User:Maxcrc/Europe

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The following table lists records of extreme temperature in territories of Europe.


Country Lowest Temperature Highest Temperature
T°C Place Date T°C Place Date
Europe -58.1 Ust'Schugor  Russia 31 December 1978 48.5 Catenanuova  Italy 10 August 1999
 Albania -29.0 Shtylle [1] 9 January 2017 43.9 Kucova [2] 18 July 1973
 Andorra -34 Port d'Envalira [3] 2 February 1956 39.4 Borda Vidal [4] 28 June 2019
 Austria -37.4 Sonnblick [5] 1 January 1905 40.5 Bad Deutsch-Altenburg Lower Austria [6] 8 August 2013
 Azores (Port.) -3.5 Cha das Lagoinhas Terceira island [7] 2 January 1973 32.1 Madalena Pico island [8] 7 September 1985
 Belarus -42.2 Slavnoye Vitsyebsk province [9] 17 January 1940 38.9 Gomel Homiel Oblast [10] 8 August 2010
 Belgium -30.1 Rochefort [11] 20 January 1940 38.8 Liege [11][12] 2 July 2015
 Bosnia and Herzegovina -43.5 Veliko Polje [13] 24 January 1963 43.1 Mostar [14] 24 August 2007
 Bulgaria -38.3 Trŭn Pernik province [15] 7 January 1947 45.2 Sadovo Plovdiv province [16] 5 July 1916
 Croatia -34.6 Gračac [17][18] 13 January 2003 42.8 Ploce [19] 5 August 1981
 Czech Republic -42.2 Litvínovice [20] 11 February 1929 40.4 Dobrichovice [20] [21] 20 August 2012
 Denmark -31.2 Hørsted Thy district [22] 8 January 1982 36.4 Holstebro [22] 10 August 1975
 Estonia -43.5 Jõgeva [23] 17 January 1940 35.6 Võru [23][24] 11 August 1992
 Faroe Islands (Den) -13.5 Tórshavn [25] 14 January 1918 26.3 Vágar Floghavn [26] 17 July 2003
 Finland -51.5 Pokka Kittilä municipality, Lappi region (Lapland) [27] 28 January 1999 37.2 Joensuu Airport Liperi [27][28] 29 July 2010
 France -41.2 Mouthe Doubs department [29] 17 January 1985 45.9 Gallargues-le-Montueux Gard department [30] 28 June 2019
 Germany -37.8 Hüll near Pfaffenhofen an der Ilm Niederbayern (Lower Bavaria) state [31][32] 12 February 1929 40.3 Kitzingen Bavaria state [33] 5 July 2015 and 7 August 2015
 Gibraltar (UK) -2.9 Gibraltar 3 February 1907 40.6 Gibraltar [34] 5 July 1994
 Greece -27.8 Ptolemaïda [35] 27 January 1963 48.0 Elevsís (Elefsina) and Tatoi [36] 10 July 1977
 Guernsey (UK) -9.2 St Martin [37] 5 January 1894 35.0 Rocquaine Bay [38] 5 August 2003
Alderney Island [39] 19 July 2016
 Hungary -35.0 Miskolctapolca [40] 16 February 1940 41.9 Kiskunhalas 20 July 2007
 Iceland -38 Grímsstaðir and Möðrudalur [41] 22 January 1918 30.5 Teigarhorn [42] 22 June 1939
 Ireland -19.1 Markree Castle, Collooney County Sligo [43] 16 January 1881 33.3 Kilkenny Castle County Kilkenny [43][44] 26 June 1887
 Isle of Man (UK) -11.7 Douglas [45] 9 February 1895 and 12 February 1895 28.9 Ronaldsway Airport [45] [46] 12 July 1983
 Italy -42 Gran Gioves [47] 30 January 1963 48.5 Catenanuova Sicilia (Sicily) region [48] 10 August 1999
 Jersey (UK) -10.9 Jersey Airport [49] 20 January 1963 36.0 St Helier 9 August 2003
 Kosovo (Serbia) -32.5 Gnjilane (Gjilani) Gnjilane (Gjilani) municipality [50] 25 January 1963 42.0 Prizren [51] 24 July 2007
 Latvia -43.1 Daugavpils 8 February 1956 37.8 Ventspils [52] 4 August 2014
