Commission on Elections (Philippines)

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Commission on Elections
Komisyon sa Halalan
COMELEC Seal.png
Official Seal of the Commission on Elections
Formation August 22, 1940
Headquarters Palacio del Gobernador Building, General Luna Street corner Andres Soriano, Jr. Avenue, Intramuros, Manila
Chairman Atty. Sixto Brillantes, Jr.
Website www.comelec.gov.ph
Coat of arms of the Philippines.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
the Philippines
Constitution

The Commission on Elections (Filipino: Komisyon sa Halalan, abbreviated as COMELEC) is one of the three constitutional commissions of the Philippines. Its principal role is to enforce all laws and regulations relative to the conduct of elections, initiatives, referendums, and recall elections.

Functions[edit]

Under the Constitution, the Commission on Elections is independent of the Executive, Legislative and Judicial branches of the Philippine Government. It has the following functions:

Quasi-Judicial functions[edit]

  • to exercise exclusive jurisdictions over all contests relating to the elections, returns, and qualifications of all elective regional, provincial and city officials and appellate jurisdiction over all contests involving all municipal officials decided by trial courts of general jurisdiction;
  • to decide, except those involving the right to vote, all questions affecting elections, including determination of the number and location of polling places, appointment of election officials and inspectors, and registration of voters;
  • to file petitions in court for inclusion or exclusion of voters; and
  • to investigate and, where appropriate, prosecute cases of violations of election laws, including acts or omissions constituting election fraud, offenses and malpractices.

Administrative functions[edit]

  • To enforce and administer all laws and regulations relative to the conduct of and elections, plebiscites, initiatives, referendum, and recalls.
  • to deputize, with the concurrence of the President of the Philippines, law enforcement agencies and instrumentalities of the Government, including the Armed Forces of the Philippines, for the exclusive purpose of ensuring free, orderly, honest, peaceful credible elections;
  • to register political parties, organizations or coalitions and accredit citizens' arms of the Commission.

Reportorial function[edit]

  • To submit to the President and the Congress a comprehensive report on the conduct of each election, plebiscite, initiative, referendum, or recall.

Recommendatory functions[edit]

  • To recommend to Congress the enactment of effective measures to minimize election spending including limitation of places where propaganda materials shall be posted, and to prevent and penalize all forms of election frauds, offenses, malpractices, and nuisance candidates; and
  • to recommend to the President the removal of any officer of employee it has deputized, or the imposition of any other disciplinary action, for violation or disregard of, or disobedience to its directive, order, or decision.

Other functions[edit]

  • To perform other functions as may be provided by law, including fiscal autonomy.

Organizational structure[edit]

The old Comelec building after being razed by fire on March 11, 2007.

The Commission Proper is the policy-making body composed of the Chairman and six Commissioners who must be natural-born citizens of the Philippines; at least thirty-five years of age at the time of their appointment; holders of a college degree, with a majority of them, including the Chairman, members of the Philippine Bar who have been engaged in the practice of law for at least ten (10) years; and must not have been a candidate for any elective position in the immediate preceding elections [Article IX-C, Section 1, 1987 Constitution]. The Chairman and the Commissioners are appointed by the President, with the consent of the Commission on Appointments.n They hold office for seven years, without reappointment.

The Commissioners exercise quasi-legislative and quasi-judicial functions either en banc or in division. They also perform such other functions as may be assigned by the Commission or the Chairman.

The Chairman acts as the Presiding Officer and Chief Executive Officer of the Commission. He directs and supervises the operations and internal administration of the Commission in accordance with its policies, rules and regulations.

Offices[edit]

Comelec, Palacio del Gobernador, Intramuros(2013 photo).

Assisting the Commission, whose office is located at Palacio del Gobernador, are the Executive Director, Deputy Executive Directors for Administration and Operations, nine Department offices, 17 Regional Election Directors, 81 Provincial Election Supervisors and Election Officers in cities and municipalities. Comelec has a complement of more than 15,000 employees.

History[edit]

The 1978 Commission is composed of [from left] Commissioners Flores A. Bayot, Venancio Duque, Chairman Leonardo Perez, Commissioners Domingo Pabalete and Vicente Santiago (not in the photo).

