|1986 by topic|
|Lists of leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
This article needs additional citations for verification. (January 2021)
1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1986th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 986th year of the 2nd millennium, the 86th year of the 20th century, and the 7th year of the 1980s decade.
The year 1986 was designated as the International Year of Peace by the United Nations.
- January 1
- Aruba gains increased autonomy from the Netherlands by separating from the Netherlands Antilles.
- Spain and Portugal enter the European Community, which becomes the European Union in 1993.
- January 11 – The Gateway Bridge in Brisbane, Australia, at this time the world's longest prestressed concrete free-cantilever bridge, is opened.
- January 13–24 – South Yemen Civil War.
- January 20 – The United Kingdom and France announce plans to construct the Channel Tunnel.
- January 24 – The Voyager 2 space probe makes its first encounter with Uranus.
- January 25 – Yoweri Museveni's National Resistance Army Rebel group takes over Uganda after leading a five-year guerrilla war in which up to half a million people are believed to have been killed. They will later use January 26 as the official date to avoid a coincidence of dates with Dictator Idi Amin's 1971 coup.
- January 28 – Space Shuttle Challenger disaster – STS-51-L: Space Shuttle Challenger disintegrates 73 seconds after launch from the United States, killing the crew of seven astronauts, including schoolteacher Christa McAuliffe.
- January 29 – Yoweri Museveni is sworn in as President of Uganda.
- February 3
- Pixar is founded by John Lasseter along with Steve Jobs.
- February 7
- President Jean-Claude Duvalier ("Baby Doc") flees Haiti, ending 28 years of family rule.
- The snap presidential election in the Philippines earlier announced by President Ferdinand Marcos is held amidst controversy, that paves the way for a chain of protests, culminating in the People Power Revolution.
- February 8 – Hinton train collision: A Canadian National train heading westbound collides with a Via Rail train in Hinton, Alberta; 23 people are killed and 71 injured in the accident.
- February 9 – Halley's Comet reaches its perihelion, the closest point to the Sun, during its second visit to the solar system in the 20th century (the first was in 1910).
- February 10 – The Maxi Trial (Italian: Maxiprocesso) begins in the bunker room of the Ucciardone prison (Palermo). It will be the largest trial against the Sicilian Mafia.
- February 11 – Human rights activist Natan Sharansky is released by Soviet authorities and leaves the country for Israel.
- February 15 – The Beechcraft Starship makes its maiden flight.
- February 16
- The Soviet liner MS Mikhail Lermontov sinks in the Marlborough Sounds, New Zealand.
- Ouadi Doum air raid: The French Air Force raids the Libyan Ouadi Doum airbase in northern Chad.
- Mário Soares wins the second round of the Portuguese presidential election.
- February 17 – The Single European Act is signed.
- February 19
- The Soviet Union launches the Mir space station.
- The United States Senate approves a treaty outlawing genocide.
- February 22 – The People Power Revolution begins in the Philippines to remove President Ferdinand Marcos from office.
- February 25
- The 27th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union opens in Moscow. The General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev introduces the keywords of his mandate to the audience: Glasnost and Perestroika.
- People Power Revolution: President Ferdinand Marcos of the Philippines is ousted from power and goes into exile in Hawaii after 20 years of dictatorial rule; Corazon Aquino becomes the first Filipino woman president and forms an interim government with Salvador Laurel becoming her Vice-president and Prime Minister.
- A three-day riot begins in Cairo, Egypt when around 25,000 conscripts of the Central Security Forces (CSF), staged protests in and around the city. Three luxury hotels, several nightclubs, restaurants and cars were looted and burned in the tourist districts near the Pyramids over several days. The riot became known as the Egyptian Conscripts Riot. At least 25 people died during the first day in Cairo, and an estimated 8,000 people, mostly conscripts in regions outside the city, were killed in total.
- February 27 – The United States Senate allows its debates to be televised on a trial basis.
- February 28 – Swedish Prime Minister Olof Palme is shot to death on his way home from the cinema in Stockholm, Sweden.