 Liechtenstein -30 Malbun [53] 12 January 1987 37.4 Ruggel [54] 13 August 2003
 Lithuania -42.9 Utena [55] 1 February 1956 37.5 Zarasai [55] 30 July 1994
 Luxembourg -24.6 Wiltz [56] 22 January 1942 39.9 Remich [57] 8 August 2003
 Malta -1.7 Ta'_Qali [58] 1 February 1962 44.4 Nadur, Gozo Island [59] 9 August 1999
 Moldova -35.5 Brătuşeni Edineţ district [60] 20 January 1963 42.4 Falesti [61] 7 August 2012
 Monaco -5.2 Jardin Exotique [62] 10 February 1986 34.5 Jardin Exotique 20 August 2009
 Montenegro -32.0 Rožaje 13 January 1985 44.8 Podgorica 24 August 2007
Danilovgrad 7 August 2012
 Netherlands -27.4 Winterswijk [63] 27 January 1942 38.6 Warnsveld [63][64]. 23 August 1944
 North Macedonia -31.5 Berovo [65] 27 January 1954 45.7 Demir Kapija 24 July 2007
 Norway -51.4 Karasjok (Kárášjohka) Finnmark county [66] 1 January 1886 35.6 Nesbyen Buskerud county [66][67] 20 June 1970
 Poland -40.6 Zywiec [68] 10 February 1929 40.2 Prószków Opole province [69] 29 July 1921
 Portugal -16.0 Miranda do Douro [70] 16 January 1945 47.4 Amareleja [71] 1 August 2003
Penhas da Saúde [72] 4 February 1954
 Romania -38.5 Bod Braşov county [73] 24 January 1942 44.5 Ion Sion Farm Râmnicelu Village,Brăila county [73] 10 August 1951
 Russia (European) -58.1 Ust'Schugor Respublika Komi (Komi Republic) [74] 31 December 1978 45.4 Utta Respublika Kalmykiya (Republic of Kalmykia) [10][75] 12 July 2010
 San Marino -18 Serravalle [76] 12 January 1985 40.3 Serravalle 3 and 9 August 2017
 Serbia -39.5 Karajukića Bunari Sjenica municipality [77] 13 January 1985 44.9 Smederevska Palanka 24 July 2007
 Slovakia -41.0 Vígl’aš-Pstruša Banská Bystrica region [78] 11 February 1929 40.3 Hurbanovo 20 July 2007
 Slovenia -34.5 Babno Polje [79][80] 15 and 16 February 1956 and 13 January 1968 40.8 Cerklje Ob Krki [81] 8 August 2013
 Spain -32.0 Estany Gento Lleida province [82][83] 2 and 3 February 1956 48 Totana Murcia province [84][85] 4 July 1994
Utrera Seville_Province 23 July 1995
 Svalbard and Jan Mayen (Nor.) -49.4 Grønfjorden Spitsbergen [86] 28 March 1917 23.6 Bear Island (Norway) [87] 22 June 1953
 Sweden -52.6 Vuoggatjålme Norrbotten county [88][89] 2 February 1966 38.0 Ultuna Uppsala county [88][90] 9 July 1933
Målilla Kalmar county [88] 29 June 1947
  Switzerland -42.5 La Brévine Neuchâtel canton [91][92] 12 January 1987 39.7 Geneva [93] 7 July 2015
 Turkey (European Turkey) -24.2 Luleburgaz [94] 25 January 1942 44.1 Edirne [95] 25 July 2007
 Ukraine -41.9 Luhans’k (Lugansk) [96] 8 January 1935 42.0 Luhans’k (Lugansk) [97] 12 August 2010
 United Kingdom -27.2 Braemar Aberdeenshire, Scotland [98][99] 11 February 1895 and 10 January 1982 38.5 Brogdale (near Faversham) Kent [98][100] 10 August 2003
Altnaharra Highland, Scotland [98] 30 December 1995
  Vatican City -7.2 Rome Macao Hydrographic Station, Roma, Italy [101] 7 January 1985 40.7 Rome Macao Hydrographic Station, Roma, Italy [102] 25 August 2007 and 2 August 2017

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.geo.edu.al/skedaret/1511970387-BULETINI%20MUJOR%20KLIMATIK%20Nr.1%202017.pdf. A reading of -34.7C at Biza is also unofficial and probably reliable.
