Page semi-protected

Cultural Marxism conspiracy theory

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The term "Cultural Marxism" refers to a far-right antisemitic conspiracy theory which claims that Western Marxism is the basis of continuing academic and intellectual efforts to subvert Western culture.[1][2][3] The conspiracy theory misrepresents the Frankfurt School as being responsible for modern progressive movements, identity politics, and political correctness, claiming there is an ongoing and intentional subversion of Western society via a planned culture war that undermines the Christian values of traditionalist conservatism and seeks to replace them with the culturally liberal values of the 1960s.[2][3][4]

Although similarities with the Nazi propaganda term "Cultural Bolshevism" have been noted, the contemporary conspiracy theory originated in the United States during the 1990s.[5][6][7][note 1] Originally found only on the far-right political fringe, the term began to enter mainstream discourse in the 2010s and is now found globally.[7] The conspiracy theory of a Marxist culture war is promoted by right-wing politicians, fundamentalist religious leaders, political commentators in mainstream print and television media, and white supremacist terrorists,[8] and has been described as "a foundational element of the alt-right worldview".[9] Scholarly analysis of the conspiracy theory has concluded that it has no basis in fact.[7][10]

Origins

Michael Minnicino and the LaRouche Movement

The essay New Dark Age: The Frankfurt School and 'Political Correctness[11] by Michael Minnicino was the starting point for the contemporary conspiracy theory in the United States.[5][12][13] Minnicino argued that late twentieth-century America had become a "New Dark Age" as a result of the abandonment of Judeo-Christian and Renaissance ideals, which he claimed had been replaced in modern art with a "tyranny of ugliness". He attributed this to an alleged plot to instill cultural pessimism in America, carried out in three stages by Georg Lukács, the Frankfurt School, and elite media figures and political campaigners.[5]

According to Minnicino, there were two aspects of the Frankfurt School plan to destroy Western culture. Firstly, a cultural critique, by Theodor Adorno and Walter Benjamin, to use art and culture to promote alienation and replace Christianity with socialism. This included the development of opinion polling and advertising techniques to brainwash the populace and control political campaigning. Secondly, the plan supposedly included attacks on the traditional family structure by Herbert Marcuse and Erich Fromm to promote women's rights, sexual liberation, and polymorphous perversity to subvert patriarchal authority.[5] Minnicino claimed the Frankfurt School was responsible for elements of the counterculture of the 1960s and a "psychedelic revolution", distributing hallucinogenic drugs to encourage sexual perversion and promiscuity.[5]

Minnicino's interest in the subject derived from his involvement in the LaRouche movement.[13][12] Lyndon LaRouche began developing conspiracy theories regarding the Frankfurt School in 1974, when he alleged that Herbert Marcuse and Angela Davis were acting as part of COINTELPRO.[12] Other features of the conspiracy theory developed across the 1970s and 80s in the movement's magazine, EIR.[12] After the 2011 Norway attacks, Minnicino repudiated his own essay,[13][12] writing, "I still like to think that some of my research was validly conducted and useful. However, I see very clearly that the whole enterprise—and especially the conclusions—was hopelessly deformed by self-censorship and the desire to in some way support Mr. LaRouche’s crack-brained world-view."[13]

Paul Weyrich and William Lind

In a speech to the Conservative Leadership Conference of the Civitas Institute in 1998,[14] Paul Weyrich equated Cultural Marxism to political correctness.[15][16] Paul Weyrich argued that "we have lost the culture war" and that "a legitimate strategy for us to follow is to look at ways to separate ourselves from the institutions that have been captured by the ideology of Political Correctness, or by other enemies of our traditional culture."[14][16][17]

For the Free Congress Research and Education Foundation, Weyrich commissioned William Lind to write a history of Cultural Marxism, defined as "a brand of Western Marxism ... commonly known as 'multiculturalism' or, less formally, Political Correctness."[18] In the speech The Origins of Political Correctness, Lind wrote, "If we look at it analytically, if we look at it historically, we quickly find out exactly what it is. Political correctness is cultural Marxism. It is Marxism translated from economic into cultural terms. It is an effort that goes back not to the 1960s and the Hippies and the peace movement, but back to World War I. If we compare the basic tenets of Political Correctness with classical Marxism, the parallels are very obvious."[19]

According to Lind's analysis, Lukács and Gramsci aimed to subvert Western culture because it was an obstacle to the Marxist goal of proletarian revolution. According to Lind, the Frankfurt School under Max Horkheimer aimed to remove social inhibitions (and destroy Western culture) using four main strategies. First, Horkheimer's critical theory would undermine the authority of the traditional family and government institutions, while segregating society into opposing groups of victims and oppressors. Second, the concepts of the authoritarian personality and the F-scale, developed by Adorno, would be used to accuse Americans with right-wing views of having fascist principles. Third, the concept of polymorphous perversity would undermine Western culture by promoting free love and homosexuality.[5] Lind said that Herbert Marcuse considered a coalition of "Blacks, students, feminist women, and homosexuals" as a feasible vanguard of cultural revolution in the 1960s.[20] Marcuse's Repressive Tolerance is interpreted by Lind as an argument to silence the right, and allow only the left to be heard.[5] Lind also wrote that Cultural Marxism was an example of fourth-generation warfare.[21]

Pat Buchanan brought more attention among paleoconservatives to Weyrich and Lind's iteration of the conspiracy theory.[22][23] Jérôme Jamin refers to Buchanan as the "intellectual momentum"[24] of the conspiracy theory, and to Anders Breivik as the "violent impetus".[24] Both of them relied on William Lind, who edited a multi-authored work called "Political Correctness: A Short History of an Ideology" that Jamin calls the core text that "has been unanimously cited as 'the' reference since 2004."[24]

Lind and the Council of Conservative Citizens produced a video documentary Political Correctness: The Frankfurt School in 1999.[1][20] The film includes decontextualized clips of historian Martin Jay, who was not aware of the nature of the production at the time.[1][25] Jay has since become a recognized expert on the conspiracy theory.[25] He wrote that Lind's documentary was effective Cultural Marxism propaganda because it "spawned a number of condensed, textual versions, which were reproduced on a number of radical, right-wing [web] sites."[1] Jay further writes:

These, in turn, led to a plethora of new videos, now available on YouTube, which feature an odd cast of pseudo-experts regurgitating exactly the same line. The message is numbingly simplistic: All the 'ills' of modern American culture, from feminism, affirmative action, sexual liberation, racial equality, multiculturalism and gay rights to the decay of traditional education, and even environmentalism, are ultimately attributable to the insidious intellectual influence of the members of the Institute for Social Research who came to America in the 1930s.[1]

Frankfurt School

German students occupy a classroom during the Protests of 1968. Student protest movements drew on the scholars of the Frankfurt School, especially Herbert Marcuse. The blackboard reads, "Study is Opium" and "Only fascists study today."