The Commission on Elections (Comelec) was created by a 1940 amendment to the 1935 Constitution of the Philippines. Before the creation of the Comelec, supervision over the conduct of elections was vested by law in the Secretary of Interior. The Secretary of Interior saw to it that local authorities performed the ministerial duties assigned to them by the Election Code. He decides administrative questions concerning elections. The courts, however, exercised exclusive and final jurisdiction over questions affecting the right to vote as well as contested elections of local elective officials. Elections contests involving members of the National Assembly were judged solely by an Electoral Commission composed of three justices of the Supreme Court and six members of the National Assembly.

In view, however, of the close official ties between the President and the Secretary of Interior, there was always the danger of a partisan Secretary of the Interior exploiting his powers and influence to ensure the victory of his party at the polls.

As a consequence, the Constitution was amended in 1940 to create an independent Commission on Elections, composed of a Chairman and two other members, to take over the functions of the Secretary of the Interior relative to the elections. but since the amendments could not be effective in time for the 1940 elections, the National Assembly, by Commonwealth Act No. 607, created a Commission on Elections, giving thereto the same powers which the Commission on Elections could have under the amended Constitution. The statutory Commission supervised the conduct of the December 10, 1940 local elections.

The constitutional amendment creating the Commission on Elections was finally approved on December 2, 1940. On June 21, 1941, Commonwealth Act No. 657 was enacted reorganizing the Commission on Elections as a constitutional entity. The members of the statutory Commission continued as members of the constitutional Commission.

The Chairman and Members of the Commission had a fixed term of nine years each – a member being replaced every three years except in the first Commission. They could be removed from office only by impeachment. They were provided with fixed salaries which could neither be increased nor diminished during their term of office. These were safeguards to ensure the independence of the Commission.

The administrative control of elections exercised by the Secretary of Interior was transferred to the Commission on Elections. The Commission was vested with the exclusive charge of enforcing and administering all laws relative to elections and power to decide all questions affecting elections, except those involving the right to vote, which were left to final judicial determination. The courts and electoral tribunals retained their original powers over election contests.

The 1973 Constitution enlarged the membership of the Commission from three to nine members but reduced their term of office from nine years to seven years. As in the 1935 Constitution, the Chairman and Commissioners have staggered terms of office and could be removed from office only by impeachment.

First to serve in the Commission on Elections under the 1973 Constitution were former Senator Leonardo B. Perez, as Chairman, and Venacio S. Duque, Flores A. Bayot, Jose M. Mendoza, Fernando R. Veloso, Lininding Pangandaman, Venancio L. Yaneza and Casimiro R. Madarang, Jr. as Commissioners. Commissioner Pangandaman, the first Muslim Commissioner of the Comelec, was appointed Ambassador by President Ferdinand Marcos even before the expiration of his term. His unexpired term was taken over by Commissioner Hashim R. Abubakar.

On May 17, 1980, Chairman Perez (who was later appointed Minister on Political Affairs by President Marcos) and Commissioners Duque and Bayot, after completing their seven-years term, retired. Commissioner Santiago succeeded Perez, and the following were appointed Commissioners: Domingo C. Pabalete; Victorino A. Savellano; Jaime C. Opinion; Noli Sagadraca; Romeo Firme: Luis Lardizabal and Ide C. Tillah. With Commissioner Lardizabal the membership of the Commission was thus increased to eight, one short of the full complement of nine.

Upon the retirement of Commissioners Firme, Tillah and Lardizabal on May 17, 1983 the Commission on Elections was composed of only five members.

On March 21, 1983, two new members were appointed by President Marcos, namely: Froilan Bacungan and Ramon H. Felipe, Jr.

With the retirement of Chairman Santiago and Commissioners Pabalete and Sagadraca on May 17, 1984, Savellano was appointed Chairman.

Three new members were appointed on July 27, 1985, namely: Commissioners Quirino A. Marquinez, Mangontawar Guro and Mario D. Ortiz.

On January 31, 1986 Commissioners Ruben C. Agpalo and Jaime Layosa were appointed to finally complete the required membership of nine.

After the tumultuous February 7, 1986 snap elections and the People Power Revolution, Chairman Savellano and all the Commissioners of the Comelec tendered their courtesy resignations which, except those of Commissioners Bacungan and Felipe, were accepted by President Corazon C. Aquino.

On April 11, 1986 Commissioner Felipe was appointed Acting Chairman. On July 23, 1986 he took his oath of office as permanent Chairman, together with Commissioners Leopoldo Africa, Haydee Yorac, Andres Flores, Anacleto Badoy, and Dario Rama as members of the "new" Commission on Elections.