  2. ^ Albania Institute of Meteorology. A reading of 45.3C recorded at Kallmet in 1939 is unofficial and was likely affected by overexposure.
  3. ^ This temperature was taken with a simple thermometer and it might have been affected by overexposure. The official lowest temperature in Andorra is -27.3C recorded at Grau Roig on 9 January 1985.
  4. ^ Meteo.ad
  5. ^ -52.6°C was recorded in a sinkhole (or doline) at Grünloch, Gstettner Alm near Lunz Niederösterreich (Lower Austria) state between 19 February and 4 March 1932.Lowest official temperature recorded in an inhabited place is -36.6C recorded at Zwettl on February 11th,1929. Lowest unofficial temperature in an inhabited place is -40C recorded at Halltal in January 1985.
  6. ^ A temperature of 40.6C at Neusiedl on the same day was discharged by the Austrian Meteorological Service because unreliable.
  7. ^ http://www.meteo.pt/pt/oclima/extremos/index.html?page=extremos_acores.xml
  8. ^ http://www.meteo.pt/pt/oclima/extremos/index.html?page=extremos_acores.xml. Other sources report this record as 32.2C
  9. ^ климатическая характеристика января месяца, Pogoda.by. Retrieved 26 January 2007.An unofficial temperature of -43C was recorded at the Hanusowszczyzna far, near Nieświerz on 10 February 1929.
  10. ^ a b Air temperature and precipitation daily data.
  11. ^ a b Records, Koninklijk Meteorologisch Instituut van België. Retrieved 26 January 2007.
  12. ^ A temperature of 40.0C recorded at Campine on 27 June 1947 and another recorded at Sint-Joost-ten-Node in July 1921 were recorded under not standard conditions,as well as the 38.8C at Rochefort in July 1925. A temperature of 38.8C recorded at Uccle ,often given as national record, was not recorded with a proper instrument as well.
  13. ^ Temperature i Padavine, Bosna i Hercegovina Federalni zavod za statistiku. Retrieved 28 January 2007. This site is located in a sinkhole. Lowest temperature recorded in an inhabited place is -34.6C recorded at Sokolac on 13 January 1985,which is located in the Sprska Republic.Lowest temperature in an inhabited place in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is -32.0C at Visoko on 25 January 1963 and at Glamoc on 13 January 1985.In the enclave of Brcko the lowest recorded temperature was -25.0C on 14 January 1985.
  14. ^ 46.2°C was reported from Mostar on 31 July 1901 but this appears unreliable.Highest recorded temperature in the Sprska Republic is 43.0C recorded at Bijeljina also on 24 August 2007.The enclave of Brcko recorded 42.0C on 14 August 1957 at Brcko.
  15. ^ Любопитни Факти 3a BpEMeTo, Smile Fun. Retrieved 21 November 2006. Some sources also report a -38.9C at the same location in January 1942, but this is not confirmed by the national authorities. A private station in a doline near Ponor recorded -40.8C on 23 January 2017.
  16. ^ This reading is contested.Next highest temperature was 45.0C recorded at Plovdiv Airport on 5 July 2000 and at Asenovgrad on 24 July 2007.
  17. ^ Unatoč snježnoj apokalipsi, daleko smo od najvećih hladnoća: Rekorder je Gračac s -34,6°C, Index. Retrieved 11 February 2012.