Predating any conspiratorial usage, the phrase "cultural Marxism" has been occassionally used in accepted academic scholarship to mean the study of how the production of culture is used by elite groups to maintain their dominance.[24][26][27][25] It is sometimes treated as synonymous with "Critical Theory" that originated in the Frankfurt School.[24][26]

A group of Western Marxists including Felix Weil, Karl Korsch, and György Lukács founded the Institute for Social Research in Frankfurt around 1922 and 1923.[28] Seeking to explain the failure of the German Revolution of 1918–1919, they combined Marx's economic analyses with other lines of thought about psychology and culture, especially the works of Sigmund Freud.[28] Around 1929, Max Horkheimer began the school of thought that came to be known as the Frankfurt School or Critical Theory, which grew to encompass numerous contributors directly engaged with the Institute for Social Research and others outside it.[29][30][31][32] Recognizing the imminent danger of Nazism, in 1935 Horkheimer relocated the institute to Columbia University in New York.[28] Thereafter, it became a driving force of the Frankfurt school to understand the rise of totalitarianism so that it could be prevented from repeating.[28][33] In works including Horkheimer and Theodor Adorno's book Dialectic of Enlightenment and Herbert Marcuse's Eros and Civilization they analyzed the culture industry in terms of Marxist labor theory and Freudian psychoanalysis. They were concerned about mass media's ability to instill false consciousness, and Adorno proposed the concept of an authoritarian personality that rendered citizens in liberal democracies vulnerable to being swept up in fascist movements.[28]

After the war, Adorno and Horkheimer returned to Germany, and the Frankfurt School continued on in a second generation exemplified by Jürgen Habermas.[28] Herbert Marcuse remained in America, where he became a controversial public figure associated with the New Left.[28] Through his writing on Repressive Tolerance and advising students such as Angela Davis and Rudi Dutschke, Marcuse played a dramatic role in the civil rights movement and West German student movement.[28] In contrast, most members of the Frankfurt School avoided such involvement, with Habermas suggesting a "strategy of hibernation."[28] After the New Left declined in the 1970s, critical pedagogy — a concept with origins in the Frankfurt School — became a major current in American universities.[34] Critical pedagogy contributed to controversy about political correctness in the 1990s.[35]

Conspiratorial interpretations

The conspiracy theory claims that an elite of Marxist theorists and Frankfurt School intellectuals are subverting Western society. While parts of the conspiracy theory make reference to actual thinkers and ideas selected from the Western Marxist tradition, they severely misrepresent the subject and give an exaggerated interpretation of their effective influence.[36][37][38][5][25] Some of the many ways the various versions of the conspiracy theory diverge from reality include:

  • Whether individuals associated with the Frankfurt School are responsible for particular acts at particular times, or whether they are responsible for trends across large spans of space and time[24]
  • The goals of the Frankfurt School — whether it was to free the oppressed, or to destroy those institutions they criticized for having an oppressive quality[24][1][5]
  • How successful or unsuccessful the Frankfurt School was in achieving its goals[24][1][33]

Academic Joan Braune states that Cultural Marxism in the sense referred to by the conspiracy theorists never existed, and does not correspond to any historical school of thought. She also states that Frankfurt School scholars are referred to as "Critical Theorists", not "Cultural Marxists", and points out that, contrary to the claims of the conspiracy theory, postmodernism tends to be wary of or even hostile towards Marxism, including towards the grand narratives typically supported by Critical Theory.[10]

Conspiracy theorists position themselves as defending "Western civilization",[24][5] which serves as a floating signifier often focusing on capitalism and freedom of speech.[5] The conspiracy theory is an extreme assessment of political correctness, accusing the latter of being a project to destroy Christianity, nationalism, and the nuclear family.[7] According to Marc Tuters, "the analysis of Marxism proffered by this literature would certainly not stand up to scrutiny by any serious historian of the subject."[39] It has been suggested that scholars associated with the Frankfurt School sought to create a better society by warning against patriarchy[40][41][42] and capitalist exploitation, goals that could seem threatening to others who have an interest in maintaining the status quo.[24] This has been disputed by some critics, who have suggested that the Frankfurt School's theory of historical development gives tacit support to patriarchy and imperialism.[43]

None of the Frankfurt School's members were part of any kind of international conspiracy to destroy Western civilization.[1][44] Conspiracy theorists misrepresent the nature of Theodor Adorno's work on the Princeton Radio Project. Adorno sought to understand the ability of mass media to influence the public, but he saw this as a danger to be mitigated, not a plan to be implemented.[1][5]

Conspiracy theorists exaggerate the real influence of Western Marxists. By contrast, British scholar Stuart Jeffries noted their "negligible real-world impact", while Jürgen Habermas criticized what he called their "strategy of hibernation", noting that Frankfurt School figures were mostly content to complain about the world rather than attempting to change it. [33] Jeffries wrote: "The Frankfurt conspiracy theory, which has captivated several alt-right figures including Trump,[clarification needed] Jordan Peterson and the late Andrew Breitbart, founder of the eponymous news service, turned this history on its head. Rather than impotent professors issuing scarcely comprehensible jeremiads from the academy, the likes of Adorno, Horkheimer, Erich Fromm and Herbert Marcuse were a crack cadre of subversives, who, during their American exile, performed a cultural takedown to which 'Make America Great Again' is a belated riposte."[33]

Terrorism

The counterfeit police identity card used by Breivik to commit the 2011 Norway attacks, which he justified as defense against Cultural Marxism.[45][46][47]

On July 22, 2011, Anders Breivik murdered 77 people in the 2011 Norway attacks. About 90 minutes before enacting the violence, Breivik e-mailed 1,003 people his manifesto 2083: A European Declaration of Independence and a copy of Political Correctness: A Short History of an Ideology.[45][46][47] Cultural Marxism was the primary subject of Breivik's manifesto.[48][49] Breivik wrote that the "sexually transmitted disease (STD) epidemic in Western Europe is a result of cultural Marxism", that "Cultural Marxism defines Muslims, feminist women, homosexuals, and some additional minority groups, as virtuous, and they view ethnic Christian European men as evil" and that the "European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) in Strasbourg is a cultural-Marxist-controlled political entity."[47][46][50]

A number of other far-right terrorists have espoused the conspiracy theory. Jack Renshaw, a neo-Nazi child sex offender convicted of plotting the assassination of Labour MP Rosie Cooper, promoted the conspiracy theory in a video for the British National Party.[51][52][53] John T. Earnest, the perpetrator of the 2019 Poway synagogue shooting, was inspired by white nationalist ideology. In an online manifesto, Earnest stated that he believed "every Jew is responsible for the meticulously planned genocide of the European race" through the promotion of "cultural Marxism and communism."[54]

Reactions

Concerning the real-life political violence caused by the conspiracy theory, law professor Samuel Moyn wrote: "That 'cultural Marxism' is a crude slander, referring to something that does not exist, unfortunately does not mean actual people are not being set up to pay the price, as scapegoats, to appease a rising sense of anger and anxiety. And for that reason, 'cultural Marxism' is not only a sad diversion from framing legitimate grievances but also a dangerous lure in an increasingly unhinged moment."[55]

Antisemitism

The author Matthew Rose wrote that arguments by the American neo-Nazi Francis Parker Yockey after World War II were an early example of the conspiracy theory.[56]

Joseph Goebbels views the Degenerate Art exhibition. The Cultural Marxism conspiracy theory is often compared to the antisemitic Nazi propaganda about "cultural Bolshevism" and "degenerate art".

