Murder of John Lennon
|Murder of John Lennon|
Police artist sketch of the murder
|Location||The Dakota, New York City, New York|
|Date||8 December 1980
22:50 (US Eastern time (UTC−05:00))
|Weapon||Charter Arms Undercover .38 Special revolver|
|Perpetrator||Mark David Chapman|
John Lennon was an English musician who gained worldwide fame as one of the members of the Beatles, for his subsequent solo career, and for his political activism and pacifism. On the night of Monday, 8 December 1980, Lennon was shot dead by Mark David Chapman in the archway of the Dakota, his residence in New York City. Lennon had just returned from Record Plant Studio with his wife, Yoko Ono.
After sustaining four major gunshot wounds, Lennon was pronounced dead on arrival at Roosevelt Hospital. At the hospital, personnel stated that nobody could have lived longer than a few minutes after sustaining such injuries. Shortly after local news stations reported Lennon's death, crowds gathered at Roosevelt Hospital and in front of the Dakota. Lennon was cremated at the Ferncliff Cemetery in Hartsdale, New York, two days after his death; the ashes were given to Ono, who chose not to hold a funeral for him. The first media report of Lennon's death to a US national audience was announced by Howard Cosell, on ABC's Monday Night Football.
Chapman pleaded guilty to the murder of Lennon and was sentenced to 20-years-to-life imprisonment. He has remained in prison ever since, having been denied parole nine times amidst campaigns against his release after he became eligible in 2000.
- 1 Events preceding the murder
- 2 Murder
- 3 Announcements
- 4 Aftermath
- 5 Memorials and tributes
- 6 In popular culture
- 7 Notes
- 8 Further reading
- 9 External links
Events preceding the murder
8 December 1980
Photographer Annie Leibovitz went to the Lennons' apartment to do a photo shoot for Rolling Stone magazine. Leibovitz promised Lennon that a photo with Ono would make the front cover of the magazine, even though she initially tried to get a picture with Lennon by himself. Leibovitz said, "Nobody wanted [Ono] on the cover". Lennon insisted that both he and his wife be on the cover, and after taking the pictures, Leibovitz left their apartment at 3:30 After the photo shoot, Lennon gave what would be his last interview, to San Francisco DJ Dave Sholin, for a music show to be broadcast on the RKO Radio Network. At 5:40, Lennon and Ono, delayed by a late limousine, left their apartment to mix the song "Walking on Thin Ice" (an Ono song featuring Lennon on lead guitar) at the Record Plant Studio.
Mark David Chapman
At approximately 5:00 p.m., Lennon and Ono were walking to a limousine (shared with the RKO Radio crew) when they were approached by Mark David Chapman, who was seeking an autograph. It was common for fans to wait outside the Dakota to meet Lennon and ask for his autograph. Chapman, a 25-year-old security guard from Honolulu, Hawaii, had previously travelled to New York to murder Lennon in October (before the release of Double Fantasy), but had changed his mind and returned home. Chapman silently handed Lennon a copy of Double Fantasy, and Lennon obliged with an autograph. After signing the album, Lennon asked, "Is this all you want?" Chapman smiled and nodded in agreement. Photographer and Lennon fan Paul Goresh took a photo of the encounter. Chapman had been waiting for Lennon outside the Dakota since mid-morning and had even approached the Lennons' five-year-old son, Sean, who was with the family nanny, Helen Seaman, when they returned home in the afternoon. According to Chapman, he briefly touched the boy's hand.
The Lennons spent several hours at the Record Plant studio before returning to the Dakota at approximately 10:50 p.m. Lennon had decided against dining out so he could be home in time to say goodnight to his son, before going on to the Stage Deli restaurant with Ono. Lennon liked to oblige, with autographs or pictures, any fans who had been waiting for long periods of time to meet him, and once said during a 6 December 1980 interview with BBC Radio's Andy Peebles: "People come and ask for autographs, or say 'Hi', but they don't bug you." The Lennons exited their limousine on 72nd Street instead of driving into the more secure courtyard of the Dakota.
