix & Repent, was released on November 25. It contained remixed versions of Antichrist Superstar's two singles—a Danny Saber version of "The Beautiful People" titled "The Horrible People", and the band's own Prosthetic Dance Remix of "Tourniquet", as well as live versions of "Dried Up, Tied and Dead to the World" and "Antichrist Superstar" and an acoustic version of "Man That You Fear". A VHS concert film entitled Dead to the World was released in February 1998. It debuted at number one on Billboard's Top Music Videos, eventually spending a year on the chart. Antichrist Superstar was reissued on cassette exclusively in Europe as part of Record Store Day 2016. Manson indicated that an expanded edition of the album would be released on October 20, 2016, to celebrate its twentieth anniversary, although this failed to materialize.
The release of Antichrist Superstar coincided with the band's commercial breakthrough, and much of the attention received by the band from mainstream media was not positive. In December 1996, Senator Joseph Lieberman, along with former Secretary of Education William Bennett and Secretary of Pennsylvania State C. DeLores Tucker, held a press conference wherein they questioned MCA – the owner of Interscope – president Edgar Bronfman Jr.'s ability to head the label competently whilst profiting from "profanity-laced" albums by artists such as Tupac Shakur, Snoop Doggy Dogg and Marilyn Manson. Tucker had previously called the band's 1995 EP Smells Like Children the "dirtiest, nastiest porno record directed at children that has ever hit the market."
The group's live performances were also heavily criticized, and nearly every North American venue the band visited during their "Dead to the World Tour" was picketed by religious organizations. Opponents of the group based their protests on exaggerated, unfounded claims of onstage drug abuse, bestiality, satanic rituals – namely animal and human sacrifice – and claims that the band frequently engaged in homosexual intercourse with one another, and that underage concert attendees were violently raped by other audience members. An affidavit written by an anonymous complainant in a January 1997 lawsuit against the state of Utah claimed that "about 30 percent of the Manson concert crowd participate in open, overt sexual activity at an average Manson concert." In this context, Utah passed legislation which allowed state-operated venues to ban the group from performing, forcing the cancelation of their January 11 performance at Utah State Fairpark. This legislation would be repealed six months later after a group of nine fans successfully sued the state. Similarly, an April 10 concert at the state-owned Carolina Coliseum in Columbia was canceled after the South Carolina House of Representatives voted to ban Marilyn Manson from ever performing on state-owned property. This resulted in the state being forced to pay the band's promoters $40,000 for loss of income.
During this time, schools in Florida threatened to expel students for attending Marilyn Manson concerts, and over 5,500 residents contacted the mayor of Jacksonville, demanding that he cancel their April 17 concert at the Jacksonville Memorial Coliseum. The city council of Richmond, Virginia ordered the cancelation of their May 10 concert at Richmond Coliseum, although the ACLU would later sue the city on the band's behalf. A July 22 concert at La Luna in Portland, Oregon was canceled when the venue was unable to obtain insurance for the event. Their concert at Calgary's Max Bell Arena three days later was canceled by the owner of the venue, Larry Ryckman, who cited the band's reputation as justification for doing so. He would later be successfully sued by the band's promoters for $66,000 in damages. The New Jersey date of Ozzfest at Giants Stadium was canceled by the New Jersey Sports and Exposition Authority, who cited Marilyn Manson's scheduled appearance as its reason. The event was only held after Ozzy Osbourne successfully sued the state, which compelled authorities to allow the concert.
In November 1997, the band found itself the target of congressional hearings, led by Senator Joseph Lieberman and Representative Sam Brownback, to determine the effects, if any, of violent lyrics on young listeners. This hearing was held by the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, and was titled "Music Violence: How Does It Affect Our Children". At this subcommittee, Lieberman once again criticized the band's music, calling it "vile, hateful, nihilistic and damaging", and repeated his request that Seagram – then-owner of MCA – "start [...] disassociating itself from Marilyn Manson." Lieberman would go on to refer to the band as "perhaps the sickest group ever promoted by a mainstream record company." The subcommittee also heard from Raymond Kuntz, of Burlington, North Dakota, who blamed his son Richard's suicide on Antichrist Superstar–specifically the song "The Reflecting God".