According to Samuel Moyn, "[t]he wider discourse around cultural Marxism today resembles nothing so much as a version of the Jewish Bolshevism myth updated for a new age." Maxime Dafaure likewise states that Cultural Marxism is a contemporary update of antisemitic conspiracy theories, such as the Nazi concept of "Cultural Bolshevism", and is directly associated with the concept of "Jewish Bolshevism".[57] According to philosopher Slavoj Žižek, the term Cultural Marxism "plays the same structural role as that of the 'Jewish plot' in anti-Semitism: it projects (or rather, transposes) the immanent antagonism of our socio-economic life onto an external cause: what the conservative alt-right deplores as the ethical disintegration of our lives (feminism, attacks on patriarchy, political correctness, etc.) must have an external cause—because it cannot, for them, emerge out of the antagonisms and tensions of our own societies."[58] Dominic Green wrote a conservative critique of conservatives' complaints about Cultural Marxism in Spectator USA, stating: "For the Nazis, the Frankfurter [sic] School and its vaguely Jewish exponents fell under the rubric of Kulturbolshewismus, 'Cultural Bolshevism.'"[59]

Andrew Woods in the essay "Cultural Marxism and the Cathedral: Two Alt-Right Perspectives on Critical Theory" (2019), acknowledges comparisons to Cultural Bolshevism, but argues against the idea the modern conspiracy theory was derived from Nazi propaganda. He writes instead that its antisemitism is "profoundly American".[5]: 47  In Commune magazine, Woods detailed a genealogy of the conspiracy theory beginning with the LaRouche movement.[12]

Kevin MacDonald has written several anti-semitic texts centering on the Frankfurt School. MacDonald criticized Breivik's manifesto for not being more hostile to Jews.[13]

Circulation in the alt-right

Neo-Nazi and white supremacists promoted the conspiracy and help expand its reach. Websites such as the American Renaissance have run articles with titles like "Cultural Marxism in Action: Media Matters Engineers Cancellation of Vdare.com Conference".[60] The Daily Stormer regularly runs stories about "Cultural Marxism" with titles such as "Jewish Cultural Marxism is Destroying Abercrombie & Fitch", "Hollywood Strikes Again: Cultural Marxism through the Medium of Big Box-Office Movies" and "The Left-Center-Right Political Spectrum of Immigration = Cultural Marxism".[61]

Neo-nazis associated with Stormfront have strategically used the Frankfurt School as a euphemism to refer to Jewish people more generally, in venues where more forthright anti-semitism would be censored or rejected.[1]

Timothy Matthews criticized the Frankfurt School from an explicitly Christian right perspective in the Catholic weekly newspaper The Wanderer. According to Matthews, the Frankfurt School, under the influence of Satan, seeks to destroy the traditional Christian family using critical theory and Marcuse's concept of polymorphous perversity, thereby encouraging homosexuality and breaking down the patriarchal family.[5] Andrew Woods wrote that the plot Matthews describes does not resemble the Frankfurt School so much as the alleged aims of communists in The Naked Communist by W. Cleon Skousen.[5][note 2] Nonetheless, Matthews' account was circulated credulously by right-wing and alt-right news media as well as in far-right internet forums such including Stormfront.[5][1]

Following the Norway attacks, the conspiracy was taken up by a number of far-right outlets and forums, including alt-right websites such as AltRight Corporation, InfoWars and VDARE which have promoted the conspiracy. The AltRight Corporation's website, altright.com, featured articles with titles such as "Ghostbusters and the Suicide of Cultural Marxism", "#3 — Sweden: The World Capital of Cultural Marxism" and "Beta Leftists, Cultural Marxism and Self-Entitlement".[60] InfoWars ran numerous headlines such as "Is Cultural Marxism America's New Mainline Ideology?"[10] VDARE ran similar articles with similar titles such as "Yes, Virginia (Dare) There Is A Cultural Marxism—And It's Taking Over Conservatism Inc."[60]

Richard B. Spencer, head of the National Policy Institute, has promoted the conspiracy theory.[60] Spencer's master's thesis was on the topic of Theodor Adorno.[13]

Jewish support for the conspiracy theory

Paul Gottfried, a prominent Jewish paleoconservative

There are many Jewish supporters of the conspiracy theory.[13] Paul Gottfried was at one time a student of Herbert Marcuse and edited Telos, a journal of the New Left, before he became more conservative in his thinking.[13][10] Under Gottfried's tenure, Telos became more conservative in its outlook, writing favorably about Carl Schmitt and Alain de Benoist.[10][13] Gottfried influenced Richard Spencer and has been called the "godfather" of the alt-right.[13][10] He defended William Lind against accusations that "Cultural Marxism" has anti-semitic undertones.[13] Gottfried identifies as reactionary and questions the value of political equality.[10]

Other Jewish supporters include Ralph de Toledano, Andrew Breitbart, Ben Shapiro, David Horowitz, and Stephen Miller.[13]

Jewish supporters of the conspiracy theory are generally more paleoconservative (a term coined by Gottfried[10]) than neoconservative.[13] Martin Jay calls the number of Jewish proponents of the conspiracy theory "puzzling and uncomfortable."[13]

Entering the mainstream

Rachel Busbridge, Benjamin Moffitt and Joshua Thorburn describe the conspiracy theory as being promoted by the far-right, but that it "has gained ground over the past quarter century" and conclude that "[t]hrough the lens of the Cultural Marxist conspiracy, however, it is possible to discern a relationship of empowerment between mainstream and fringe, whereby certain talking points and tropes are able to be transmitted, taken up and adapted by 'mainstream' figures, thus giving credence and visibility to ideologies that would have previously been constrained to the margins."[7]

Andrew Breitbart, founder of Breitbart News, was a proponent of the conspiracy theory.[10] His 2011 book Righteous Indignation: Excuse Me While I Save the World represents one of the conspiracy theory's moves towards the mainstream.[5][13] Breitbart's interpretation of the conspiracy is similar in most respects to that of Lind. Breitbart attributes the spread of the ideas of the Frankfurt School from universities to a wider audience to "trickledown intellectualism", and claims that Saul Alinsky introduced cultural Marxism to the masses in his 1971 handbook Rules for Radicals. Woods argues that Breitbart focuses on Alinsky in order to associate cultural Marxism with the modern Democratic Party, and Hillary Clinton.[5] Breitbart claims that George Soros funds the alleged cultural Marxism project.[5] Breitbart News has published the idea that Theodor Adorno's atonal music was an attempt at inducing the population to necrophilia on a mass scale.[62]