The Dakota doorman Jose Perdomo and a nearby cabdriver saw Chapman standing in the shadows by the archway. As Lennon passed by, he glanced briefly at Chapman, appearing to recognise him from earlier that same evening. Seconds later, Chapman took aim at the center of Lennon's back and fired five hollow-point bullets at him from a Charter Arms .38 Special revolver, in rapid succession, from a distance of about 9 or 10 feet (about 3 m).
Based on statements made that night by NYPD Chief of Detectives James Sullivan, numerous radio, television, and newspaper reports claimed at the time that, before firing, Chapman called out, "Mr. Lennon", and dropped into a combat stance. Later court hearings and witness interviews did not include either "Mr. Lennon" or the "combat stance" description. Chapman has said he does not remember calling out to Lennon before he fired, and that Lennon did not turn around. He claimed to have taken a "combat stance" in a 1992 interview with Barbara Walters.
The first bullet missed, passing over Lennon's head and hitting a window of the Dakota building. Two of the next bullets struck Lennon in the left side of his back, and the other two penetrated his left shoulder.
Lennon, bleeding profusely from external wounds and from his mouth, staggered up five steps to the security/reception area where he said, "I'm shot, I'm shot". He then fell to the floor, scattering cassettes that he had been carrying. Perdomo ran inside and told concierge worker Jay Hastings that the attacker had dropped his gun on the sidewalk. Hastings first started to make a tourniquet, but upon ripping open Lennon's blood-stained shirt and realizing the severity of the musician's multiple injuries, he covered Lennon's chest with his uniform jacket, removed his blood-covered glasses, and summoned the police.
Chapman then removed his coat and hat in preparation for the arrival of police—to show he was not carrying any concealed weapons—and remained standing on West 72nd Street. Perdomo shouted at Chapman, "Do you know what you've just done?", to which Chapman calmly replied, "Yes, I just shot John Lennon."
Officers Steven Spiro and Peter Cullen were the first policemen to arrive at the scene; they were at 72nd Street and Broadway when they heard a report of shots fired at the Dakota. The officers arrived around two minutes later and found Chapman standing very calmly on West 72nd Street. They reported that Chapman had dropped the revolver to the ground and was holding a paperback book, J. D. Salinger's The Catcher in the Rye. They immediately put Chapman in handcuffs and placed him in the back seat of their squad car. Chapman made no attempt to flee or resist arrest.
He later claimed "If you were able to view the actual copy of 'The Catcher in the Rye' that was taken from me on the night of Dec. 8, you would find in it the handwritten words 'This is my statement.'"
Officer Herb Frauenberger and his partner Tony Palma were the second team, arriving a few minutes later. They found Lennon lying face down on the floor of the reception area, blood pouring from his mouth, and his clothing already soaked with blood, with Hastings attending to him. Realizing the extent of Lennon's injuries, the policemen decided not to wait for an ambulance and immediately carried Lennon into their squad car. He was rushed to St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center. Officer James Moran said they placed Lennon in the back seat.
Reportedly, Moran asked, "Are you John Lennon?" to which Lennon nodded and replied, "Yes." There are conflicting accounts of this, however. According to another account by officer Bill Gamble, Lennon nodded slightly and tried to speak, but could only manage to make a gurgling sound, and lost consciousness shortly thereafter.
Doctor Stephan Lynn was the head of the Emergency Department at Roosevelt Hospital. He had been called in again just after going home following a 13-hour-long work shift. He was in the emergency room a few minutes before 11:00 when Officers Frauenberger and Moran arrived with Lennon in their squad car. Moran was carrying Lennon on his back and onto a gurney. He demanded a doctor for a multiple gunshot wound victim. When Lennon was brought in, he had no pulse and was not breathing. Lynn, two other doctors, a nurse, and two or three other medical attendants worked on Lennon for 10 to 15 minutes in a desperate attempt to resuscitate him. As a last resort, Lynn cut open Lennon's chest and attempted manual heart massage to restore circulation, but he quickly discovered that the damage to the blood vessels above and around Lennon's heart from the multiple bullet wounds was too great.