|Encyclopedia of Popular Music|||
|The Great Rock Discography||8/10|
|The Rolling Stone Album Guide|||
The album was released to widespread acclaim from music critics, who praised its concept, production, as well as the vocals of frontman Marilyn Manson. M. Tye Comer, in reviewing for CMJ New Music Monthly, described the record as a "magnificent [...] aural skull-fuck", writing that the band "[took] in all the angst, hellfire and damnation one band [could] ingest, then [released] it in a fierce scatological display of apocalyptic sound and fury." He went on to commend Manson's vocals, which he said could "communicate pain, passion, fear, hate and euphoria in one mighty, ear-piercing roar." Greg Kot of the Chicago Tribune complimented the album's production, as did Jim Farber of Entertainment Weekly, who also praised its "ambitious" concept.
Ann Powers of Spin also commended the album's concept, as well as the band's songwriting, saying: "Until now, Manson's ideas carried more weight than his music, but Antichrist Superstar's sound matches the garish grandiosity of his arguments. Its 16 songs rock like '70s Sabbath-style metal, but harder; the arrangements echo Queen in operatic scope but are more intense; the mood owes its vampiric chill to Bauhaus, but [Marilyn Manson] actually bites the vein." Stephen Thomas Erlewine of AllMusic wrote that the album would be considered the band's definitive statement, but was critical of Reznor's production, saying: "Though the sonic details make [the album] an intriguing listen, it's not as extreme as it could have been—in particular, the guitars are surprisingly anemic, sounding like buzzing vacuums instead of unwieldy chainsaws."
Lorraine Ali of Rolling Stone credited both the album and the band's associated rise within mainstream culture as "[marking] the end of the reign of punk realism in rock & roll", calling the record "a volatile reaction to five years of earnest, post-Nirvana rock." She went on to hypothesize that: "Marilyn Manson offer total escapism as a true alternative, complete with carefully crafted gloom wear (no baggy shorts allowed), a frontman who blatantly begs to be in the spotlight and lyric imagery rivaling that of the best slasher movies." Similarly, a 2016 article from The A.V. Club called the record influential, suggesting that its success was indicative of a shift in the culture of rock music which resulted in other rock bands "trading grunge's bruised-heart jadedness for seething, self-flagellating nihilism."
According to Acclaimed Music, Antichrist Superstar is the 20th most-renowned album of 1996, and the 222nd most-renowned record of the 1990s. The record has often been referred to as one of the best rock albums of all time, and has been listed in several books, including 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die, 1,000 Recordings to Hear Before You Die and Albums: 50 Years of Great Recordings. In 2008, Consequence of Sound identified Antichrist Superstar as a modern classic in their "Dusting 'Em Off" feature, due to its counter-cultural and social impact during the late '90s. Rolling Stone included it among their "Essential Recordings of the '90s" in 1999, and placed it at number 84 on their "100 Best Albums of the '90s" list, which was compiled in 2011. Revolver included Antichrist Superstar at number 49 on their "69 Greatest Metal Albums of All Time".
The album has been featured in multiple lists compiled by several British rock magazines. Kerrang! dubbed it the 3rd best album of 1996, and placed it at number 14 on their list of "100 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die", as well as at number 88 on its "100 Greatest Rock Albums". In 2001, it featured on Q's list of the "50 Heaviest Albums Of All Time", while NME placed it at number 92 on their 2009-compiled list of the "100 Greatest Heavy Metal Albums". It also appeared at number 92 on Classic Rock's list of the "100 Greatest Rock Albums Ever", and, in 2006, the magazine – as well as its sister publication, Metal Hammer – included it on their respective lists of "The 200 Greatest Albums of the '90s". Record Collector included Antichrist Superstar in their extensive list "10 Classic Albums from 21 Genres for the 21st Century", in the metal category.