  18. ^ -36.0°C reported from Gospić on 4 February 1929, and -35.5°C reported from Čakovec on the previous day were not recorded with correct instrumentation.
  19. ^ Climate Monitoring and Assessment For 2004, Državni Hidrometeorološki Zavod (DHMZ). Retrieved 15 February 2007. Some sources wrongly report the date of this record in 1998, but the correct occurrence of this reading was in 1981.
  20. ^ a b Czech Republic. Portraits of Regions, Ministry for Regional Development of the Czech Republic. Retrieved 15 February 2007.
  21. ^ 41.8C recorded at Napajedla in July 1921 is unreliable and anyway unofficial.
  22. ^ a b Danmark, Færøernes og Grønlands Klima, Danmarks Meteorologiske Institut. Retrieved 17 February 2007.
  23. ^ a b Location and natural conditions, Nature Estonica. Retrieved 23 February 2007.
  24. ^ A unofficial temperature of 38C recorded on the same day at Himmistes is unreliable.
  25. ^ Some Temperatures data shows the value as -12.5C,which probably was a transcript error.
  26. ^ The Climate of Denmark 2003 with The Faroe Islands and Greenland, Danish Meteorological Institute. Retrieved 17 February 2007.
  27. ^ a b Suomen ja maapallon sääennätyksiä, Imatieteen Laitos (Finnish Meteorological Institute). Retrieved 28 February 2007.
  28. ^ Finland Meteorological Service.
  29. ^ La température et l'humidité relative, Météolaflèche. Retrieved 9 March 2007.This temperature is questioned and not fully accepted in France, because it was not taken in the official station of the town.The same day Mouthe had a minimum temperature of -21.5C. The lowest official temperature was -36.7C on 13 January 1968. -37C was also recorded at Saint Die des Vosges on 10 December 1879, but this is also not 100% official. At high elevations,a temperature of -43C was recorded on the summit of Mount Blanc in January 1893.
  30. ^ The same day the private but reliable station of Le Triadou recorded 46.1C. The highest temperature ever recorded in Corsica is 43.5C Sollocaro on 23 July 2009.
  31. ^ Wetterrekorde – Lufttemperatur, Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 25 February 2007.
  32. ^ -45.9°C was recorded in a sinkhole at Funtensee Oberbayern (Upper Bavaria) state on 24 December 2001.
  33. ^ An unofficial temperature of 41.2C was recorded at Brauneberg on 11 August 1998.
  34. ^ Historical Weather: Gibraltar, Gibraltar, El Tiempo.
  35. ^ Date is believed to be correct.Unofficial record on the mountainous area is -35.3C at Kachroti on 17 January 2012.
  36. ^ Το θερμόμετρο τραβάει την ανηφόρα, Το ΒΗΜΑ Online. These readings might have been affected by bushfires.
  37. ^ https://digital.nmla.metoffice.gov.uk/file/sdb%3AdigitalFile%7C9c394b43-7c77-4176-8a73-c80f6c328f31/
  38. ^ http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/climate/uk/summaries/2003/august
  39. ^ Guernsey Airport Meteorological Office.
  40. ^ Hőmérsékleti rekordok Magyarországon, Snowhunter oldala.
  41. ^ Nokkur íslensk veðurmet, Veðurstofa Íslands. Retrieved 25 March 2007. Lowest temperatures have been approximated to -38C due to half a degree precision of the alcohol instruments. Grímsstaðir lowest temperature was estimated at -37.9C, while lowest at Möðrudalur was estimated around -38C or slightly lower.
  42. ^ An unofficial record of 32.8C at Modrudalur in July 1901 was likely taken under not proper exposure conditions.
  43. ^ a b Temperature in Ireland, Met Éireann. Retrieved 25 March 2007.
  44. ^ 33.4C recorded at Dublin in July 1876 was recorded under not proper exposure conditions. Also this official record of 1887 is suspicious for a possible overestimation. Next highest temperature in Ireland is 32.5C and was recorded at Lough Boora on 29 June 1976.