Lennon was pronounced dead on arrival in the emergency room at the Roosevelt Hospital by Dr. Lynn at 11:15 p.m., but the time of 11:07 p.m. has also been reported. Lennon's body was then taken to the city morgue at 520 First Avenue for an autopsy. The cause of death was reported on his death certificate as "hypovolemic shock, caused by the loss of more than 80% of blood volume due to multiple through-and-through gunshot wounds to the left shoulder and left chest resulting in damage to the left lung and left subclavian artery and aortic arch". The pathologist who performed the autopsy on Lennon also stated in his report that even with prompt medical treatment, no person could have lived for more than a few minutes with such multiple bullet injuries to all of the major arteries and veins around the heart.
Three of the four bullets that struck Lennon's back passed completely through his body and out of his chest. One of those bullets hit and became lodged in his upper left arm, while the fourth lodged itself in his aorta beside his heart. Nearly all of them would have been fatal by themselves, because each bullet hit vital arteries around the heart. Lennon had been shot four times at close range with hollow-point bullets and his affected organs—particularly his left lung and major blood vessels above his heart—were virtually destroyed upon impact. Lynn later stated to reporters on the extent of Lennon's injuries: "If he [Lennon] had been shot this way in the middle of the operating room with a whole team of surgeons ready to work on him... he still wouldn't have survived his injuries".
When Lynn informed Ono of her husband's death, she started sobbing and said, "Oh no, no, no, no ... tell me it's not true!" Lynn remembers that Ono lay down and began hitting her head against the floor, but calmed down when a nurse gave Lennon's wedding ring to her. Still in a state of shock, she was led away from Roosevelt Hospital by a policeman and Geffen Records' president, David Geffen.
The above account of treatment is disputed by David Halleran in a 2005 New York Times article and subsequent interviews. He was in the hospital that night as a surgical resident and in charge of the ER. John Lennon was his patient, and it was he who performed the surgery. Two other doctors entered the treatment room and assisted. This is what is depicted in the film The Lennon Report (2016) and the reason the film was made;
"The reason we came forward with the story was because in order for the truth to have any weight or credibility, people really needed to understand what happened. One of the biggest revelations of the film is that Dr. David Halleran ... not Dr. Stephan Lynn ... performed the surgery on Lennon that night ... Dr Marks, who worked alongside Halleran."
The credits at the end of the film contain eyewitness accounts by those in attendance in the ER.
The account that Yoko Ono banged her head on the floor is disputed by two of the nurses who were there.
Monday Night Football
Ono asked the hospital not to report to the media that her husband was dead until she had informed their five-year-old son Sean, who was at home. Ono said he was probably watching television and did not want him to learn of his father's death from a TV announcement.
Meanwhile, news producer Alan J. Weiss of WABC-TV had been waiting to be treated in the emergency room at Roosevelt Hospital after being injured in a motorcycle accident earlier in the evening. Weiss recalled in an interview for the CNN series Crimes of the Century in 2013 that he had seen Lennon being wheeled into the room surrounded by several police officers. After he learned what happened, Weiss called back to the station to relay the information. Eventually, word made its way through the chain of command to ABC News president Roone Arledge, who was tasked with finding a way to bring this major development to the viewing audience.
While all of this was happening, Arledge, who was also the president of the network's sports division, was presiding over ABC's telecast of Monday Night Football in his capacity as its executive producer. When Arledge received word of Lennon's death, the game between the New England Patriots and the Miami Dolphins was tied with less than a minute left in the fourth quarter and the Patriots were driving toward the potential winning score.
As the Patriots tried to put themselves in position for a field goal, Arledge informed Frank Gifford and Howard Cosell of the shooting and suggested that they be the ones to report on the murder. Cosell, who had interviewed Lennon during a Monday Night Football broadcast in 1974, was chosen to do so but was apprehensive of it at first, as he felt the game should take precedence and that it was not their place to break such a big story. Gifford convinced Cosell otherwise, saying that he should not "hang on to (the news)" as the significance of the event was much greater than the finish of the game.
The following exchange begins with thirty seconds left in the fourth quarter, shortly after Gifford and Cosell were informed of what had transpired.
Cosell: ... but (the game)'s suddenly been placed in total perspective for us; I'll finish this, they're in the hurry-up offense.