On February 15, 1988 Hilario G. Davide, Jr., was appointed Chairman with Alfredo E. Abueg, Jr., Haydee B. Yorac, Leopoldo L. Africa, Andres R. Flores, Dario C. Rama and Magdara B. Dimaampao as Commissioners. Commissioner Haydee B. Yorac was appointed as Acting Chairman when Hilario G. Davide, Jr. was appointed Chairman of the Presidential Fact Finding Commission in December 1989, pursuant to Administrative Order No. 146.

On June 6, 1991 Christian Monsod was appointed by President Aquino as Chairman of the Commission to serve the unexpired term of Davide.

When Monsod retired on February 15, 1995 President Fidel V. Ramos appointed Court of Appeals Justice Bernardo Pardo as Chairman of the Commission. Pardo's term was cut short when he was appointed by President Joseph Estrada as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court in October 1998. Commissioner Luzviminda Tancangco was appointed Acting Chairman of the Commission.

On January 11, 1999 President Estrada appointed Sandiganbayan Justice Harriet Demetriou as Chairman of the Commission. After the events of January 2001 that led to the ouster of President Estrada from power, Demetriou tendered her courtesy resignation which was accepted by President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo.

On February 19, 2001 President Arroyo appointed Justice Alfredo Benipayo as Chairman of the Commission. However, the Commission on Appointments did not confirm his appointment due to opposition of some Commissioners led by Luzviminda Tancangco. On June 5, 2002 President Arroyo appointed Metropolitan Manila Development Authority Chairman and former Mandaluyong City mayor Benjamin S. Abalos, Sr. to replace Benipayo.

On January 26, 2008, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo appointed former Supreme Court Associate Justice Jose Melo, 77, to replace Chair Abalos.[1] The United Opposition (Koalisyon ng Nagkakaisang Pilipino) opposed Melo's appointment.[2] But Melo needs to be confirmed by the Commission on Appointments (CA), so Commissioner Romeo A. Brawner was appointed ad interim Acting Chairman on February 2, 2008 and will stay as Chairman until Melo is confirmed by the CA.

On March 25, 2008, former Supreme Court justice Jose Melo was sworn in as new chairman of the Commission on Elections (Comelec) by acting Chair Romeo A. Brawner. Melo's ad interim appointment (Congress is not in session) was sent by the Malacañan to the Commission on Appointments.[3]

On May 29, 2008, Romeo A. Brawner died from a massive heart attack. Brawner, appointed to the Comelec to replace the controversial Virgilio Garcillano, was supposed to end his term on February 2, 2011.[4]

Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, on July 2, 2008, appointed former Acting Judge (Br. 74, RTC, Malabon) Leonardo Leonida and retired Justice of the Court of Appeals Lucenito Tagle as Commissioners of the Commission on Elections.[5][6] On November 7, 2008, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo has appointed Armando Velasco, as new election commissioner, and reappointed bypassed Commissioners Leonardo L. Leonida and Lucenito N. Tagle.[7] Eduardo Ermita stated "Velasco replaced Comelec commissioner and former Iligan City Judge Moslemen Macarambon, Jr. whose appointment had been bypassed several times by the Commission on Appointments (CA)."[8][9]

Impeachment complaint[edit]

On September 27, 2007, Iloilo Vice Governor Rolex Suplico filed a 69-page impeachment complaint (3:00 p.m.) against Commission on Elections chairman Benjamin Abalos, Sr. before the House of Representatives of the Philippines regarding the ZTE national broadband network (NBN) deal. It was endorsed by Representatives Teofisto Guingona III of Bukidnon and Teodoro Casiño of Bayan Muna (People First), and Zamboanga City Representative Ma. Isabelle Climaco. Affidavits of Romulo Neri and Jose de Venecia III supported the complaint.[10][11] On October 1, 2007, COMELEC Chairman Benjamin Abalos, Sr. faced with an impending impeachment case resigned in a press conference. The Commission on Elections appointed Resurreccion Z. Borra as Acting Chairman. Mr. Abalos stated: "I'm resigning... effective immediately," Mr. Abalos told a news conference. "However, let not my detractors feast on this declaration. I'm not admitting guilt for any wrongdoing."[12] An impeachment complaint against Commission on Elections (Comelec) chairman Benjamin Abalos Sr was formally filed before the House of Representatives after Romulo Neri, former chief of the National Economic Development Authority (Neda), accused Abalos of attempting to bribe him.