Multiple international publications included it in their respective lists of the best albums of 1996, including the French edition of British magazine Rock Sound, who placed it at number 13, Dutch magazine Muziekkrant OOR ranked it at number 109 on their "Best Albums of 1996", while Alternative Nation included the album at number 8 on their list of the "Top Rock Albums of 1996". Rock Sound also featured the record at number 11 on their "Top 150 Albums of Our Lifetime (1992–2006)". German rock magazine Visions ranked the album at number 37 on their list of "The Most Important Records of the Nineties". Furthermore, French magazine Rock & Folk listed Antichrist Superstar as being one of "The Best Albums from 1963 to 1999", while retailer Fnac included it on their list of "The 1000 Best Albums of All Time".
|Acclaimed Music||United States||Greatest Records of All Time||1996||1281|
|Alternative Nation||Top Rock Albums of 1996||2016||8|
|Classic Rock||United Kingdom||100 Greatest Rock Albums Ever||2001||92|
|The 200 Greatest Albums of the '90s||2006|
|Fnac||France||The 1000 Best Albums of All Time||2011||606|
|Kerrang!||United Kingdom||Albums of the Year||1996||3|
|100 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die||1998||14|
|The 100 Greatest Rock Albums||2006||88|
|Metal Hammer||The 200 Greatest Albums of the '90s||2006|
|Muziekkrant OOR||Netherlands||Albums of the Year||1996||109|
|NME||United Kingdom||100 Greatest Heavy Metal Albums||2009||92|
|Q||50 Heaviest Albums Of All Time||2001|
|Record Collector||10 Classic Albums from 21 Genres for the 21st Century||2000|
|Revolver||United States||The 69 Greatest Metal Albums of All Time||2002||49|
|Rock & Folk||France||The Best Albums from 1963 to 1999||2000|
|Rock Sound||Albums of the Year||1996||13|
|Top 150 Albums of Our Lifetime (1992–2006)||2006||11|
|Rolling Stone||United States||The Essential Recordings of the '90s||1999|
|100 Best Albums of the '90s||2011||84|
|Visions||Germany||The Most Important Albums of the '90s||2000||37|
Antichrist Superstar was an immediate commercial success in North America. It sold 132,000 copies in the United States on its first week to debut at number three on the Billboard 200. The album was certified platinum by the RIAA on December 11, 1996, and sold over 1.2 million copies within a year of its release. As of November 2010, the record sold almost 2 million copies in the US alone, according to Nielsen SoundScan. It peaked at number two on the national RPM albums chart in Canada, where it has been certified double platinum by Music Canada (formerly the Canadian Recording Industry Association) for shipments in excess of 200,000 units. In Mexico, the record was certified gold by AMPROFON, indicating shipments of over 100,000 copies.
The album's international commercial success was initially modest, however, peaking at number thirteen on the Finnish Albums Chart, but failing to make an impact on the album charts in both France and Germany—peaking at numbers 116 and 100, respectively. Despite only peaking at number 73 on the UK Albums Chart and spending a sole week on the chart, Antichrist Superstar was certified gold by the BPI in July 2013 for sales of over 100,000 copies. Similarly, the record spent six non-consecutive weeks on the ARIA Charts, peaking at number 41, and would go on to be certified gold by the Australian Recording Industry Association. Conversely, it became the band's commercial breakthrough in New Zealand, peaking within the top five and spending a total of 45 weeks on the New Zealand Albums Chart, where it was eventually certified platinum. Antichrist Superstar has sold in excess of 7 million copies worldwide.
|Cycle I: The Heirophant|
|1.||"Irresponsible Hate Anthem"||4:17|
|2.||"The Beautiful People"||Ramirez||3:38|
|3.||"Dried Up, Tied and Dead to the World"||
|Cycle II: Inauguration of the Worm|
|10.||"Angel with the Scabbed Wings"||
|Cycle III: Disintegrator Rising|
|14.||"Minute of Decay"||Manson||4:44|
|15.||"The Reflecting God"||
|16.||"Man That You Fear"||
|99.||"Empty Sounds of Hate" (hidden track)||
- Tracks 17–98 consist of a few seconds of silence each.
- While consisting of three cycles, the album was released as a single disc, similar to the four cycles of 2000's Holy Wood.
- There are different names for the hidden track, "Empty Sounds of Hate". The Marilyn Manson Collection on iTunes titles it "Ghost Track". Rhapsody titles the track as "Untitled".
Credits adapted from the liner notes of Antichrist Superstar.