Gifford: Third down, four. (Chuck) Foreman ... it'll be fourth down. (Matt) Cavanaugh will let it run down for one final attempt, he'll let the seconds tick off to give Miami no opportunity whatsoever. (Whistle blows.) Timeout is called with three seconds remaining, John Smith is on the line. And I don't care what's on the line, Howard, you have got to say what we know in the booth.
Cosell: Yes, we have to say it. Remember this is just a football game, no matter who wins or loses. An unspeakable tragedy confirmed to us by ABC News in New York City: John Lennon, outside of his apartment building on the West Side of New York City, the most famous perhaps, of all of the Beatles, shot twice in the back, rushed to Roosevelt Hospital, dead on arrival. Hard to go back to the game after that newsflash, which, in duty bound, we have to take. Frank?
Gifford: (after a pause) Indeed, it is.
It has been claimed[by whom?] that the first nationally telecast bulletin about the shooting was made by Kathleen Sullivan as part of a standard newscast on Cable News Network (CNN); Sullivan reported that Lennon had been shot but his condition was not known at the time of the bulletin. NBC-TV momentarily broke into its East Coast feed of The Best of Carson for its bulletin of Lennon's death before returning in the middle of a comedy piece being performed by Johnny Carson.
New York rock station WNEW-FM 102.7 immediately suspended all programming and opened its lines to calls from listeners. Stations throughout the country switched to special programming devoted to Lennon and/or Beatles music.
The following day, Ono issued a statement: "There is no funeral for John. John loved and prayed for the human race. Please do the same for him. Love, Yoko and Sean."
This section is missing information about the immediate reactions from Lennon's close friends (i.e. Paul McCartney and the "it's a drag" controversy).(December 2017)
Lennon's murder triggered an outpouring of grief around the world on an unprecedented scale. Lennon's remains were cremated at Ferncliff Cemetery in Hartsdale, Westchester County, N.Y.; no funeral was held. Ono sent word to the chanting crowd outside the Dakota that their singing had kept her awake; she asked that they re-convene at Central Park's Naumburg Bandshell the following Sunday for ten minutes of silent prayer. On 14 December 1980, millions of people around the world responded to Ono's request to pause for ten minutes of silence to remember Lennon. Thirty thousand gathered in Liverpool, and the largest group—over 225,000—converged on New York's Central Park, close to the scene of the shooting. For those ten minutes, every radio station in New York City went off the air.
At least three Beatles fans committed suicide after the murder, leading Ono to make a public appeal asking mourners not to give in to despair. On 18 January 1981, a full-page open letter from Ono appeared in the New York Times and the Washington Post. Titled "In Gratitude", it expressed thanks to the millions of people who mourned John's loss and wanted to know how they could commemorate his life and help her and Sean.
Ono released a solo album, Season of Glass, in 1981. The cover of the album is a photograph of Lennon's blood-spattered glasses. That same year she also released "Walking on Thin Ice", the song the Lennons had mixed at the Record Plant less than an hour before he was murdered, as a single. Chapman pleaded guilty in 1981 to murdering Lennon. Under the terms of his guilty plea, Chapman was sentenced to 20-years-to-life and later automatically became eligible for parole in 2000. However, Chapman has been denied parole nine times and remains incarcerated at the Wende Correctional Facility.
Memorials and tributes
Annie Leibovitz's photo of a naked Lennon embracing his wife, taken on the day of the murder, was the cover of Rolling Stone's 22 January 1981 issue, most of which was dedicated to articles, letters and photographs commemorating Lennon's life and death. In 2005, the American Society of Magazine Editors ranked it as the top magazine cover of the last 40 years.
- Every 8 December, a memorial ceremony is held in front of the Capitol Records building on Vine Street in Hollywood, California. People also light candles in front of Lennon's Hollywood Walk of Fame star, outside the Capitol Building.
- From 28 to 30 September 2007, Durness held the John Lennon Northern Lights Festival, which was attended by Julia Baird (Lennon's half-sister), who read from Lennon's writings and her own books, and Stanley Parkes, Lennon's Scottish cousin. Parkes said, "Me and Julia [Baird] are going to be going to the old family croft to tell stories". Musicians, painters and poets from across the UK performed at the festival.