- March 1 – Olof Palme's deputy Ingvar Carlsson becomes acting Prime Minister of Sweden. He is elected Prime Minister by the Swedish Riksdag on March 15.
- March 3 – The first paper is published describing the atomic force microscope invented the previous year by Gerd Binnig, Calvin Quate and Christopher Berger.
- March 8 – The Japanese Suisei probe flies by Halley's Comet, studying its UV hydrogen corona and solar wind.
- March 9 – United States Navy divers find the largely intact but heavily damaged crew compartment of the Space Shuttle Challenger; the bodies of all seven astronauts are still inside.
- March 13 – In a Black Sea incident, American cruiser USS Yorktown and the destroyer USS Caron, claiming the right of innocent passage, enter the Soviet territorial waters near the southern Crimean Peninsula.
- March 14 – Microsoft Corporation holds its initial public offering of stock shares.
- March 15 – Hotel New World collapses, 33 killed and 17 rescued from rubble.
- March 25 – The 58th Academy Awards are held in Los Angeles, with Out of Africa winning Best Picture.
- March 26 – An article in The New York Times charges that Kurt Waldheim, former United Nations Secretary-General and candidate for president of Austria, may have been involved in Nazi war crimes during World War II.
- March 27 – Russell Street Bombing: A car bomb explodes at Russell Street Police Headquarters in Russell Street, Melbourne, killing a woman constable, the first Australian policewoman to be killed in the line of duty.
- March 31 – Mexicana Flight 940 crashes near Maravatío, Mexico, killing 167.
- April – The government of Ivory Coast requests international diplomatic use of the French form of its name, Côte d'Ivoire.
- April 1 – Sector Kanda: Communist Party of Nepal (Mashal) cadres attack a number of police stations in Kathmandu, seeking to incite a popular rebellion.
- April 2 – A bomb explodes on a Trans World Airlines flight from Rome to Athens, killing 4 people.
- April 5
- 1986 Berlin discotheque bombing: The West Berlin discothèque La Belle, a known hangout for United States soldiers, is bombed, killing three and injuring 230; Libya is held responsible.
- April 11 – The infamous FBI shootout in Miami results in the death of two FBI agents and the wounding of five others.
- April 13 – Pope John Paul II officially visits the Great Synagogue of Rome, the first time a modern Pope has visited a synagogue.
- April 13 – The first child born to a non-related surrogate mother is born.
- April 14 – Hailstones weighing 1 kilogram (2.2 lb) fall on Gopalganj District, Bangladesh, killing 92.
- April 15 – Operation El Dorado Canyon: At least 15 people die after United States planes bomb targets in the Libyan capital, Tripoli, and the Benghazi region.
- April 16 – The United Kingdom and the Kingdom of the Netherlands sign a peace treaty, thus ending the Three Hundred and Thirty Five Years' War, one of the longest wars in human history.
- April 17
- Lebanon hostage crisis: British journalist John McCarthy is kidnapped in Beirut (he is released in August 1991) and three others are killed in retaliation for the bombing of Libya.
- The Hindawi affair begins when an Irishwoman is found carrying explosives onto an El Al flight from London to Tel Aviv.
- An alleged state of war lasting 335 years between the Netherlands and the Isles of Scilly declared peace bringing an end to any hypothetical war that may have been legally considered to exist.
- April 18 – Titan 34D-9 explodes just after launch while carrying the final KH-9 satellite.
- April 21 – Lorimar-Telepictures launches as a mass media company.
- April 26 – Chernobyl disaster: A mishandled safety test at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Pripyat, Ukrainian SSR, Soviet Union "killed at least 4,056 people and damaged almost $7 billion of property". Radioactive fallout from the accident is concentrated near Belarus, Ukraine and Russia and at least 350,000 people are forcibly resettled away from these areas. After the accident, "traces of radioactive deposits unique to Chernobyl were in nearly every country in the northern hemisphere".
- April 29 – The Diamond Jubilee of Hirohito is held at the Kokugikan in Tokyo.