- Recorded at Nothing Studios, New Orleans
- All songs produced by Marilyn Manson, Dave Ogilvie and Trent Reznor, except "Dried Up, Tied and Dead to the World", "Kinderfeld" and "Minute of Decay" produced by Manson and Sean Beavan
- Mixed by Beavan, Ogilvie and Chris Vrenna at Nothing Studios
- Mastering by Tom Baker at Future Disc Systems in Hollywood
- Marilyn Manson – vocals, acoustic, bass and electric guitars, pan flute, production
- Daisy Berkowitz – lead and rhythm guitars
- Twiggy Ramirez – lead and rhythm guitars, acoustic guitar, bass
- Madonna Wayne Gacy – keyboards, loops, and other original pieces of 16-bit audio information
- Ginger Fish – drums and programming
- Zim Zum – live guitarist on the Dead to the World Tour
- Sean Beavan – guitar, guitar synthesizer (track 2), programming, digital audio editing, engineering, production, mixing
- Charlie Clouser – programming, digital audio editing
- Robin Finck – additional guitar, keyboards
- Danny Lohner – lead guitar (track 10), acoustic guitar (track 15)
- Dave Ogilvie – digital audio editing, engineering, production, mixing
- Trent Reznor – mellotron (track 6), additional guitar (track 7), lead guitar (track 9), Rhodes piano (track 16), programming, production
- Chris Vrenna – drums (track 11), programming, digital audio editing, engineering, mixing
- P. R. Brown – digital illustration, design
- David Codikow – legal
- Tony Ciulla – management
- Dean Karr – photography
- Alex Kochan – booking agent
- John Malm Jr. – Nothing Records
- Brian Pollack – additional engineering
- Jay Sendyk – business management
|Canada (Music Canada)||2× Platinum||200,000^|
|New Zealand (RMNZ)||Platinum||15,000^|
|United Kingdom (BPI)||Gold||100,000^|
|United States (RIAA)||Platinum||1,900,000|
*sales figures based on certification alone
- Childers, Chad (October 8, 2016). "20 Years Ago: Marilyn Manson Makes Creative Leap With 'Antichrist Superstar'". Loudwire. Townsquare Media. Retrieved March 27, 2017.
- Jackson, Alex (September 10, 1996). "Recording Antichrist Superstar A "Trying Experience" For Manson". MTV. Viacom. Retrieved March 31, 2016.
- Reed, Ryan (October 7, 2016). "Marilyn Manson's Antichrist Superstar: 10 Wild Stories". Rolling Stone. Retrieved April 5, 2017.
- Stratton, Jeff (April 15, 2004). "Manson Family Feud". New Times Broward-Palm Beach. Voice Media Group. Retrieved October 7, 2016.
- Miller, Gerri (December 1998). "Zim Zum Speaks (Archived at Provider Module)". Metal Edge. Zenbu Media. Retrieved March 31, 2016.
- Fischer, Reed (October 3, 2011). "Marilyn Manson's Antichrist Superstar Is 15: Daisy Berkowitz Speaks". New Times Broward-Palm Beach. Voice Media Group. Retrieved March 28, 2016.
- Powers, Ann (December 1996). "SPIN | Records | Antichrist Superstar by Marilyn Manson". Spin. 12 (9): 140. ISSN 0886-3032.
- Thigpen, David (February 24, 1997). "Music: Satan's Little Helpers". Time. Retrieved April 24, 2017. (Subscription required (. ))
- Shafer, Joseph (April 8, 2015). "The 10 Best Marilyn Manson Songs". Stereogum. Retrieved June 26, 2015.
- Wiederhorn (July 19, 2016). "22 Years Ago: Marilyn Manson Issues 'Portrait of an American Family". Loudwire. Townsquare Media. Retrieved June 17, 2017.
- Ali, Lorraine (October 29, 1996). "Antichrist Superstar - Rolling Stone". Rolling Stone. Retrieved March 31, 2017.
- Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Antichrist Superstar – Marilyn Manson". AllMusic. Retrieved March 31, 2017.
- San Roman, Gabriel (October 7, 2011). "Marilyn Manson's 'Antichrist Superstar' Turns 15 as 'Born Villain' Readies for Release". OC Weekly. Retrieved April 5, 2017.
- Cohlt, Elore (June 21, 2012). "Marilyn Manson, Nietzsche et la notion de Surhommme" [Marilyn Manson, Nietzsche and the notion of the Superman]. L'Express (in French). Retrieved April 5, 2017.