Issues[edit]

ZTE broadband contract controversy[edit]

In August 2007, Nueva Vizcaya Rep. Carlos Padilla delivered a privilege speech alleging that Abalos brokered for the national broadband network (NBN) project. Padilla claimed that Abalos met with officials of the Chinese firm ZTE Corp., which got the US $329 million contract for the broadband project.

Abalos denied brokering for the National Broadband Network project despite admitting he knows some officials in ZTE Corp. He admitted making four trips to China and playing golf there. He also admitted that ZTE officials, whom he says are his golf buddies, hosted and paid for the trips.

Jose de Venecia III, son of House Speaker Jose de Venecia Jr, alleged that Abalos offered him US$10 million to withdraw his proposal on the NBN project. De Venecia is a majority shareholder of Amsterdam Holdings Inc., a company that submitted an unsolicited proposal on the NBN project. De Venecia also claimed that Abalos asked for money from the ZTE Corp. officials.

Hello Garci[edit]

Abalos was mentioned in the "Hello Garci" tape, which refers to the alleged wiretapped conversations where vote rigging in the 2004 elections was discussed by, among others, a woman presumed to be President Arroyo and man presumed to be Comelec Commissioner Virgilio Garcillano.

Mega Pacific[edit]

Abalos was the Comelec chair when the election body approved a P1.3-billion contract with the Mega Pacific Consortium for the purchase of automated counting machines, which the Supreme Court in January 2004 declared as void because of "clear violation of law and jurisprudence" and "reckless disregard of [Comelec's] own bidding rules and procedure."

On January 21, 2004, Pimentel filed criminal and administrative charges before the Ombudsman against Abalos and other commissioners in connection with the deal. Abalos described the charges as a "demolition job."

Pimentel accused Abalos and the other commissioners of committing an act of impropriety when they and their wives traveled to Seoul, South Korea to visit the plant of the maker of the counting machines a few months before the bidding for the contract started. Pimentel said he received information that the Korean company paid for the plane tickets and hotel accommodations for the trip.

However, Abalos claimed that the expenses for the trip were paid for out of the P1 million he won in a golf tournament in Wack Wack.

On September 27, 2006, the Ombudsman, in a resolution, absolved all respondents involved in the Mega Pacific controversy of all administrative and criminal liabilities "for lack of probable cause." It also reversed its June 28 resolution which contained factual findings that can be used by the House of Representatives to initiate impeachment proceedings against Comelec Commissioner Resureccion Borra.

Members[edit]

Current[edit]

Name Term began Term scheduled to end Position Appointed by
Sixto Brillantes January 17, 2011 February 2, 2015 Chairman Benigno Aquino III
Lucenito Tagle July 8, 2008 February 2, 2015 Commissioner Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
Elias Yusoph March 2009 February 2, 2015 Commissioner Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
Christian Robert Lim January 17, 2011 February 2, 2018 Commissioner Benigno Aquino III
Luie Guia April 20, 2013 February 2, 2020 Commissioner Benigno Aquino III
Al Parreño April 20, 2013 February 2, 2020 Commissioner Benigno Aquino III
Arthur Lim July 28, 2014 February 2, 2021 Commissioner Benigno Aquino III

Chairmen[edit]

Name Term started Term ended Appointed by
Pedro Concepcion September 1, 1940 May 11, 1941 Manuel L. Quezon
Jose Lopez Vito May 13, 1941 May 7, 1947 Manuel L. Quezon
Vicente de Vera April 9, 1947 April 10, 1951 Manuel Roxas
Domingo Imperial August 14, 1951 March 31, 1958 Elpidio Quirino
Jose P. Carag May 19, 1958 June 20, 1959 Carlos P. Garcia
Gaudencio Garcia May 12, 1960 June 20, 1962 Carlos P. Garcia
Juan V. Borra August 2, 1962 June 20, 1968 Diosdado Macapagal
Manuel Arranz October 18, 1968 June 2, 1969 Ferdinand Marcos
Jaime N. Ferrer June 10, 1969 May 28, 1973 Ferdinand Marcos
Leonardo B. Perez May 20, 1973 May 17, 1980 Ferdinand Marcos
Vicente Santiago, Jr. May 17, 1980 May 17, 1985 Ferdinand Marcos
Victorino Sabellano May 20, 1985 March 24, 1986 Ferdinand Marcos
Ramon H. Felipe, Jr. July 11, 1986 February 3, 1988 Corazon Aquino
Hilario Davide, Jr. February 15, 1988 December 7, 1989 Corazon Aquino
Haydee Yorac December 8, 1989 June 5, 1991 Corazon Aquino
Christian Monsod June 6, 1991 February 15, 1995 Corazon Aquino
Bernardo Pardo February 17, 1995 October 8, 1998 Fidel V. Ramos
Harriet Demetriou January 11, 1999 February 15, 2001 Joseph Estrada
Alfredo Benipayo February 19, 2001 June 4, 2002 Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
Benjamin Abalos June 5, 2002 October 1, 2007 Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
Resurreccion Borra October 2, 2007 February 2, 2008 Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
Romeo Brawner February 2, 2008 March 24, 2008 Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
Jose Melo March 25, 2008 January 15, 2011 Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
Sixto Brillantes January 17, 2011 present Benigno Aquino III