In the late 2010s, Canadian clinical psychologist Jordan Peterson popularized "Cultural Marxism" as a term, moving it into mainstream discourse.[63][60][64] Several writers stated that Peterson blamed "Cultural Marxism" for demanding the use of gender-neutral pronouns as a threat to free speech,[63] often misusing postmodernism as a stand-in term for the conspiracy without understanding its antisemitic implications, specifying that "Peterson isn't an ideological anti-Semite; there's every reason to believe that when he re-broadcasts fascist propaganda, he doesn't even hear the dog-whistles he's emitting".[64][65] Former Breitbart contributors Ben Shapiro and Charlie Kirk, founder of Turning Point USA, have promoted the conspiracy theory, especially the claim that Cultural Marxist activity is happening in universities.[10][66][7][8]

Concerns for false balance

Spencer Sunshine, an associate fellow at the Political Research Associates, stated that "the focus on the Frankfurt School by the right serves to highlight its inherent Jewishness."[59] In particular, Paul and Sunshine have criticized traditional media such as The New York Times, New York and The Washington Post for either not clarifying the nature of the conspiracy theory and for "allowing it to live on their pages."[59] An example is an article in The New York Times by David Brooks, who "rebrands cultural Marxism as mere political correctness, giving the Nazi-inspired phrase legitimacy for the American right. It is dropped in or quoted in other stories—some of them lighthearted, like the fashion cues of the alt-right—without describing how fringe this notion is. It's akin to letting conspiracy theories about chem trails or vaccines get unearned space in mainstream press."[59] Another is Andrew Sullivan, who went on "to denounce 'cultural Marxists' for inspiring social justice movements on campuses."[59] Paul and Sunshine concluded that failure to highlight the nature of the Cultural Marxist conspiracy theory "has bitter consequences. 'It is legitimizing the use of that framework, and therefore it's [sic] coded antisemitism.'"[59]

Sociologists Julia Lux and John David Jordan assert that the conspiracy theory can be broken down into its key elements: "misogynist anti-feminism, neo-eugenic science (broadly defined as various forms of genetic determinism), genetic and cultural white supremacy, McCarthyist anti-Leftism fixated on postmodernism, radical anti-intellectualism applied to the social sciences, and the idea that a purge is required to restore normality." They go on to say that all of these items are "supported, proselytised and academically buoyed by intellectuals, politicians, and media figures with extremely credible educational backgrounds."[67]

Political discourses

In "Taking On Hate: One NGO's Strategies" (2009), the political scientist Heidi Beirich said that the Cultural Marxism theory demonizes the cultural bêtes noires of conservatism such as feminists, LGBT social movements, secular humanists, multiculturalists, sex educators, environmentalists, immigrants and black nationalists.[68]

Jamin writes on the flexiblity of the conspiracy theory to serve the rhetorical purposes of different groups with diverse sets of enemies:

Next to the global dimension of the Cultural Marxism conspiracy theory, there is its innovative and original dimension, which lets its authors avoid racist discourses and pretend to be defenders of democracy. As such, Cultural Marxism is innovative in comparison with old styled theories of a similar nature, such as those involving Freemasons, Bavarian Illuminati, Jews or even Wall Street bankers. For Lind, Buchanan and Breivik, the threat does not come from the migrant or the Jew because he is a migrant or a Jew. For Lind, the threat comes from the Communist ideology, which is considered as a danger for freedom and democracy, and which is associated with different authoritarian political regimes (Russia, China, Cambodia, Cuba, etc.). For Buchanan, the threat comes from atheism, relativism and hard capitalism which, when combined, transform people and nations into an uncontrolled mass of alienated consumers. For Breivik, a self-indoctrinated lone-wolf, the danger comes from Islam, a religion seen as a totalitarian ideology which threatens liberal democracies from Western Europe as much as its Judeo-Christian heritage. In Lind, Buchanan and Breivik, overt racism is studiously avoided.[2]

In "Liberalism and Socialism Mortal Enemies Or Embittered Kin?" (2021), professor Aaron Hanlon said that "the objectives of proponents of conspiratorial views about Cultural Marxism were (and are) not to give a current account of Critical Theory, but to advance a conservative version of US liberalism against the scapegoat of global conspiracy theory." and "In short, what Critical Theory provides to those who use 'critical theory' to signal a socialist threat to liberalism is not only a link to Marxist thought, but also a straw man against which to advance neoliberal politics."[26]

Australia

Shortly after the Norway attacks, mainstream right-wing politicians began espousing the conspiracy. In 2013, Cory Bernardi, a member of the ruling Liberal Party, wrote in his book The Conservative Revolution that "cultural Marxism has been one of the most corrosive influences on society over the last century."[69] Five years later, Fraser Anning, former Australian Senator, initially sitting as a member of Pauline Hanson's One Nation and then Katter's Australian Party, declared during his maiden speech in 2018 that "Cultural Marxism is not a throwaway line but a literal truth" and spoke of the need for a "final solution to the immigration problem."[7]

Brazil

In Brazil, the government of Jair Bolsonaro contained a number of administration members who promoted the conspiracy theory, including Eduardo Bolsonaro, the president's son who "enthusiastically described Steve Bannon as an opponent of Cultural Marxism."[10] Jair Bolsonaro sought to expunge the influence of Paulo Freire from Brazilian universities. This had the opposite effect, driving sales of Freire's book Pedagogy of the Oppressed.[70]

Cuba

In 2010, former head of state Fidel Castro called attention to a version of the conspiracy theory by Daniel Estulin, which proposed that the Bilderberg Group sought to influence world events via the spread of rock and roll music.[1] Estulin's work was based on Minnicino's 1992 essay which emphasized Adorno's involvement in the Radio Research Project. Martin Jay described Estulin's text as "risible" and explained that, although some in the Frankfurt School wrote about the potential for mass media to pacify labor movements, it was something they lamented rather than planned to implement.[1] Castro invited Estulin to Cuba, where they issued a joint statement claiming Osama bin Laden was a CIA asset and that the United States was planning a nuclear war against Russia. In 2019, Jay wrote that Castro's interest in the conspiracy theory had no long-term consequences.[13]

United Kingdom

During the Brexit debate in 2019, a number of Conservatives and Brexiteers espoused the conspiracy theory.[71][72]

Suella Braverman, a British Member of Parliament, ignited controversy by using the term "Cultural Marxism".