- Ingham, Chris (October 22, 2015). "Blood On Our Hands: Backstage With Marilyn Manson, Public Enemy No. 1". Metal Hammer. Retrieved April 11, 2017.
- Young, Alex (September 13, 2008). "Dusting 'Em Off: Marilyn Manson – Antichrist Superstar". Consequence of Sound. Retrieved April 4, 2017.
- DiPerna, Alan. "Marilyn Manson: Shock, Rattle and Roll". Guitar World. Harris Publications (December 1996): 56–64; 209–214. Retrieved June 29, 2016.
- Moorefield, Virgil (February 2010). The Producer as Composer: Shaping the Sounds of Popular Music. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. p. 77. ISBN 0-262-51405-2.
- MTV News Staff (December 3, 1997). "Marilyn Manson Discusses New Concept For Next Album". MTV. Viacom. Retrieved April 24, 2017.
- "Marilyn Manson Album & Song Chart History: Alternative Songs". Billboard. Prometheus Global Media. Retrieved March 27, 2017.
- "Marilyn Manson Album & Song Chart History: Mainstream Rock Songs". Billboard. Prometheus Global Media. Retrieved March 27, 2017.
- "Australiancharts.com – Marilyn Manson – The Beautiful People". ARIA Charts. Hung Medien. Retrieved March 27, 2017.
- "Charts.org.nz – Marilyn Manson – The Beautiful People". Recorded Music NZ. Hung Medien. Retrieved March 27, 2017.
- "Marilyn Manson | Artist | Official Charts". UK Albums Chart Retrieved January 10, 2017.
- Preira, Matt (October 4, 2011). "Marilyn Manson's Antichrist Superstar Is 15: A Video History". New Times Broward-Palm Beach. Voice Media Group. Retrieved March 27, 2017.
- "MTV: 100 Greatest Music Videos Ever Made". MTV. Rock On The Net. December 1999. Retrieved August 1, 2016.
- "Much Music's 100 Greatest Videos Ever". Much. Bell Media. August 30, 2014. Retrieved August 1, 2016.
- Stosuy, Brandon (January 5, 2009). "VH1's 100 Greatest Hard Rock Songs". Stereogum. SpinMedia. Retrieved August 6, 2016.
- Jolson-Colburn, Jeffrey (July 23, 1997). "Janiroquai Tops MTV Video Music Nom List". E! Online. E!. Retrieved September 19, 2016.
- Irizarry, Katy (July 10, 2016). "List: 5 Shocking Marilyn Manson Moments". Revolver. Retrieved April 17, 2017.
- MTV News Staff (August 27, 2010). "The 2010 VMA Countdown: Marilyn Manson Bares All". MTV. Viacom. Retrieved April 17, 2017.
- Kangas, Chaz (September 5, 2012). "The MTV Video Music Awards' Five Most Iconic Performances". OC Weekly. Retrieved April 17, 2017.
- Kangas, Chaz (September 6, 2012). "The 1997 Edition Was the Best MTV Video Music Awards". LA Weekly. Voice Media Group. Retrieved April 17, 2017.
- Rieppi, Laurent (October 20, 2016). "Antichrist Superstar de Manson: 20 ans déjà" [20 Years of Manson's Antichrist Superstar]. RTBF (in French). Retrieved April 18, 2017.
- Barkan, Jonathan (May 15, 2015). "[From Best To Worst] The Music Videos Of Marilyn Manson: "Antichrist Superstar"". Bloody Disgusting. Retrieved March 27, 2017.
- "Marilyn Manson: Anti-Christ Superstar". San Francisco International Film Festival. Archived from the original on March 27, 2017. Retrieved March 27, 2017.
- "Dramatic New Scenes For Celebritarian Needs: An Exclusive Interview With Marilyn Manson". MansonUSA. November 3, 2005. Archived from the original on June 4, 2006. Retrieved March 27, 2017.
- Ankeny, Jason. "Lost Highway [Original Soundtrack] - Various Artists | Songs, Reviews, Credits". AllMusic. Retrieved April 20, 2017.
- Chillingworth, Alec (September 6, 2016). "The 10 most underrated Marilyn Manson songs - Metal Hammer". Metal Hammer. Archived from the original on September 7, 2016. Retrieved October 23, 2016.