  45. ^ a b Meaden, G.T. and J.D.C. Webb (1984). Britain’s Highest Authentic Temperatures: The County Records. Journal of Meteorology, 9, 82-84.
  46. ^ A temperature of 29.6C at Douglas Cementery on 27 July 1995 is probably unreliable.
  47. ^ This reading was recorded at high elevation of 4050m a.s.l. in the Mount Blanc range. -46C were claimed at Mottolino Hill,-45C at Foscagno Pass in February 1956, but these readings were probably taken with simple thermometer placed too close to the frosted and snowy ground.Also, -49.6C was recorded in another sinkhole, Busa Nord di Fradusta on 10 February 2013, but the reading is questioned for the same reason. For inhabited places,-38.0C was recorded at Livigno on 10 February 1956 and a questioned -40C was recorded at the village of Fusine Valromana,Friuli Venezia Julia region, in December 1879.
  48. ^ [1], Agenzia Regionale per i Rifiuti e le Acque - Osservatorio delle Acque. Retrieved 5 March 2007. This temperature is official and validated by Italian Regional Authorities UCEA,although it's somewhat contested. Next highest temperature was recorded nearby at Paterno with 48.1C in July 2003. For the Aeronautica Militare circuit of international stations the highest reliable temperature is 116F (46.7C) recorded at the American Military Base of Sigonella ,near Catania, in July 1962,given the doubts regarding the 47.0C at Amendola (Foggia Airport) on 25 June 2007.
  49. ^ A temperature of -11.7C was claimed in Jersey island in January 1987, nevertheless in none of the official archives it appears.A temperature of -11.1C at Noirmont on 18 January 1891 is probably incorrect.
  50. ^ Meteorološki Godišnjak, Godina 1963, Hidrometeorološka Služba, NOAA Central Library, Climate Data Imaging Project. Retrieved 11 January 2008.
  51. ^ Heat wave wreaks havoc across Southeast Europe, Southeast European Times. Retrieved 13 January 2008.
  52. ^ This record is questioned for a possible overexposure. Next highest temperature is 36.5C at Rucava on the same day. 38.3C recorded at Riga in 1858 was taken with not proper screen.
  53. ^ This figure might have been rounded.-26C was recorded at Vaduz in January 1942.
  54. ^ Weather Archive for Liechtenstein, Russia’s Weather Server – Weather Archive. Retrieved 2 April 2007.
  55. ^ a b Meteorologiniai rekordai Lietuvoje, Lietuvos Hidrometeorologijos Tarnyba. Retrieved 2 April 2007.
  56. ^ Cyrille Taillez
  57. ^ This reading has been corrected from the original 40.5C. 40.3C recorded in the same day at Oberkorn, near the French border, is believed to be unreliable.
  58. ^ This temperature was recorded in the former Airfield where there is now a craft village.
  59. ^ World Meteorological Day, National Statistics Office, Malta. Retrieved 20 July 2007.
  60. ^ http://www.meteo.md/newsait/historu/record.htm. Lowest temperature recorded in Transnistria is -32.8C at Camenca on the same day, 20 January 1963.
  61. ^ Highest temperature recorded in Transnistria is 41.9C at Slobodzya on 21 July 2007.
  62. ^ Hiver et Vagues de Froid sur la Cote d’Azur, La Météo en Provence. Retrieved 6 June 2007.
  63. ^ a b Weerrecords Nederland en wereld, Meteonet. Retrieved 31 March 2007.
  64. ^ 38.8C was recorded at Maastricht on 2 August 1826, but iit was not recorded under standard exposure conditions.
  65. ^ Meteorološki Godišnjak, Godina 1954, Hidrometeorološka Služba, NOAA Central Library, Climate Data Imaging Project. Retrieved 2 April 2006.
  66. ^ a b Høyeste, laveste lufttemperatur og største døgnnedbør, Meteorologisk institutt. Retrieved 4 March 2007.
  67. ^ 37.8C recorded at Ulvik in July 2014 was dismissed by the Norvegian Institute of Meteorology for a not correct exposure.