- May 2 – Expo 86, the 1986 World Exposition on Transportation and Communication, a World's fair, opens in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
- May 8 – Óscar Arias is inaugurated into his first term as President of Costa Rica.
- May 12 – NBC unveils its current peacock logo at the finale of its 60th anniversary special.
- May 16
- The Seville Statement on Violence is adopted by an international meeting of scientists, convened by the Spanish National Commission for UNESCO, in Seville, Spain.
- Paramount Pictures releases Top Gun.
- May 23 – Somali President Siad Barre is injured in a car accident in Mogadishu and taken to Saudi Arabia for treatment. Somali opposition groups see this as an opportunity to try to remove Barre, beginning the Somali Civil War.
- May 25
- Hands Across America: At least 5,000,000 people form a human chain from New York City to Long Beach, California, to raise money to fight hunger and homelessness.
- The Bangladeshi double-decked ferry Shamia capsizes in the Meghna River, southern Barisal, Bangladesh, killing at least 600.
- June – Construction of the Oosterscheldekering, the world's largest openable storm surge flood barrier, is completed in the Netherlands.
- June 4 – Jonathan Pollard pleads guilty to espionage for selling top secret United States military intelligence to Israel.
- June 8 – Former United Nations Secretary-General Kurt Waldheim is elected president of Austria.
- June 9 – The Rogers Commission releases its report on the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster.
- June 12 – South Africa declares a nationwide state of emergency.
- June 14 – Fantasyland's Mindbender derails and kills three people.
- June 22 – In one of the most famous FIFA World Cup matches, Argentinian football player Diego Maradona scores one handball goal (nicknamed the "Hand of God") and then dribbles past the entire English football team to score a second goal (nicknamed "The Goal of the Century") with Argentina winning 2–1 against England.
- June 23 – Eric Thomas develops LISTSERV, the first email list management software.
- June 29 – Argentina defeats West Germany 3–2 to win the 1986 World Cup in Estadio Azteca in Mexico City.
- July 2 – Walt Disney Pictures releases the company's 26th animated film, The Great Mouse Detective.
- July 4 – The Statue of Liberty is reopened to the public after celebrating its centennial and an extensive refurbishment.
- July 7 – Australian drug smugglers Kevin Barlow and Brian Chambers are executed in Malaysia.
- July 11 – The New Zealand Homosexual Law Reform Act decriminalizes consensual sex between men from the age of 16.
- July 23 – In London, Prince Andrew, Duke of York marries Sarah Ferguson at Westminster Abbey.
- August 6
- A low-pressure system moving from South Australia and redeveloping off the New South Wales coast dumps a record 328 millimetres (12.9 in) of rain in a day on Sydney.
- Australian Democrats leader Don Chipp retires from federal parliament and is succeeded by Janine Haines, the first woman to lead a political party in Australia.
- August 16 – Typhoon Wayne formed over the South China Sea, going on to become one of the longest-lived tropical cyclones at 21 days, and kill 490.
- August 19 – Two weeks after it was stolen, the Picasso painting Weeping Woman is found in a locker at the Spencer Street Station in Melbourne, Australia.
- August 20 – In Edmond, Oklahoma, United States Postal Service employee Patrick Sherrill guns down 14 of his coworkers before committing suicide.
- August 21 – The Lake Nyos disaster, a limnic eruption, occurs in Cameroon, killing nearly 2,000 people.
- August 31
- The Soviet passenger liner SS Admiral Nakhimov collides with the bulk carrier Pyotr Vasev in the Black Sea and sinks almost immediately, killing 398.
- Aeroméxico Flight 498, a Douglas DC-9, collides with a Piper PA-28 over Cerritos, California, killing 82 (67 on both aircraft and 15 on the ground).
- The cargo ship Khian Sea departs from the docks of Philadelphia, carrying 14,000 tons of toxic waste. It wanders the seas for the next 16 months trying to find a place to dump its cargo. The waste is later dumped in Haiti.
- September 1 – Jordan University of Science and Technology is established in Jordan.