- Ono still places a lit candle in the window of Lennon's room in the Dakota on 8 December.
- Every 9 October, Lennon's birthday, through 8 December, the date Lennon was shot, the Imagine Peace Tower in Iceland is lit.
Exhibits and museums
- In 2000, the John Lennon Museum was opened at the Saitama Super Arena in the city of Saitama, Japan (but closed on 30 September 2010).
- In 2009, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame's New York City annex hosted a special John Lennon exhibit, which included many mementos and personal effects from Lennon's life, as well as the clothes he was wearing when he was murdered, still in the brown paper bag from Roosevelt Hospital.
- David Bowie, who befriended Lennon in the mid-1970s (Lennon co-wrote and performed on Bowie's US #1 hit "Fame" in 1975), performed a tribute to Lennon in the final show of his Serious Moonlight Tour at the Hong Kong Coliseum, on 8 December 1983—the third anniversary of Lennon's death. Bowie announced that the last time he saw Lennon was in Hong Kong, and after announcing, "On this day, December the 8th 1980, John Lennon was shot and killed outside of his New York apartment," he performed Lennon's song, "Imagine".
- David Gilmour of Pink Floyd wrote and recorded the song "Murder" in response to Lennon's death; the song was released on Gilmour's solo album, About Face (1984).
- George Harrison released a tribute song, "All Those Years Ago" (1981), featuring Ringo Starr and Paul McCartney.
- Elton John, who had recorded the number-one hit "Whatever Gets You thru the Night" with Lennon, teamed up with his lyricist Bernie Taupin and recorded a tribute to Lennon, entitled "Empty Garden (Hey Hey Johnny)". It appeared on his album Jump Up! (1982), and peaked at #13 on the US Singles Chart that year. When he performed the song at a sold-out concert in Madison Square Garden in August 1982, he was joined on stage by Ono and Sean.
- McCartney released his tribute, "Here Today", on his album, Tug of War (1982).
- Queen, during their Game Tour, performed a cover of Lennon's solo song "Imagine" at concerts after Lennon's death. Queen also performed the song "Life Is Real", from the album Hot Space (1982), in his honour. It was written by singer Freddie Mercury.
- Roxy Music added a cover version of the song "Jealous Guy" to their set whilst touring in Germany, which they recorded and released in March 1981. The song was their only UK #1 hit, topping the charts for two weeks. It features on many Bryan Ferry/Roxy Music collections, though not always in its full-length version.
- Paul Simon's homage to Lennon, "The Late Great Johnny Ace", initially sings of the rhythm and blues singer Johnny Ace, who is said to have shot himself in 1954, then goes on to reference John Lennon, as well as President John F. Kennedy who was assassinated in 1963, the year "Beatlemania" started. Simon had actually premiered the song during Simon & Garfunkel's reunion Concert in Central Park in 1981; near the end of the song, a fan ran onto the stage, possibly in response to Simon's mentioning Lennon in the lyrics. The man, saying to Simon, "I have to talk to you", was dragged offstage by Simon's personnel; all of this can be seen in the DVD of the concert. The song also appears on Simon's Hearts and Bones (1983) album.
- XTC performed "Rain" in Liverpool the night after Lennon's death.
Physical memorials and visual art
- In 1985, New York City dedicated an area of Central Park where Lennon had frequently walked, directly across from the Dakota, as Strawberry Fields. In a symbolic show of unity, countries from around the world donated trees, and the city of Naples, Italy, donated the Imagine mosaic centerpiece.
- A symbolic grave for Lennon was erected in Prague's Mala Strana square, which hosted demonstrations during the fall of the communist regime in Czechoslovakia.
- In 1994, the breakaway autonomous republic of Georgia, Republic of Abkhazia, issued two postage stamps featuring the faces of Lennon and Groucho Marx, rather than portraits of Vladimir Lenin and Karl Marx, spoofing Abkhazia's Communist past.
- On 8 December 2000, Cuba's President Fidel Castro unveiled a bronze statue of Lennon in a park in Havana.