Suella Braverman, the Conservative Member of Parliament (MP), said in a pro-Brexit speech for the Bruges Group, a Eurosceptic think tank, that "[w]e are engaging in many battles right now. As Conservatives, we are engaged in a battle against cultural Marxism, where banning things is becoming de rigueur, where freedom of speech is becoming a taboo, where our universities — quintessential institutions of liberalism — are being shrouded in censorship and a culture of no-platforming." Her usage of the conspiracy theory was condemned as hate speech by other MPs, the Board of Deputies of British Jews and the anti-racist organization Hope Not Hate. After meeting with her later, the Board of Deputies of British Jews said that she is "not in any way antisemitic." Braverman was alerted to this connection by journalist Dawn Foster, but she defended using the term.[73] Braverman denied that the term Cultural Marxism is an antisemitic trope,[71][74] stating during a question and answer session "whether she stood by the term, given its far-right connections. She said: 'Yes, I do believe we are in a battle against cultural Marxism, as I said. We have culture evolving from the far left which has allowed the snuffing out of freedom of speech, freedom of thought.'" Braverman further added that she was "very aware of that ongoing creep of cultural Marxism, which has come from Jeremy Corbyn."[75][76]

Nigel Farage has promoted the cultural Marxist conspiracy theory, for which he has been condemned by other MPs and Jewish groups such as the Board of Deputies of British Jews, who said he used it as a dog-whistle code for antisemitism in the United Kingdom. Farage said that the United Kingdom faced "cultural Marxism", a term described in its report by The Guardian as "originating in a conspiracy theory based on a supposed plot against national governments, which is closely linked to the far right and antisemitism." Farage's spokesman "condemned previous criticism of his language by Jewish groups and others as 'pathetic' and 'a manufactured story.'"[72]

In The War Against the BBC (2020), Patrick Barwise and Peter York write how the Cultural Marxism conspiracy theory has been pushed by some on the right as part of an alleged bias of the BBC. Yasmin Alibhai-Brown cites Dominic Cummings, Tim Montgomerie and the right-wing website Guido Fawkes as examples of "relentlessly [complaining] about the institution's 'cultural Marxism' or left-wing bias. This now happens on a near-daily basis."[77]

In November 2020 a letter signed by 28 Conservative MPs published in The Telegraph accused the National Trust of being "coloured by cultural Marxist dogma, colloquially known as the 'woke agenda'".[78][79] The use of this terminology in the letter was described by the All-Party Parliamentary Group Against Antisemitism, Jewish Council for Racial Equality, anti-racist charity Hope Not Hate and the Campaign Against Antisemitism as antisemitic.[80][81][82]

United States

Chip Berlet identified the culture war conspiracy theory as the basic ideology of the Tea Party movement within the Republican Party. As a self-identified right-wing movement, the Tea Party claims they are suffering the same cultural subversion suffered by earlier generations of white nationalists. According to Berlet, the populist rhetoric of regional economic elites encourages counter-subversion panics, by which a large constituency of white middle-class people are deceived into unequal political alliances to defend their place in the middle class. Moreover, the failures of free-market capitalism are scapegoated onto the local collectives, communists, labor organisers, non-white citizens and immigrants by manipulating patriotism, economic libertarianism, traditional Christian values and nativism.[83]

Shortly after the election of Donald Trump, Alex Ross wrote an article in The New Yorker titled, "The Frankfurt School Knew Trump was Coming". It argued that Trump represented the kind of authoritarian identified by Theodor Adorno's F-scale. This idea prompted academic conferences on the same theme at the New School for Social Research and the Leo Baeck Institute.[13]

In 2017, it was reported that advisor Richard Higgins was fired from the United States National Security Council for publishing the memorandum '"POTUS & Political Warfare" that alleged the existence of a left-wing conspiracy to destroy Donald Trump's presidency because "American public intellectuals of Cultural Marxism, foreign Islamicists, and globalist bankers, the news media, and politicians from the Republican and Democratic parties were attacking Trump, because he represents an existential threat to the cultural Marxist memes that dominate the prevailing cultural narrative in the US."[84][85][86] Higgins also asserted that the Frankfurt School "sought to deconstruct everything in order to destroy it, giving rise to society-wide nihilism."[10][87][84] The memo was read by Donald Trump Jr. who passed on a copy of it to his father.[33]

Matt Shea, a Washington Representative from the Republican Party, is a proponent of the conspiracy theory.[88]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ In its dominant iteration, the US-originating conspiracy holds that a small group of Marxist critical theorists have conspired to destroy Western civilisation by taking over key cultural institutions.
  2. ^ The article accused the Frankfurt School of having eleven primary aims:
    1. The creation of racism offences
    2. Continual change to create confusion
    3. The teaching of sex and homosexuality to children
    4. The undermining of schools' and teachers' authority
    5. Huge immigration to destroy identity
    6. The promotion of excessive drinking
    7. Emptying of churches
    8. An unreliable legal system with bias against victims of crime
    9. Dependency on the state or state benefits
    10. Control and dumbing down of media
    11. Encouraging the breakdown of the family