Commissioners[edit]

Name Term started Term ended Appointed by
Pedro Concepcion September 1, 1940 May 11, 1941 Manuel L. Quezon
Jose C. Abreu September 1, 1940 October 11, 1944
Rufino Luna September 12, 1940 July 12, 1945
Jose Lopez Vito May 13, 1941 October 11, 1944
Francisco Enage July 12, 1945 November 9, 1949 Sergio Osmeña
Vicente de Vera July 12, 1945 April 8, 1947
Vicente de Vera April 9, 1947 April 10, 1951 Manuel Roxas
Leopoldo Rovira May 22, 1947 September 10, 1954
Rodrigo Perez, Jr. December 8, 1949 June 21, 1956 Elpidio Quirino
Domingo Imperial August 14, 1951 March 31, 1958
Gaudencio Garcia May 18, 1955 May 11, 1960 Ramon Magsaysay
Sixto Brillantes, Sr. December 20, 1956 June 20, 1965
Jose P. Carag May 19, 1958 June 20, 1959 Carlos P. Garcia
Gaudencio Garcia May 12, 1960 June 20, 1962
Genaro Visarra May 12, 1960 November 10, 1962
Juan V. Borra August 2, 1962 June 20, 1968 Diosdado Macapagal
Cesar Miraflor November 11, 1962 June 20, 1971
Gregorio Santayana June 26, 1965 May 31, 1966
Francisco Ortega December 25, 1966 March 20, 1967 Ferdinand Marcos
Manuel Arranz August 27, 1967 October 17, 1968
Jaime N. Ferrer May 23, 1969 June 9, 1969
Jaime N. Ferrer June 10, 1969 May 28, 1973
Lino Patajo June 16, 1969 May 31, 1973
Jose M. Mendoza September 6, 1971 May 17, 1980
Leonardo B. Perez May 20, 1973 May 17, 1980
Liningding Pangandaman May 29, 1973 May 17, 1980
Flores Bayot May 30, 1973 May 17, 1980
Venancio Yaneza May 30, 1973 May 17, 1980
Casimiro Madarang, Jr. May 30, 1973 May 17, 1980
Fernando Veloso May 30, 1973 May 17, 1980
Venancio Duque June 1, 1973 May 17, 1980
Hashim Abubakar July 25, 1974 May 17, 1976
Domingo Pabalate May 17, 1978 May 17, 1985
Vicente Santiago, Jr. May 18, 1978 May 17, 1980
Vicente Santiago, Jr. May 17, 1980 May 17, 1985
Victorino Sabellano May 17, 1980 May 17, 1987
Jaime Opinion May 17, 1980 April 1, 1986
Noli Sagadraca May 17, 1980 May 17, 1985
Romeo Firme May 17, 1980 May 17, 1983
Ide Tillah May 17, 1980 May 17, 1983
Luis Lardizabal May 17, 1980 May 17, 1983
Froilan Bacungan May 21, 1984 September 1, 1986
Ramon Felipe, Jr. May 21, 1984 May 17, 1990
Victorino Sabellano May 25, 1985 March 24, 1986
Mario D. Ortiz July 30, 1985 July 23, 1986
Quirino Marquinez August 1, 1985 July 23, 1986
Mangontawar Guro July 30, 1985 April 11, 1986
Ruben Agpalo January 2, 1986 July 23, 1986
Jaime Layosa January 29, 1986 July 23, 1986
Ramon Felipe, Jr. July 11, 1986 February 3, 1988 Corazon Aquino
Leopoldo Africa July 14, 1986 February 15, 1991
Haydee Yorac July 15, 1986 February 11, 1993
Anacleto Badoy, Jr. July 16, 1986 February 3, 1988
Andres R. Flores July 17, 1986 February 15, 1991
Dario Rama July 18, 1986 February 15, 1993
Tomas dela Cruz December 11, 1986 September 13, 1987
Hilario Davide, Jr. February 15, 1988 December 7, 1989
Alfredo Abueg, Jr. December 16, 1987 November 3, 1994
Magdara Dimaampao February 15, 1988 February 15, 1995
Christian Monsod June 6, 1991 February 15, 1995
Regalado Maambong June 6, 1991 February 15, 1998
Vicente B. de Lima February 7, 1992 November 4, 1994
Remedios Fernando February 14, 1992 February 15, 1998
Manolo Gorospe April 14, 1993 February 14, 2000 Fidel V. Ramos
Julio Demasito January 3, 1995 February 15, 2001
Japal Guiani March 29, 1996 February 15, 2000
Teresita Dy-Liacco Flores February 17, 1995 February 17, 2002
Bernardo P. Pardo February 17, 1995 October 8, 1998
Flores Amado Calderon February 16, 1998 June 30, 1998
Evalyn Fetalino February 16, 1998 June 30, 1998
Luzviminda Tancangco August 5, 1998 February 15, 2004 Joseph Estrada
Abdul Gani Marohombsar September 7, 1998 February 15, 2005
Harriet Demetriou January 11, 1999 February 15, 2002
Ralph Lantion January 6, 2000 February 15, 2004
Rufino Javier March 3, 2000 February 15, 2007
Ressureccion Borra February 16, 2001 February 15, 2008 Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
Alfredo Benipayo February 19, 2001 June 4, 2002
Florentino Tuason February 21, 2001 February 15, 2008
Mehol Sadan July 17, 2001 February 15, 2007
Benjamin Abalos June 5, 2002 October 1, 2007
Virgilio Garcillano February 12, 2004 June 10, 2005
Manuel Barcellona, Jr. February 12, 2004 June 10, 2005
Romeo Brawner September 19, 2005 May 29, 2008
Rene Sarmiento April 6, 2006 February 2, 2013
Nicodemo Ferrer June 9, 2006 February 2, 2011
Moslemen Macarambon November 5, 2007 October 10, 2008
Jose Melo March 25, 2008 January 15, 2011
Leonardo Leonida July 3, 2008 June 26, 2009
Lucenito Tagle July 8, 2008 present
Armando Velasco November 8, 2008 February 2, 2013
Elias Yusoph March 2009 present
Gregorio Lardizabal September 15, 2009 February 2, 2011
Sixto Brillantes January 17, 2011 present Benigno Aquino III
Robert S. Lim April 7, 2011 present
Augusto Lagman June 10, 2011 March 31, 2012
Grace Padaca October 8, 2012 June 30, 2014
Luie Guia April 20, 2013 present
Al Parreño April 20, 2013 present
Arthur Lim July 28, 2014 present

