7-Hydroxymitragynine

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7-Hydroxymitragynine
Stereo, Kekulé, skeletal formula of 7-hydroxymitragynine with an explicit hydrogen added
Identifiers
CAS number 174418-82-7 N
PubChem 44301524
ChemSpider 23152144 YesY
ChEMBL CHEMBL61630 YesY
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Image 2
Properties
Molecular formula C23H30N2O5
Molar mass 414.49 g mol−1
log P 1.266
Acidity (pKa) 12.203
Basicity (pKb) 1.794
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
 N (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Infobox references

7-Hydroxymitragynine (mitragynine hydroxyindolenine) is a terpenoid indole alkaloid in the plant Mitragyna speciosa, commonly known as Kratom. It has opioid agonistic activity.[2] "The potency, calculated using pD (2) values, was 30-fold higher than that of mitragynine and 17-fold higher than that of morphine, respectively. Antagonism of naloxone on concentration-response curves for 7-hydroxymitragynine confirmed its opioid effect. These results suggest that the opioid effect of M. speciosa is mostly based on the activity of 7-hydroxymitragynine." One notable distinction between 7-hydroxymitragynine and traditional opioids is that 7-hydroxymitragynine does not cause hypoventilation (respiratory depression) and therefore does not carry the primary safety risk associated with traditional opioids.[3]

7-Hydroxymitragynine is orally active in animals as an analgesic,[4] and produces normal opioid side effects including constipation, though significantly less than morphine,[5] development of tolerance and withdrawal syndrome upon abstinence.[4] The O-acetyl ester (Acetoxy), 7-acetoxymitragynine has also been reported and found to be an active μ-opioid agonist.[6]

7-Acetoxymitragynine

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH, 2004; RN 174418-82-7 (accessed via SciFinder Scholar, version 2007.3; November 30, 2011)
  2. ^ Takayama H, Ishikawa H, Kurihara M, Kitajima M, Aimi N, Ponglux D, Koyama F, Matsumoto K, Moriyama T, Yamamoto LT, Watanabe K, Murayama T, Horie S (April 2002). "Studies on the synthesis and opioid agonistic activities of mitragynine-related indole alkaloids: discovery of opioid agonists structurally different from other opioid ligands". J. Med. Chem. 45 (9): 1949–56. doi:10.1021/jm010576e. PMID 11960505. 
  3. ^ Horie S, Koyama F, Takayama H et al. (March 2005). "Indole alkaloids of a Thai medicinal herb, Mitragyna speciosa, that has opioid agonistic effect in guinea-pig ileum". Planta Med. 71 (3): 231–6. doi:10.1055/s-2005-837822. PMID 15770543. 
  4. ^ a b Matsumoto K, Horie S, Ishikawa H et al. (March 2004). "Antinociceptive effect of 7-hydroxymitragynine in mice: Discovery of an orally active opioid analgesic from the Thai medicinal herb Mitragyna speciosa". Life Sci. 74 (17): 2143–55. doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2003.09.054. PMID 14969718. 
  5. ^ Matsumoto K, Hatori Y, Murayama T et al. (November 2006). "Involvement of mu-opioid receptors in antinociception and inhibition of gastrointestinal transit induced by 7-hydroxymitragynine, isolated from Thai herbal medicine Mitragyna speciosa". Eur. J. Pharmacol. 549 (1–3): 63–70. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2006.08.013. PMID 16978601. 
  6. ^ Takayama H, Ishikawa H, Kurihara M et al. (April 2002). "Studies on the synthesis and opioid agonistic activities of mitragynine-related indole alkaloids: discovery of opioid agonists structurally different from other opioid ligands". J. Med. Chem. 45 (9): 1949–56. doi:10.1021/jm010576e. PMID 11960505.