- September 4 – Eusko Alkartasuna, the Basque Social Democratic Party, is created in Vitoria-Gasteiz.
- September 5 – Pan Am Flight 73, with 358 people on board, is hijacked at Karachi International Airport by four Abu Nidal terrorists.
- September 6
- The Big Mac Index is introduced in The Economist newspaper as a semi-humorous international measure of purchasing power parity.
- In Istanbul, two Abu Nidal terrorists kill 22 and wound 6 inside the Neve Shalom Synagogue during Shabbat services.
- September 7
- Desmond Tutu becomes the first black Anglican Church bishop in South Africa.
- Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet survives an assassination attempt by the FPMR; 5 of Pinochet's bodyguards are killed.
- September 13 – The 6.0 Mw Kalamata earthquake shook southern Greece with a maximum Mercalli intensity of X (Extreme). The shock left at least 20 dead, 300 injured, and caused $5 million in damage.
- September 28 – The Democratic Progressive Party is founded. It was part of the Tangwai movement in the new generation to challenge Kuomintang in Taiwan's one-party politics, and is currently one of only two parties to win presidential elections in Taiwan.
- October 1 – U.S. President Ronald Reagan signs the Goldwater–Nichols Act into law, making official the largest reorganization of the United States Department of Defense since the Air Force was made a separate branch of service in 1947.
- October 3 – TASCC, a superconducting cyclotron, officially opens at Chalk River Laboratories. A hybrid solar eclipse was visible off the coast of Iceland, and was the 53rd solar eclipse of Solar Saros 124.
- October 9
- United States District Court Judge Harry E. Claiborne becomes the fifth federal official to be removed from office through impeachment.
- News Corporation completes its acquisition of the Metromedia group of companies, thereby launching the Fox Broadcasting Company.
- The Phantom of the Opera, the longest running Broadway show in history, opens at Her Majesty's Theatre in London.
- October 10 – The 5.7 Mw San Salvador earthquake shook San Salvador, El Salvador with a maximum Mercalli intensity of IX (Violent). Up to 1,500 people were killed.
- October 11–12 – Cold War: Ronald Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev meet in Reykjavík, Iceland, to continue discussions about scaling back their intermediate missile arsenals in Europe, which end in failure.
- October 16 – The International Olympic Committee chooses Albertville, France to be the host city of the 1992 Winter Olympics and Barcelona, Spain to be the host city of the 1992 Summer Olympics. The IOC also announces that the summer and winter games will separate with the winter games on every even, common year; and the summer games on every leap year starting from 1992.
- October 19 – Mozambican President Samora Machel's plane crashes in South Africa.
- October 21 – The Marshall Islands became an associated state under the Compact of Free Association.
- October 22 – In New York City, WNBC Radio's traffic helicopter crashes into the Hudson River, killing traffic reporter Jane Dornacker. The last words heard on-the-air are Dornacker's screams of terror, "Hit the water! Hit the water! Hit the water!"
- October 26
- Bus deregulation goes into effect in the United Kingdom, except Greater London and Northern Ireland.
- The state funeral of President Samora Machel of Mozambique takes place in Maputo.
- October 27
- The New York Mets win 4 games to 3 in the 1986 World Series against the Boston Red Sox.
- October 29 – British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher officially opens the M25 Motorway, which encircles Greater London, in a ceremony on the carriageway near Potters Bar. It became Europe's second longest orbital road upon completion, and provides the first and only full bypass of London.
- October 30 – The National Park Passport Stamps program begins in the United States.
- November 1
- Queensland, Australia: Joh Bjelke-Petersen wins his final election as Premier of Queensland with 38.6% of the vote. He resigns on December 1, 1987, following revelations of his involvement with corruption released in the Fitzgerald Inquiry.
- Sandoz chemical spill: A major environmental disaster near Basel, Switzerland pollutes the Rhine, when an agrochemical storehouse catches on fire.