Timeline[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Marichu Villanueva Melo named new COMELEC chairman. asianjournalusa.com (2008-01-26)
  2. ^ Opposition questions Melo's appointment as poll chief. gmanetwork.com. Video (2008-01-26)
  3. ^ Melo sworn in as Comelec chairman. Newsinfo.inquirer.net (2008-03-25). Retrieved on 2011-12-16.
  4. ^ Brawner's death leaves 3 vacancies in Comelec-spokesman – INQUIRER.net, Philippine News for Filipinos. Newsinfo.inquirer.net. (2008-05-29) Retrieved on 2011-12-16.
  5. ^ 2 Comelec commissioners named. Newsinfo.inquirer.net (2010-06-09). Retrieved on 2011-12-16.
  6. ^ gmanews.tv/story, Arroyo names 2 new Comelec commissioners – report. Gmanews.tv (2008-07-02). Retrieved on 2011-12-16.
  7. ^ New election commissioner named. Newsinfo.inquirer.net. (2008-11-07) Retrieved on 2011-12-16.
  8. ^ New Comelec commissioner named; Macarambon out?. Beta.philstar.com (2008-11-08). Retrieved on 2011-12-16.
  9. ^ New poll commissioner vows changes. Newsinfo.inquirer.net. (2008-11-09) Retrieved on 2011-12-16.
  10. ^ Impeachment raps filed vs Abalos at House by Iloilo vice gov. Inquirer.net. Retrieved on 2011-12-16.
  11. ^ Impeachment raps filed vs Abalos over ZTE controversy. Gmanews.tv (2007-09-27). Retrieved on 2011-12-16.
  12. ^ WSJ, Philippine Voting Chief Quits Amid Bribe Queries[dead link]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]