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Jay, Martin. "Dialectic of Counter-Enlightenment: The Frankfurt School as Scapegoat of the Lunatic Fringe". Salmagundi Magazine. Archived from the original on November 24, 2011.
  2. ^ a b c Jamin, Jérôme (2014). "Cultural Marxism and the Radical Right". In Shekhovtsov, Anton; Jackson, Paul (eds.). The Post-War Anglo-American Far Right: A Special Relationship of Hate. London, England: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 84–103. doi:10.1057/9781137396211.0009. ISBN 978-1-137-39619-8. Archived from the original on September 22, 2020. Retrieved September 11, 2020.
  3. ^ a b Richardson, John E.; Copsey, Nigel (2015). "'Cultural-Marxism' and the British National Party: a transnational discourse". Cultures of Post-War British Fascism. Abingdon, England: Routledge. ISBN 9781317539360. Archived from the original on September 29, 2020. Retrieved September 11, 2020.
  4. ^ Jeffries, Stuart (2016). Grand Hotel Abyss: The Lives of the Frankfurt School. London, England: Verso Books. pp. 6–11. ISBN 9781784785680.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Woods, Andrew (2019). "Cultural Marxism and the Cathedral: Two Alt-Right Perspectives on Critical Theory". Critical Theory and the Humanities in the Age of the Alt-Right. New York City: Springer International Publishing. pp. 39–59. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-18753-8_3. ISBN 978-3-030-18753-8. Archived from the original on October 30, 2020. Retrieved September 11, 2020.
  6. ^ Jay, M (2010). "Dialectic of counter-enlightenment: The frankfurt school as scapegoat of the lunatic fringe". Salmagundi. 168/169: 30–40 – via ProQuest.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Busbridge, Rachel; Moffitt, Benjamin; Thorburn, Joshua (June 2020). "Cultural Marxism: Far-Right Conspiracy Theory in Australia's Culture Wars". Social Identities. London, England: Taylor & Francis. 26 (6): 722–738. doi:10.1080/13504630.2020.1787822. ISSN 1350-4630. S2CID 225713131. Archived from the original on July 30, 2020. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
  8. ^ a b Mirrlees, Tanner (2018). "The Alt-Right's Discourse of 'cultural Marxism': A political Instrument of Intersectional Hate". Atlantis Journal. Halifax, Nova Scotia: Mount Saint Vincent University. 39 (1). Archived from the original on December 1, 2020. Retrieved November 5, 2020.
  9. ^ Elley, Ben (2021). ""The rebirth of the West begins with you!"—Self-improvement as radicalisation on 4chan". Humanities and Social Sciences Communications. 8 (1): 1–10. doi:10.1057/s41599-021-00732-x. ISSN 2662-9992. S2CID 232164033.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Braune, Joan (2019). "Who's Afraid of the Frankfurt School? 'Cultural Marxism' as an Antisemitic Conspiracy Theory" (PDF). Journal of Social Justice. 9. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 16, 2020. Retrieved September 11, 2020.
  11. ^ Minnicino, Michael. "New Dark Age: Frankfurt School and 'Political Correctness'". Schiller Institute. Archived from the original on July 25, 2018. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
  12. ^ a b c d e f Woods, Andrew. "The American Roots of a Right-wing Conspiracy". Commune.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Jay, Martin (2020). "Dialectic of Counter-Enlightenment: The Frankfurt School as Scapegoat of the Lunatic Fringe". Splinters in Your Eye Essays on the Frankfurt School. Verso Books. pp. 151–172. ISBN 978-1-78873-603-9. OCLC 1163441655.
  14. ^ a b Weyrich, Paul. "Letter to Conservatives by Paul M. Weyrich". Conservative Think Tank: The National Center for Public Policy Research. Archived from the original on April 11, 2000. Retrieved November 30, 2015.
  15. ^ Neiwert, David (2020). Red Pill, Blue Pill: How to Counteract the Conspiracy Theories That Are Killing Us. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 15. ISBN 978-1-63388-627-8. Archived from the original on December 1, 2020. Retrieved November 2, 2020 – via Google Books.
  16. ^ a b Moonves, Leslie. "Death of the Moral Majority?". CBS News. Associated Press. Archived from the original on April 27, 2016. Retrieved April 19, 2016.
  17. ^ Whisenhunt, Donald W. (2009). Reading the Twentieth Century: Documents in American History. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-7425-6477-0. Archived from the original on December 1, 2020. Retrieved November 2, 2020 – via Google Books.
  18. ^ Lind, William S. "What is Cultural Marxism?". Maryland Thursday Meeting. Archived from the original on April 19, 2015. Retrieved April 9, 2015.
  19. ^ Lind, William S. (February 5, 2000). "The Origins of Political Correctness". Accuracy in Academia. Archived from the original on October 17, 2015. Retrieved November 8, 2015.
  20. ^ a b Berkowitz, Bill. "Ally of Christian Right Heavyweight Paul Weyrich Addresses Holocaust Denial Conference". Southern Poverty Law Center. SPLC 2003. Archived from the original on April 28, 2016. Retrieved April 19, 2016.
  21. ^ Rosenberg, Paul (May 5, 2019). "A User's Guide to 'Cultural Marxism': Anti-Semitic Conspiracy Theory, Reloaded". Salon. Archived from the original on June 11, 2019. Retrieved June 11, 2019.
  22. ^ Copsey, Nigel; Richardson, John E., eds. (2015). "'Cultural-Marxism' and the British National Party: a transnational discourse". Cultures of Post-War British Fascism. ISBN 9781317539360. Archived from the original on September 29, 2020. Retrieved September 11, 2020.
  23. ^ "'Cultural Marxism' Catching On". Southern Poverty Law Center. Archived from the original on September 30, 2018. Retrieved September 11, 2020.
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Jamin, Jérôme (2018). "Cultural Marxism: A survey". Religion Compass. 12 (1–2): e12258. doi:10.1111/REC3.12258.
  25. ^ a b c d Lütticken, Sven (August 24, 2018). "Cultural Marxists Like Us". Afterall: A Journal of Art, Context and Enquiry. 46: 66–75. doi:10.1086/700248. ISSN 1465-4253. S2CID 150160559.
  26. ^ a b c Hanlon, Aaron (August 31, 2021). "Disambiguating Critical Theory". In McManus, Matthew (ed.). Liberalism and Socialism: Mortal Enemies or Embittered Kin?. Springer Nature. ISBN 978-3-030-79537-5.
  27. ^ Lynn, Andrew. "Cultural Marxism". The Hedgehog Review. 20 (3).
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h i Jeffries, Stuart. Grand Hotel Abyss: The Lives of the Frankfurt School. Verso. ISBN 9-781-78478-569-7.
  29. ^ Bohman, James; Flynn, Jeffrey; Celikates, Robin. "Critical Theory". In Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2019 ed.).
  30. ^ Corradetti, Claudio. "The Frankfurt School and Critical Theory". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Archived from the original on October 20, 2020. Retrieved October 24, 2020.
  31. ^ Stern, Laurent (January 1, 1983). "On the Frankfurt school". History of European Ideas. 4 (1): 83–90. doi:10.1016/0191-6599(83)90043-8. ISSN 0191-6599.
  32. ^ Theodor, W. Adorno; Zoltán, Torr; Michael, Landmann (October 25, 2017). Max, Horkheimer (ed.). The Frankfurt School. New York: Routledge. doi:10.4324/9781315132105. ISBN 978-1-315-13210-5.
  33. ^ a b c d e Jeffries, Stuart (August 18, 2021). "Why Theodor Adorno and the Frankfurt School failed to change the world". The New Statesman. Retrieved October 4, 2021.
  34. ^ Gottesman, Isaac (2016). Apple, Michael (ed.). The Critical Turn in Education. Routledge. ISBN 978 1 138 78134 4.