- November 3
- Iran–Contra affair: The Lebanese magazine Ash-Shiraa reports that the United States has been selling weapons to Iran in secret, in order to secure the release of 7 American hostages held by pro-Iranian groups in Lebanon.
- The Northern Mariana Islands enter in a political union with the United States. The island's government adopted its own constitution in 1977, and the constitutional government took office in January 1978. The covenant was fully implemented November 3, 1986, pursuant to Presidential Proclamation no. 5564, which conferred United States citizenship on legally qualified island residents.
- November 6
- 45 people are killed in the 1986 British International Helicopters Chinook crash.
- Alex Ferguson is appointed as the new manager of Manchester United.
- November 18
- Greater Manchester Police announce that they will search for the bodies of 2 missing children (who both vanished more than 20 years ago) after the Moors murderers Ian Brady and Myra Hindley confess to 2 more murders.
- November 21
- Iran-Contra Affair: National Security Council member Oliver North and his secretary, Fawn Hall, start shredding documents implicating them in selling weapons to Iran and channeling the proceeds to help fund the Contra rebels in Nicaragua.
- December 4 – The MV Amazon Venture oil tanker begins leaking oil while at the port of Savannah in the United States, resulting in an oil spill of approximately 500,000 US gallons (1,900,000 L).
- December 7 – A magnitude 5.7 earthquake destroys most of the Bulgarian town of Strajica, killing 2 people.
- December 14 – Rutan Voyager, an experimental aircraft designed by Burt Rutan and piloted by Dick Rutan and Jeana Yeager, begins its flight around the world from Edwards Air Force Base in the United States.
- December 16 – Jeltoqsan, mass anti-government protests, break out across the Kazakh SSR, resulting in the massacre of over 165 protesters.
- December 19 – Soviet dissident Andrei Sakharov is permitted to return to Moscow after six years of internal exile.
- December 20 – Three African Americans are assaulted by a group of white teens in the Howard Beach neighborhood of Queens, New York. One of the victims, Michael Griffith, is run over and killed by a motorist while attempting to flee the attackers.
- December 23 – Rutan Voyager completes the first nonstop circumnavigation of the earth by air without refueling in 9 days, 3 minutes and 44 seconds.
- December 31
- Dupont Plaza Hotel arson: A hotel fire in San Juan, Puerto Rico, kills 97 and injures 140.
- Soviet submarine Krasnoyarsk (K-173) is commissioned.
- Average per capita income in Japan exceeds that in the United States.
- The first commercially available 3D printer is sold.
- Informal stock trading is done in Shenyang, China; the first of its kind in Communist China.
- Opus Pro, a Latvian hard rock group, is established.
- The band Sweet Children (now known as Green Day) was formed by the lead singer, Billie Joe Armstrong.
- The Province of Flevoland is established in the Netherlands.
Births and deaths
- Physics – Ernst Ruska, Gerd Binnig, Heinrich Rohrer
- Chemistry – Dudley R. Herschbach, Yuan T. Lee, John Polanyi
- Physiology or Medicine – Stanley Cohen, Rita Levi-Montalcini
- Literature – Wole Soyinka
- Peace – Elie Wiesel
- Economics – James M. Buchanan
- ^ Rule, Sheila; Times, Special To the New York (January 30, 1986). "REBEL SWORN IN AS UGANDA PRESIDENT". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
- ^ David P. Forsythe (2009). Encyclopedia of Human Rights. OUP USA. p. 353. ISBN 9780195334029.
- ^ "Maxiprocesso di Palermo - WikiMafia - Libera Enciclopedia sulle Mafie". wikimafia.it. Retrieved December 29, 2020.
- ^ FRIEND, THEODORE (1988). "The "Yellow Revolution": Its Mixed Historical Legacy". Philippine Studies. 36 (2): 166–182. JSTOR 42633078 – via JSTOR.
- ^ "G.R. No. L-82380 April 29, 1988 - AYER PRODUCTIONS PTY. LTD., ET AL. v. IGNACIO M. CAPULONG, ET AL. : April 1988 - Philippine Supreme Court Decisions". www.chanrobles.com.