- Rife, Katie (May 23, 2017). "Lost Highway put David Lynch onto America's car stereos". The A.V. Club. The Onion. Retrieved June 17, 2017.
- "Running With the Devil, by Marilyn Manson". Spin. SpinMedia. February 1998. Retrieved April 19, 2016.
- MTV News Staff (September 9, 1997). "Marilyn Manson Is No Friend Of The Sneaker Pimps". MTV. Viacom. Retrieved March 27, 2017.
- MTV News Staff (September 16, 1997). "Marilyn Manson: Sneaker Pimps "Very Confused Individuals"". MTV. Viacom. Retrieved March 27, 2017.
- A.A. Dowd (October 26, 2016). "Like its inspiration, Spawn soundtrack cobbled together coolness | Soundtracks Of Our Lives". The A.V. Club. Retrieved March 30, 2017.
- Ford, Chris. "10 Best Marilyn Manson Videos". Noisecreep. Townsquare Media. Retrieved March 27, 2017.
- Prato, Greg. "Remix & Repent - Marilyn Manson | Songs, Reviews, Credits". AllMusic. Retrieved April 20, 2017.
- Perez, Ashley (September 27, 2016). "Marilyn Manson to reissue 'Antichrist Superstar' for 20th anniversary". AXS. Anschutz Entertainment Group. Retrieved April 20, 2017.
- "Music Video Sales - February 28, 1998". Billboard. Prometheus Global Media. February 28, 1998. Retrieved March 27, 2017.
- Copsey, Rob (March 8, 2016). "Record Store Day 2016: The full list of 557 exclusive music releases revealed". Official Charts Company. Retrieved May 30, 2016.
- John Earls (September 28, 2016). "Marilyn Manson says new album 'Say10' is 'The last thing people will expect'". NME. Time Inc. UK. Retrieved September 28, 2016.
- Kennelty, Greg (September 27, 2016). "Marilyn Manson To Release An Unreleased, "Legendary" Video From 1996". Metal Injection. Retrieved September 27, 2016.
- Chuck Philips (December 10, 1996). "Critics expected to take on MCA for explicit rap lyrics". Los Angeles Times. Tribune Publishing. Retrieved May 31, 2016.
- Michael Goldberg (June 1, 1996). "Elvis Fan Bill Bennett Attacks Rap, Marilyn Manson". MTV. Viacom. Retrieved August 6, 2016.
- Mirapaul, Matthew (April 24, 1997). "The Traveling Controversy That Is Marilyn Manson". The New York Times. Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, Jr. Retrieved March 31, 2016.
- Hedegaard, Erik (January 6, 2015). "Marilyn Manson: The Vampire of the Hollywood Hills". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on September 26, 2015. Retrieved January 24, 2015.
- Donohue, Anne T. (March 15, 2017). "Why Marilyn Manson Was Our Last Controversial Artist". Nylon. Retrieved April 17, 2017.
- MTV News Staff (June 24, 1997). "Marilyn Manson Fans Settle Lawsuit Over Canceled Utah Show". MTV News. Viacom. Retrieved June 1, 2016.
- Spencer, Jim (April 20, 1997). "Richmond Makes Martyr Out Of Manson". Daily Press. Tribune Publishing. Retrieved May 31, 2016.
- Neil Strauss (May 17, 1997). "A Bogey Band to Scare Parents With". The New York Times. Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, Jr. Retrieved March 31, 2016.
- Nelson, Chris (April 19, 1997). "Ozzy Osbourne To Sue New Jersey Over Marilyn Manson". MTV News. Viacom. Retrieved June 1, 2016.
- MTV News Staff (July 21, 1997). "R 'N' R Three Dot: Portland Axes Marilyn Manson Show". MTV. Viacom. Retrieved June 1, 2016.
- Kaufman, Gil (December 11, 1997). "Marilyn Manson Wins Case Of Canceled Concert". MTV News. Viacom. Retrieved June 1, 2016.
- Neil Strauss (June 17, 1997). "Heavy Metal Upstaged By a Fury Offstage". The New York Times. Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. Retrieved June 1, 2016.
- Kretkowski, Paul D. (November 11, 1997). "Blaming the Shock Rockers: Now that Frank Zappa's dead, who will stick up for Marilyn Manson?". Mother Jones. Foundation For National Progress. Retrieved March 31, 2016.