  35. ^ Graff, Gerald. "Teaching Politically Without Political Correctness". The Radical Teacher. Fall 2000 (58): 26–30.
  36. ^ Jamin, Jérôme (February 6, 2018). "Cultural Marxism: A survey". Religion Compass. 12 (1–2): e12258. doi:10.1111/REC3.12258. When looking at the literature on Cultural Marxism as a piece of cultural studies, as a conspiracy described by Lind and its followers, and as arguments used by Buchanan, Breivik, and other actors within their own agendas, we see a common ground made of unquestionable facts in terms of who did what and where, and for how long at the Frankfurt School. Nowhere do we see divergence of opinion about who Max Horkheimer, Theodor Adorno, and Herbert Marcuse really were, when they have met and in which universities. But this changes if we look at descriptions of what they wanted to do: conducting research or changing deeply the culture of the West? Were they working for political science or were they engaging with a hidden political agenda? Were they working for the academic community or obeying foreign secret services?
  37. ^ Tuters, M. (2018). "Cultural Marxism". Krisis: Journal for Contemporary Philosophy. 2018 (2): 32–34. hdl:11245.1/7b72bcec-9ad2-4dc4-8395-35b4eeae0e9e. The concept of Cultural Marxism seeks to introduce readers unfamiliar with – and presumably completely uninterested in – Western Marxist thought to its key thinkers, as well as some of their ideas, as part of an insidious story of secret operations of mind-control ...
  38. ^ Tuters, M. (2018). "Cultural Marxism". Krisis: Journal for Contemporary Philosophy. 2018 (2): 32–34. hdl:11245.1/7b72bcec-9ad2-4dc4-8395-35b4eeae0e9e. The Cultural Marxist narrative attributes incredible influence to the power of the ideas of the Frankfurt School to the extent that it may even be read as a kind of 'perverse tribute' to the latter (Jay 2011). In one account, for example (Estulin 2005), Theodor Adorno is thought to have helped pioneer new and insidious techniques for mind control that are now used by the 'mainstream media' to promote its 'liberal agenda' – this as part of Adorno's work, upon first emigrating to the United States, with Paul Lazarsfeld on the famous Princeton Radio Research Project, which helped popularize the contagion theory of media effects with its study of Orson Welles' 1938 broadcast of The War of the Worlds. In an ironical sense this literature can perhaps be understood as popularizing simplified or otherwise distorted versions of certain concepts initially developed by the Frankfurt School, as well as those of Western Marxism more generally.
  39. ^ Tuters, M. (2018). "Cultural Marxism". Krisis: Journal for Contemporary Philosophy. 2018 (2): 32–34. hdl:11245.1/7b72bcec-9ad2-4dc4-8395-35b4eeae0e9e.
  40. ^ Hammond, Guy B. (1978). "Transformations of the Father Image". Soundings. Penn State University Press. 61 (2): 145–167.
  41. ^ Giroux, Henry. "Culture and Rationality in Frankfurt School Thought". Theory and Research in Social Education. Routledge. 9 (4): 17–55. doi:10.1080/00933104.1982.10506119.
  42. ^ Kellner, Douglas (2005). "Introduction". Herbert Marcuse: The New Left and the 1960s. Routledge. ISBN 9780815371670.
  43. ^ The Routledge companion to the Frankfurt school. Peter Eli Gordon, Espen Hammer, Axel Honneth. New York, NY. 2019. pp. xx. ISBN 978-0-429-44337-4. OCLC 1044778556.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  44. ^ Neiwert, David (January 23, 2019). "How the 'cultural Marxism' hoax began, and why it's spreading into mainstream". Daily Kos. Archived from the original on December 1, 2020. Retrieved October 24, 2020.
  45. ^ a b Trilling, Daniel (April 18, 2012). "Who are Breivik's Fellow Travellers?". New Statesman. Archived from the original on July 22, 2015. Retrieved July 18, 2015.
  46. ^ a b c Buruma, Ian (August 11, 2011). "Breivik's Call to Arms". Qantara.de. German Federal Agency for Civic Education & Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on July 25, 2015. Retrieved July 25, 2015.
  47. ^ a b c "'Breivik Manifesto' Details Chilling Attack Preparation". BBC News. July 24, 2011. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved August 2, 2015.
  48. ^ KhosraviNik, Majid; Mral, Brigitte; Wodak, Ruth, eds. (2013). Right-wing populism in Europe: Politics and discourse (reprint ed.). London: Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 96, 97. ISBN 978-1-7809-3245-3. Retrieved July 30, 2015.
  49. ^ W. J. van Gerven Oei, Vincent (September 22, 2011). "Anders Breivik: On Copying the Obscure". Continent. 1 (3): 213–223. ISSN 2159-9920. Archived from the original on July 16, 2020. Retrieved September 11, 2020.
  50. ^ Shanafelt, Robert; Pino, Nathan W. (2014). Rethinking Serial Murder, Spree Killing, and Atrocities: Beyond the Usual Distinctions. Abingdon, England: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-56467-6. Archived from the original on August 28, 2020. Retrieved September 11, 2020.
  51. ^ "MP's murder was to be 'white jihad'". BBC News. June 12, 2018. Archived from the original on June 1, 2019. Retrieved September 24, 2020.
  52. ^ "The story of Jack Renshaw: The ex-Manchester student and paedophile who plotted a murder". UK. May 24, 2019. Archived from the original on June 12, 2020. Retrieved September 24, 2020.
  53. ^ "How did Jack Renshaw, star of the creepy BNP Youth video, end up attempting to murder an MP?". UK. June 15, 2018. Archived from the original on June 12, 2020. Retrieved September 24, 2020.
  54. ^ Lorber, Ben (May 1, 2019). "The Resurgence of Right-Wing Anti-Semitic Conspiracism Endangers All Justice Movements". Rewire News Group. Archived from the original on October 25, 2020. Retrieved October 25, 2020.
  55. ^ Moyn, Samuel (November 13, 2018). "The Alt-Right's Favorite Meme is 100 Years Old". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 14, 2018. Retrieved November 4, 2018.
  56. ^ Rose, Matthew (2021). A World after Liberalism: Philosophers of the Radical Right. Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300263084. p. 78
  57. ^ Dafaure, Maxime (April 1, 2020). "The 'Great Meme War:' the Alt-Right and its Multifarious Enemies". Angles. New Perspectives on the Anglophone World (10). doi:10.4000/angles.369. ISSN 2274-2042. Archived from the original on September 27, 2020. Retrieved November 4, 2020. The Cultural Marxism narrative has particularly telling ancestors, since it is a mere contemporary update of Nazi Germany’s concept of “Cultural Bolshevism” used to foster anti-Soviet fears (not unlike the American anti-communist hysterias of the Red Scares). Maybe even more telling is its direct association with the like-minded “Jewish Bolshevism” concept, which professes the whimsical claim that a Jewish cabal is responsible for the creation and spread of communism, and more broadly for the “degeneracy” of traditional Western values, an infamous term which also surfaces in recent far-right arguments.
  58. ^ Burgis, Ben; Hamilton, Conrad Bongard; McManus, Matthew; Trejo, Marion (2020). Myth and Mayhem: A Leftist Critique of Jordan Peterson. London, England: John Hunt Publishing. p. 16. ISBN 978-1-7890-4554-3.
  59. ^ a b c d e f Paul, Ari (June 4, 2019). "'Cultural Marxism': The Mainstreaming of a Nazi Trope". Fairness & Accuracy in Reporting. Archived from the original on October 22, 2020. Retrieved October 24, 2020.