  68. ^ The official national record of -41.0C at Siedlce on 11 January 1940 is probably incorrect: firstly, it's not supported by any other reading on that day, than Siedlce average temperatures in those months suggest the station was not working properly. Unofficial temperatures of -49C near Nawy Targ, -46C at Jablonka and -45C at Rabka have also been recorded on 10 February 1929, also -42.0C is reported in the same month to have been recorded at Dubie (near Krakow) on 2 February,at Kaliszl on 8 February, at Olecko on 9 February and at Czechowice-Dziedzice on 11 February,but none of them is official since they all look suspicious. However the -41C recorded at Czarny Dunajec on 10 February 1929 was taken with a screened thermometer and it's possibly reliable, although unofficial.
  69. ^ Cite error: The named reference POL was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  70. ^ "Reveillon" português sem chuva, mas a bater o dente de frio, Fundação Frei Pedro. Retrieved 8 April 2007.Unofficial temperatures close to -20C has been recorded on the Tower of the Serra da Estrela.
  71. ^ Caracterização Climática 2003, Instituto de Meteorologia. Retrieved 7 April 2007.The original reading was given at 47.3Cmbut later Meteo Portugal corrected it at 47.4C, which is now the official value.
  72. ^ http://www.meteo.pt/pt/oclima/extremos/index.html?page=extremos_contin.xml.
  73. ^ a b Thermal Extremes, National Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 8 April 2007.
  74. ^ http://wmo.asu.edu/europe-lowest-temperature
  75. ^ This is considered by Meteo Russia the new national record of highest temperature, although it was recorded in a regional hydrological station. Highest temperature recorded in an international station is 44.2C at Divnoe on 30 July 2011.
  76. ^ Pierluigi Randi,climatologist. The exact location of the reading is believed to be at the town of Dogana, at the border with Italy.
  77. ^ http://www.hidmet.sr.gov.yu/eng/meteorologija/klimatologija_temp_rezim.php
  78. ^ Slovensko - Základné informácie o Slovensku, Kysuce. Retrieved 8 April 2007.
  79. ^ Kje ima mraz pri nas zares mlade, gore.ljudje.net. Retrieved 30 June 2007.
  80. ^ A record temperature of -49.1C was recorded in the frost hollow Mzla Komna in the Lepa Komna area,on 9 January 2009. A reading of -39.6C reported at Babno Polje in February 1929 is not correct, although it seems it had been recorded nearby the town.
  81. ^ Air Temperature, Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia. Retrieved 31 March 2007. This reading comes from the international automatic station ,although the national mechanic station of the same location recorded 40.6C. A Unofficial temperature of 41.4C at Trebnje was recorded on 3 August 2013.
  82. ^ Efemérides meteorológicas del mes de Febrero, MeteoRed.com. Retrieved 8 April 2007.
  83. ^ Estany Gento is uninhabited.The temperature of -32C was recorded in two different locations on the 2nd and 3rd February 1956. -30.0 was recorded at Calamocha Teruel province on 17 December 1962. An unofficial reading of -33.1C was recorded at high elevation at Forau de la Paul on 17 February 2016.
  84. ^ Efemérides Meteorológicos Valores Extremos, Instituto Nacional de Meteorología (INM). Retrieved 8 April 2007.
  85. ^ Temperatures of 51°C on 30 July 1876, and 50.0°C on 4 August 1881, both reported from Sevilla (Seville) ((Andalucía province) were not recorded under a standard exposure,as most of data from Spain prior to 1900 including a Murcia Institute record of 47.8C on 29 July 1876.Temperatures between 48C and 50C at Berja,Alhama,Huecija,Moratalla and Dona Ines (this was official, but dubious) recorded in July 1978 might be slightly overestimated. Other readings in July 1967 (Villamanrique and Cabezas Rubias 48C) might have been recorded under not optimal exposure conditons, some readings in 1995 (Arahal 49C) and 2003 ( Lora del Rio,La Palma del Condado,El Granado all 48C) are unreliable because the high differences within nearby stations and claims of overexposure conditions by witnesses. These 48C were recorded in second-level stations and later checked by AEMET and are believed to be the most reliable amongst many readings of secundary stations,although it is not proven neitheir are absolutely correct nor all other readings between 48C and 50C. are all incorrect. Highest official and reliable temperature amongst AEMET stations is 47.3C recorded at Montoro on 13 July 2017. Highest reliable temperature ever recorded in Catalonia is 43.9C at Gerona on 28 June 2019.