- ^ "Cairo Calm After Riot Leaves 25 Dead". Chicago Tribune.
- ^ Binnig, G.; Quate, C. F.; Berger, Ch. (March 3, 1986). "Atomic Force Microscope". Physical Review Letters. 56 (9): 930–933. Bibcode:1986PhRvL..56..930B. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.56.930. PMID 10033323.
- ^ "Airline/Operator "M"". PlaneCrashInfo. Retrieved March 15, 2013.
- ^ "And Baby Makes Four: for the First Time a Surrogate Bears a Child Genetically Not Her Own". People.
- ^ "The Space Review: Death of a monster". www.thespacereview.com. Retrieved October 22, 2021.
- ^ a b Sovacool, Benjamin K. (2008). "The costs of failure: A preliminary assessment of major energy accidents, 1907–2007". Energy Policy. 36 (5): 1806. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2008.01.040.
- ^ "1986". Retrieved January 25, 2013.
- ^ Culhane, John (July 27, 1986). "'THE GREAT MOUSE DETECTIVE' GIVES CLUES TO THE FUTURE OF DISNEY ANIMATION". The New York Times. Retrieved December 4, 2021.
- ^ McFadden, Robert D. (July 5, 1986). "A VERY SPECIAL DAY: MILLIONS WATCH FESTIVE HARBOR SALUTE TO LIBERTY; FIREWORKS FILL SKY". The New York Times. Retrieved December 4, 2021.
- ^ Agencies, Peter Hiett and (July 7, 1986). "Brian Chambers and Kevin Barlow executed in Malaysia". the Guardian. Retrieved December 4, 2021.
- ^ "Homosexual law reform in New Zealand". nzhistory.govt.nz. Retrieved December 4, 2021.
- ^ "medal | British Museum". The British Museum. Retrieved December 4, 2021.
- ^ JMA. RSMC Best Track Data (Text): 1986-1990. Archived 2009-05-06 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved on 2009-02-07.
- ^ JTWC(1987). Chapter 3: Northwest Pacific and North Indian Ocean Tropical Cyclones. Archived 2011-06-07 at the Wayback Machine United States Navy. Retrieved on 2007-12-19.
- ^ "Big MacCurrencies". The Economist. April 9, 1998. Retrieved July 24, 2007.
- ^ Daley, James (September 6, 2008). "Burgernomics: Why the price of a Big Mac may hold the key to better investment returns". The Independent. Archived from the original on May 1, 2022. Retrieved July 29, 2011.
- ^ Palma, T.; Bazán, I.; Siredey, F. (September 3, 2016). "El atentado a Pinochet en tres tiempos". La Tercera (in Spanish). Retrieved October 5, 2021.
- ^ Zalaquett, Cherie (2011). "La frentista "Fabiola": un relato en reversa del atentado a Pinochet" ["Fabiola": a reverse story on Pinochet attack]. Revista Izquierdas (in Spanish). 9: 1–30.
- ^ "BBC ON THIS DAY – 12 – 1986: Reykjavik summit ends in failure". October 12, 1986.
- ^ Miller, Judith (October 18, 1986). "Barcelona gets 1992 Summer Olympics". The New York Times. Retrieved September 18, 2017.
- ^ Stringfield, Whitney J. (1990). "Major Oil Spill on the Savannah River, Georgia and South Carolina, December 1986". National Water Summary 1987—Hydrologic Events and Water Supply and Use. National Water Summary: Hydrologic Events, Selected Water Quality Trends and Ground Water Resources. United States Geological Survey. Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office. pp. 51–54. ISSN 0892-3469.
- ^ Greek, Joe (December 15, 2014). Incredible Projects Using 3D Printing. The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc. p. 7. ISBN 978-1-4777-7947-7.
- ^ China Stock Directory. SinoMedia (Holdings) Co. Ltd. p. 7. ISBN 978-988-98254-2-3.
- ^ "/? p = 6732210 Opus Pro - Riga Four White Shirts". Retrieved December 18, 2022.