- "Music Violence: How Does It Affect Our Children – Hearing before the Committee of Governmental Affairs, United States Senate" (PDF). United States Government Publishing Office. November 7, 1997. Retrieved May 31, 2016.
- Nelson, Chris (November 7, 1997). "Senate Hearing Attempts To Connect Manson To Suicide". MTV. Viacom. Retrieved August 6, 2016.
- Kot, Greg (January 3, 1997). "Marilyn Manson: Antichrist Superstar (Nothing/Interscope)". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved March 28, 2017.
- Tye Comer, M. (December 1996). "CMJ New Music Monthly | Reviews | Marilyn Manson - Antichrist Superstar (Nothing/Interscope)". CMJ New Music Monthly. CMJ Network, Inc. (40): 38. ISSN 1074-6978.
- Larkin, Colin (2007). The Encyclopedia of Popular Music (5th ed.). Omnibus Press. ISBN 0-85712-595-8.
- Farber, Jim (October 11, 1996). "Article: Antichrist Superstar Review". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved March 31, 2017.
- Strong, Martin C. (October 21, 2004). The Great Rock Discography (7th ed.). London, United Kingdom: Canongate Books. ISBN 1-84195-615-5.
- Marsh, David; Brackett, Nathan; Hoard, Christian (2004). "Marilyn Manson". The New Rolling Stone Album Guide. Simon & Schuster. pp. 513–14. ISBN 0-7432-0169-8.
- "Antichrist Superstar Review | Marilyn Manson". Ultimate Guitar Archive. Retrieved March 31, 2017.
- O'Neal, Sean (August 8, 1996). "In 1996, alternative rock died a messy, forgettable death". The A.V. Club. Retrieved April 11, 2017.
- "Acclaimed Music | Marilyn Manson - Artist Rank". Acclaimed Music. Retrieved March 31, 2017.
- Robert Dimery; Michael Lydon (23 March 2010). 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die: Revised and Updated Edition. Universe Publishing. p. 910. ISBN 978-0-7893-2074-2.
- Tom Moon (28 August 2008). 1,000 Recordings to Hear Before You Die. Workman Publishing Company. p. 187. ISBN 978-0-7611-3963-8.
- "Albums: 50 Years of Great Recordings". Thunder Bay Press. Acclaimed Music. 2002. Retrieved April 4, 2017.
- Rolling Stone Staff (April 21, 1999). "The Essential Recordings of the '90s". Rolling Stone. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
- Rolling Stone Staff (April 27, 2011). "100 Best Albums of the Nineties". Rolling Stone. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
- "Revolver (USA) - The 69 Greatest Metal Albums of All Time (2002)". Revolver. Acclaimed Music. January 2002. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
- "Kerrang! Albums Of The Year: 1996". Kerrang!. Retrieved March 31, 2017.
- "Kerrang! 100 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die". Kerrang!. January 1998. Retrieved March 31, 2017.
- "Kerrang! Klassic - Special Edition: 100 Greatest Rock Albums Ever!". Kerrang!. 9 (15): 44. November 2006. ISSN 0262-6624. Retrieved March 31, 2017.
- "Q's 50 Heaviest Albums Of All Time". Q. 7 (1): 86. July 2001. Archived from the original on November 11, 2010. Retrieved March 31, 2017.
- NME Staff (August 14, 2009). "100 Greatest Heavy Metal Albums". NME. Time Inc. Retrieved March 31, 2017.
- Classic Rock Staff (December 2001). "The 100 Greatest Rock Albums Of All Time". Classic Rock. No. 35. London, United Kingdom: Future plc. ISSN 1464-7834.
- "Classic Rock & Metal Hammer (UK) - The 200 Greatest Albums of the '90s (2006)". Classic Rock & Metal Hammer. Acclaimed Music. Retrieved March 31, 2017.
- "Record Collector (UK) - 10 Classic Albums from 21 Genres for the 21st Century (2000)". Record Collector. Acclaimed Music. Retrieved March 31, 2017.
- "Choix des critiques depuis 1993". Rock Sound. Retrieved March 31, 2017.
- "Jaarlijst Oor 1996". Muziekkrant OOR. Retrieved March 31, 2017.
- Buchanan, Brett (December 30, 2016). "Top 10 Rock Albums of 1996". Alternative Nation. Retrieved March 31, 2017.