  86. ^ The early 20th century warming. Daily observations at Green Harbour, Grønfjorden, Spitsbergen, Norwegian Meteorological Institute. Retrieved 4 March 2007.
  87. ^ Met Norway.
  88. ^ a b c Official Swedish Meteorological Records, Sveriges meteorologiska och hydrologiska institute (SMHI). Retrieved 8 April 2007.
  89. ^ A -53.0C reading recorded at Malgovik in December 1941 was recorded with private equipments and it is highly suspicious,since it is not minimally supported by any nearby temperature. An unofficial reading of -54C has been recorded in the courtyard of the church of Karesuando.
  90. ^ Both Ultuna and Malilla records are probably overestimated. Highest reliable temperature ever recorded in Sweden is 36.8C at Holma on 9 August 1975.
  91. ^ Die aufgeführten Extremwerte basieren auf den Messstandorten der MeteoSchweiz (Stand Ende 2005), MeteoSwiss. Retrieved 25 February 2007.This reading was originally -41.8C and was later homogeneized.
  92. ^ -52.5°C was recorded in a sinkhole (or doline) at Glattalp Schwyz canton on 7 February 1991. -45.4C was recorded in a carsic and uninhabited valley on 7 February 2012 although this is considered unofficial, as similar readings between -42C and -45C in 1963 and 1985.
  93. ^ http://www.meteoschweiz.ch/web/de/klima/aktuelle_berichte.Par.0002.DownloadFile.tmp/arbeitsberichtdermeteoschweiznr.200.pdf Die extreme Sommerhitze im aussergewöhnlichen Witterungsjahr 2003], MeteoSchweiz. The official national record of 41.5C set at Grono on 11 August 2003 has been tainted by several issues, like a no standard screen, a not perfect environment,etc. The estimated highest temperature at Grono that day was around 40C.
  94. ^ NOAA Rescue Data from Turkey.
  95. ^ Meteo Turkey Statistics.
  96. ^ Про особливості осінньо-зимових сезонів в Україні 2000-2006 рр, Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Center. -42C is also claimed at high elevation at the Karpat location of Playi. Lowest temperature ever recorded in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea is -36.8C at Nizhnegorsky in January 1940.
  97. ^ http://www.cgo.kiev.ua/index.php?fn=u_klimat&f=ukraine&p=1. Unofficial temperatures as high as 42.5C has been reported in the Republic of Crimea in July 2007,but the highest temperature ever recorded in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea is 41.2C at Chornomors'Ke on 8 August 2010.
  98. ^ a b c Extreme Weather, UK Meteorological Office. Retrieved 31 March 2007.
  99. ^ A record of -33.9C at Saint Albans in December 1788 and another one of -30.6C at Blackadder,Berwickshire in December 1879 were taken under not proper exposure conditions.
  100. ^ This reading may be too high due to over-exposure. 38.1°C was recorded at Gravesend Kent (also possibly over-exposed), and Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Greater London on 10 August 2003.
  101. ^ Old minimum temperatures at the Collegio Romano Observatory, like the -8.2C on 21 February 1845 and the -7.5C in January 1836 are suspicious for possible overexposure,albeit that of 1836 is more reliable.
  102. ^ Record Meteorologici di Roma, 42.0C claimed at the Collegio Romano Station in July 1841 was recorded with a normal thermometer not in the Collegio Romano weather station and it was just mentioned in the observations, later it was probably wrongly transcripted during the temperature serie conversion from Reamur to Celsius degrees.