  60. ^ a b c d e Mirrlees, Tanner (2018). "The Alt-Right's Discourse of 'Cultural Marxism': A Political Instrument of Intersectional Hate". Atlantis. 39 (1): 49–69. Archived from the original on December 1, 2020. Retrieved November 2, 2020.
  61. ^ Mirrlees, Tanner (2018). "The Alt-Right's Discourse of 'Cultural Marxism': A Political Instrument of Intersectional Hate". Atlantis. 39 (1): 49–69. Archived from the original on December 1, 2020. Retrieved November 2, 2020. A glut of content about cultural Marxism now circulates through the Internet and World Wide Web, and much of it stems from alt-right media sources—websites, magazines, and blogs. [...] Anglin's The Daily Stormer publishes stories like 'Jewish Cultural Marxism is Destroying Abercrombie & Fitch' (Farben 2017) and 'Hollywood Strikes Again: Cultural Marxism through the Medium of Big Box-Office Movies' (Murray 2016) and 'The Left-Center-Right Political Spectrum of Immigration = Cultural Marxism' (Duchesne 2015).
  62. ^ Brown, Mark (January 2019). "In defence of degenerate art". Socialist Review. No. 442. Archived from the original on August 20, 2020. Retrieved November 22, 2020. In 2015, Gerald Warner (the 'Tory intellectual' Scottish journalist) wrote an article for the American alt-right house journal Breitbart attacking the Frankfurt School of left-wing cultural theorists. His piece included this little gem: 'Theodor Adorno promoted degenerate atonal music to induce mental illness, including necrophilia, on a large scale.'
  63. ^ a b Sharpe, Matthew. "Is 'cultural Marxism' Really Taking Over Universities? I Crunched Some Numbers to Find Out". The Conversation. Archived from the original on October 6, 2020. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
  64. ^ a b Berlatsky, Noah. "How Anti-Leftism Has Made Jordan Peterson a Mark for Fascist Propaganda". Pacific Standard. Archived from the original on June 13, 2018. Retrieved November 4, 2020.
  65. ^ Burston, Daniel (2020). "Jordan Peterson and the Postmodern University". Psychoanalysis, Politics and the Postmodern University. Critical Political Theory and Radical Practice. Cham: Springer International Publishing. pp. 129–156. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-34921-9_7. ISBN 978-3-030-34921-9. S2CID 214014811 – via Springer Link.
  66. ^ McManus, Matt (May 18, 2018). "On Marxism, Post-Modernism, and 'Cultural Marxism'". Merion West. Archived from the original on June 17, 2020. Retrieved October 2, 2020.
  67. ^ Lux, Julia; Jordan, John David (July 22, 2019). "7. Alt-Right 'cultural purity', ideology and mainstream social policy discourse: towards a political anthropology of 'mainstremeist' ideology". In Heins, Elke; Rees, James (eds.). Social Policy Review: Analysis and Debate in Social Policy. Bristol: Policy Press. pp. 151–176. doi:10.1332/policypress/9781447343981.001.0001. ISBN 9781447343981. S2CID 213019061. Retrieved March 29, 2021.
  68. ^ Beirich, Heidi (2009). Perry, Barbara (ed.). Hate crimes [vol.5]. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Publishers. p. 119. ISBN 978-0-275-99569-0. Archived from the original on August 28, 2020. Retrieved November 30, 2015.
  69. ^ Busbridge, Rachel; Moffitt, Benjamin; Thorburn, Joshua (June 29, 2020). "Cultural Marxism: far-right conspiracy theory in Australia's culture wars". Social Identities. 26 (6): 722–738. doi:10.1080/13504630.2020.1787822. S2CID 225713131. Archived from the original on December 1, 2020. Retrieved October 10, 2020.
  70. ^ Featherstone, Liza (September 30, 2020). "Paulo Freire's Pedagogy of the Oppressed at Fifty". JSTOR Daily.
  71. ^ a b Manavis, Sarah (March 26, 2019). "What is cultural Marxism? The alt-right meme in Suella Braverman's speech in Westminster". News Statesman. Archived from the original on November 24, 2020. Retrieved November 16, 2020.
  72. ^ a b Walker, Peter (June 28, 2020). "Jewish groups and MPs condemn Nigel Farage over antisemitic 'dog whistles'". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on September 4, 2020. Retrieved September 11, 2020.
  73. ^ "Tory MP Suella Braverman 'not in any way antisemitic', says Board after 'productive meeting'". Jewish Chronicle. April 3, 2019. Archived from the original on November 24, 2020. Retrieved November 8, 2020.
  74. ^ Bowcott, Owen (February 13, 2020). "New attorney general wants to 'take back control' from courts". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on September 8, 2020. Retrieved September 12, 2020.
  75. ^ Walker, Peter (March 26, 2019). "Tory MP criticised for using antisemitic term 'cultural Marxism'". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on September 13, 2020. Retrieved September 12, 2020.
  76. ^ Sugarman, Daniel (March 26, 2019). "Board of Deputies rebuke Conservative MP Suella Braverman for using 'antisemitic trope'". The Jewish Chronicle. Archived from the original on September 4, 2020. Retrieved September 12, 2020.
  77. ^ Alibhai-Brown, Yasmin (October 20, 2020). "Our BBC is under existential threat from right-wing, Trumpian tactics". i. Archived from the original on November 2, 2020. Retrieved November 7, 2020.
  78. ^ "Britain's heroes". Letter to the Daily Telegraph. November 9, 2020. Archived from the original on January 12, 2022. Retrieved January 30, 2021.{{cite press release}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  79. ^ Leigh, Edward (November 11, 2020). "Letter to the Telegraph". Sir Edward Leigh MP. Retrieved June 10, 2020. Part of our mission is to ensure that institutional custodians of history and heritage, tasked with safeguarding and celebrating British values, are not coloured by cultural Marxist dogma, colloquially known as the "woke agenda".
  80. ^ Harpin, Lee (November 24, 2020). "Tory MPs and peers warned over use of the term 'cultural Marxism'". The Jewish Chronicle. Archived from the original on November 24, 2020.
  81. ^ Childs, Simon (November 13, 2020). "28 Tories Wrote About an Anti-Semitic Trope and No One Seemed to Notice". VICE. Retrieved May 4, 2021.
  82. ^ "EXCLUSIVE: Leading Tories challenged for using phrase linked to 'anti-Semitic dog-whistle'". Left Foot Forward. November 11, 2020. Retrieved May 4, 2021.
  83. ^ Berlet, Chip (July 2012). "Collectivists, Communists, Labor Bosses, and Treason: The Tea Parties as Right-wing Populist Counter-Subversion Panic". Critical Sociology. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publishing. 38 (4): 565–587. doi:10.1177/0896920511434750. S2CID 144238367. Archived from the original on November 15, 2015.
  84. ^ a b Smith, David (August 13, 2017). "How Trump's Paranoid White House Sees 'Deep State' Enemies on all Sides". The Guardian. Archived from the original on August 14, 2017. Retrieved September 11, 2020.
  85. ^ Winter, Jana; Groll, Elias (August 10, 2017). "Here's the Memo That Blew Up the NSC". Foreign Policy. Archived from the original on August 15, 2017. Retrieved September 11, 2020.
  86. ^ Gray, Rosie (August 2, 2017). "An NSC Staffer Is Forced Out Over a Controversial Memo". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on August 14, 2017. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  87. ^ Heer, Jeet (August 15, 2017). "Trump's Racism and the Myth of "Cultural Marxism"". The New Republic. ISSN 0028-6583. Retrieved May 8, 2021.
  88. ^ Wilson, Jason (November 3, 2018). "Washington Republican under fire for setting out 'Biblical Basis for War'". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on August 31, 2020. Retrieved October 3, 2020.

Further reading