- "Top 150 Albums of Our Lifetime (1992–2006)". Rock Sound. Acclaimed Music. Retrieved March 31, 2017.
- "Die 100 wichtigsten Platten der Neunziger" [The Most Important Records of the Nineties]. Visions (in German). January 2000. Archived from the original on February 7, 2015. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
- "Rock & Folk (France) - The Best Albums from 1963 to 1999 (1999)". Rock & Folk. Acclaimed Music. January 2000. Retrieved March 31, 2017.
- "FNAC (France) - The 1000 Best Albums of All Time (2008)". Fnac. Acclaimed Music. Retrieved March 31, 2017.
- Dansby, Andrew (May 21, 2003). "Manson Golden at Number One". Rolling Stone. Retrieved April 12, 2017.
- "American album certifications – Marilyn Manson – Antichrist Superstar". Recording Industry Association of America. December 11, 1996. Retrieved January 10, 2017. If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format, then select Album, then click SEARCH
- Rosen, Craig (September 13, 1997). "Interscope Reaches Crossroads With Trauma Split, Death Row Uncertainty". Billboard. 109 (37): 10, 110. Retrieved April 12, 2017.
- Paine, Andre (November 8, 2010). "Marilyn Manson Plots 2011 Comeback with Indie Label". Billboard. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
- "Top RPM Albums: Issue 9835." RPM. Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
- "Canadian album certifications – Marilyn Manson – Antichrist Superstar". Music Canada. September 18, 1997. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
- "Certificaciones – Marilyn Manson" (in Spanish). Asociación Mexicana de Productores de Fonogramas y Videogramas. October 21, 1999. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
- "Marilyn Manson: Antichrist Superstar" (in Finnish). Musiikkituottajat – IFPI Finland. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
- "Lescharts.com – Marilyn Manson – Antichrist Superstar". Hung Medien. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
- "Offiziellecharts.de – Marilyn Manson – Antichrist Superstar" (in German). GfK Entertainment Charts. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
- "British album certifications – Marilyn Manson – Antichrist Superstar". British Phonographic Industry. July 22, 2013. Retrieved January 10, 2017. Enter Antichrist Superstar in the field Keywords. Select Title in the field Search by. Select album in the field By Format. Select Gold in the field By Award. Click Search
- "Australiancharts.com – Marilyn Manson – Antichrist Superstar". Hung Medien. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
- "ARIA Charts – Accreditations – 1997 Albums". Australian Recording Industry Association. Retrieved March 5, 2011.
- "Charts.org.nz – Marilyn Manson – Antichrist Superstar". Hung Medien. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
- "New Zealand album certifications – Marilyn Manson – Antichrist Superstar". Recorded Music NZ. June 7, 1998. Retrieved May 13, 2015.
- "Russia bans Marilyn Manson concert". Associated Press. Newshub. June 27, 2014. Retrieved April 12, 2017.
- Antichrist Superstar (CD liner notes). Marilyn Manson. Interscope Records. 1996. INTD-90086.
- "Austriancharts.at – Marilyn Manson – Antichrist Superstar" (in German). Hung Medien. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
- "Top 40 album DVD és válogatáslemez-lista – 1997. 9. hét" (in Hungarian). MAHASZ. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
- "Swedishcharts.com – Marilyn Manson – Antichrist Superstar". Hung Medien. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
- "Official Rock & Metal Albums Chart Top 40". Official Charts Company. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
- "Marilyn Manson – Chart history" Billboard 200 for Marilyn Manson. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
- "Year End Top 100 Albums". RPM. Vol. 64 no. 18. December 16, 1996. ISSN 0315-5994. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
- "Billboard 200 Albums – Year-End 1996". Billboard. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
- "Top Selling Albums of 1997". Recorded Music NZ. Retrieved April 29, 2017.
- "Billboard 200 Albums – Year-End 1997". Billboard. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
- "CAPIF - Representando a la Industria Argentina de la Música". Argentine Chamber of Phonograms and Videograms Producers. Archived from the original on July 6, 2011. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
- Manson, Marilyn; Strauss, Neil (February 14, 1998). The Long Hard Road Out of Hell. New York: HarperCollins division ReganBooks. ISBN 0-06-039258-4.