- On 9 December 2006, in the city of Puebla, Mexico, a plaque was revealed, honouring Lennon's contribution to music, culture and peace.
- On 9 October 2007, Ono dedicated a new memorial called the Imagine Peace Tower, located on the island of Viðey, off the coast of Reykjavík, Iceland. Each year, between 9 October and 8 December, it projects a vertical beam of light high into the sky in Lennon's memory.
- The John Lennon Peace Monument, also known as the European Peace Monument, is a peace monument entitled Peace & Harmony in Liverpool, England, dedicated to the memory of John Lennon. Peace & Harmony was unveiled by Julian and Cynthia Lennon at a ceremony in Chavasse Park, Liverpool, on Saturday 9 October 2010 to celebrate what would have been John Lennon's 70th birthday.
- The minor planet 4147 Lennon, discovered 12 January 1983 by B. A. Skiff at the Anderson Mesa Station of the Lowell Observatory, was named in memory of Lennon.
- In 1990, a group of citizens came forward with an initiative to rename one of the streets of Warsaw in honour of John Lennon (see list below). The petition had approximately 5000 supporting signatures and passed through city council unchallenged.
- In 2002, Liverpool renamed its airport Liverpool John Lennon Airport, adopting the motto, "Above us only sky".
- The Arts and Design Building of the Liverpool John Moores University is named in honour of Lennon.
- In 2016, the citizens of Kalyny, a small town in Ukraine, furious at the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation two years earlier, decided to change the name of one of their streets from Lenin Street to Lennon Street. (See list below).
- Rue John Lennon, a street in Avrillé, near Angers, France.
- Rue John Lennon, a street in Montigny-le-Bretonneux, near Paris, France.
- Rue John Lennon, a street in Montigny-lès-Cormeilles, near Paris, France.
- John-Lennon-Ring, a street in Zerbst, Germany.
- John-Lennon-Straße, a street in Essen, Germany.
- Via John Lennon, a street in Bologna, Italy.
- Via John Lennon, a small street in Imola, Italy.
- Via John Lennon, a street in Rome, Italy.
- John Lennonstraat, a street in Arnhem, Netherlands.
- John Lennonstraat, a street in Delft, Netherlands.
- John Lennonstraat, a street in Nijmegen, Netherlands.
- John Lennonstraat, a street in Zaandijk, Netherlands.
- Ulica Lennona, a street in Warsaw, Poland.
- Ulicka Johna Lennona, a street in Bardejov, Slovakia.
- Avenida de John Lennon, a street in Écija, Spain.
- Calle de John Lennon, a street in Mérida, Spain.
- Calle John Lennon, a street in Torremolinos, Spain.
- Carrer John Lennon, a street in Badalona, Spain.
- Carrer John Lennon, a street in Mislata, Spain.
- Paseo John Lennon, a major highway in Getafe, Spain.
- Vulitsya Dzhona Lennona, (вулиця Джона Леннона), a street in Kalyny, Ukraine.
- Vulitsya Dzhona Lennona, (вулиця Джона Леннона), a street in Lviv, Ukraine.
- John Lennon Drive, a street in Kensington, Liverpool, United Kingdom.
- Lennon Road, a small street in Willesden, London, United Kingdom.
In popular culture
Several films dramatizing the murder of Lennon have been released, all more than 25 years after the event. These include:
- The Killing of John Lennon (released 7 December 2007), directed by Andrew Piddington and starring Jonas Ball as Mark David Chapman.
- Chapter 27 (released 28 March 2008), directed by J. P. Schaefer and starring Jared Leto as Mark David Chapman and actor Mark Lindsay Chapman as Lennon. Lindsay Chapman had previously been cast (and billed then as 'Mark Lindsay') in NBC Television's John & Yoko: A Love Story (1985), but the role of Lennon was re-cast when it was revealed that the actor's real surname was Chapman.
- The Lennon Report (filmed in 2016), which focuses on attempts by doctors and nurses to save Lennon's life.
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- "The Last Days of Dead Celebrities". ABC, Inc. Retrieved 26 December 2007.
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- Crimes of the Century. CNN Original Productions, originally aired in 2013.
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