Hizb ut-Tahrir

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Hizb ut-Tahrir
حزب التحرير
Leader Ata Abu Rashta
Founder Taqiuddin al-Nabhani
Founded 1953; 61 years ago (1953)
Headquarters Lebanon
Membership Estimated 1 million
Ideology Pan-Islamism
Sunni Islam
International affiliation Worldwide
Website
http://www.hizb-ut-tahrir.org/

Hizb ut-Tahrir (Arabic: حزب التحريرḤizb at-Taḥrīr; Party of Liberation) is an international pan-Islamic political organisation. They are commonly associated with the goal of all Muslim countries unifying as an Islamic state or caliphate ruled by Islamic law (sharia) and with a caliph head of state elected by Muslims.[1][2]

The organization was founded in 1953 as a Sunni Muslim organization in Jerusalem by Taqiuddin al-Nabhani, an Islamic scholar and appeals court judge (Qadi)[3] from the Palestinian village of Ijzim. Since then Hizb ut-Tahrir has spread to more than 40 countries and by one estimate has about one million members.[4] Hizb ut-Tahrir is very active in the West, particularly in the United Kingdom, and is also active in several Arab and Central Asian countries, despite being banned by some governments. The group also has a growing presence in North America, known as Hizb ut-tahrir America, or HTA.

Hizb ut-Tahrir believes the re-establishment of caliphate would provide stability and security to both Muslims and non-Muslims in the predominantly Muslim regions of the world.[5] The party promotes a detailed program for institution of a caliphate that would establish Shariah and carry "the Da'wah of Islam" to the world.[6][7][8] Hizb ut-Tahrir is also strongly anti-Zionist and calls for the State of Israel, which it calls an "illegal entity", to be dismantled.[9]

Goals, methods, and organization[edit]

Hizb ut-Tahrir states its aim as unification of all Muslim nations over time in a unitary Islamic state or caliphate, headed by an elected caliph.[1] This, it holds, is a religious duty, "an obligation that Allah has decreed for the Muslims and commanded them to fulfill. He warned of the punishment awaiting those who neglect this duty."[10] One analyst, however,[11] quotes the work of Hizb ut-Tahrir founder Taqiuddin al-Nabhani[12] to suggest that once Hizb ut-Tahrir has succeeded in creating a unified, transnational Islamic state it should press on to expand the state into non-Muslim areas. According to al-Nabhani's work The Islamic State, Muslims abroad "should work towards turning their land where Islam is not implemented, and which [is thus] considered as Dar al-Kufr, into Dar al-Islam".[13] Hizb ut-Tahrir is opposed to individual liberty and freedom; rather, it promotes the overthrow—both democratically and militarily—of democracies and dictatorships alike, arguing they are un-Islamic.[14]

Although hizb means party in Arabic. In the countries where it is active Hizb ut-Tahrir has not registered as a political party nor attempted to elect candidates to political office, according to Zeyno Baran of the Washington, D.C.-based Nixon Center think tank.[15] This is not true in all countries or throughout Hizb ut-Tahrir's history, however. For example, Hizb ut-Tahrir put forward candidates for office in Jordan in the 1950s when it was first formed, according to Suha Taji-Farouki, but was banned by the regime later.[16] Kyrgyz Hizb ut-Tahrir members campaigned unsuccessfully for an affiliated candidate in Kyrgyzstan's national presidential election in July 2005,[17] and have participated in municipal elections where their followers have won in a number of regions.[18]

According to an analyst of Hizb ut-Tahrir in Kazakhstan,[19] where the group is outlawed, Hizb ut-Tahrir plans its political progress in three stages: "First they convert new members. Secondly, they establish a network of secret cells, and finally, they try to infiltrate the government to work to legalize their party and its aims."[17] A more sympathetic description of this strategy is that Hizb ut-Tahrir works to:

  1. Establish a community of Hizb ut-Tahrir members who work together in the same way as the companions of Muhammad. Members should accept the goals and methods of the organization as their own and be ready to work to fulfill these goals.[20]
  2. Build public opinion among the Muslim masses for the caliphate and the other Islamic concepts that will lead to a revival of Islamic thought.[20]
  3. Once public opinion is achieved in a target country through debate and persuasion, the group hopes to obtain support from army generals, leaders, and other influential figures or bodies to facilitate the change of the government. The government would be replaced by one that implements Islam "generally and comprehensively", carrying Islamic thought to people throughout the world.[20]

According to a BBC program on the group's activities in Indonesia, "unlike many other Islamist movements here, Hizb ut-Tahrir seems less interested in a broad mass following than a smaller more committed core of members, many of them drawn from Indonesia's educated middle classes."[21] Zeyno Baran describes the party as a "vanguard party" because he states it is interested in achieving power through "hundreds of supporters in critical positions" rather than "thousands of foot soldiers."[22] However, at least one of its leaders in the UK, Jalaluddin Patel, states that that is an untrue characterization of the group.[23]

In countries where the party is outlawed, Hizb ut-Tahrir's organisation is said to be strongly centralized, with its central leadership based in the Palestinian Territories. Underneath its center are "national organisations or wilayas, usually headed by a group of 12, control networks of local committees and cells."[4] The basic unit of the party is a cell of five members, the leader of which is called a mushrif. Only the mushrif knows the names of members of other cells.[24]

Timeline[edit]

This is a partial annotated timeline of Hizb ut-Tahrir actions relating to their adopted method to fulfil the party's original raison d'etre[25] by assuming authority and implementing Islamic law.

Year Snapshot of status
1953 Party founded by Taqiuddin al-Nabhani in Jerusalem.
1956 Party yet to decide how it would assume authority.[26]
1960 Interaction Stage begins in Jordan, and society is unresponsive. Party revises its method.[26]
1961 Party adopts the method of seeking support from the influential faction(s) to assume power.[27]
1964 Party announces that society in Jordan had responded positively to its call, forcing it to attempt to take power in Jordan.[28]
1968/69 Party allegedly involved in two (failed) coup attempts in Jordan and Syria.[29]
1974 Party allegedly involved in (failed) coup attempt in Egypt.[29]
1977 Party founder and leader Taqiuddin al-Nabhani dies in Lebanon, succeeded by Abdul Qadeem Zallum, a Palestinian cleric.[30]
1978 Party acknowledges that the Muslims had reached a state of total surrender and despair and was not responding to anything.

Party acknowledges that this had caused the level of activity to decline almost to standstill, mainly due to misconceptions.[31]

1997 A split known as the Redress occurred led by Abu Rami, a veteran Member from the first circle of the party, after many members accused the leadership of Abdul Qadeem Zallum from having deviated from party principles. The 1997 Redress
1998 Party indicates that the Caliphate is now the wish of all the Muslims.[32]
2003 Party leader Abdul Qadeem Zallum dies in Lebanon, succeeded (earlier that year) by Ata Khalil Abu-Rashta, a Palestinian civil engineer.
2010–2012 Party helps ignite the Syrian Revolution and heavily invests in it, hoping that the revolutionary fighters would unite under an Islamic umbrella and agree upon an Islamic Caliphate.[33][34]

Policies[edit]

Defence[edit]

Article 56 of the draft constitution of the proposed state describes conscription as a compulsory individual duty, for all citizens. "Every male Muslim, fifteen years and over, is obliged to undergo military training in readiness for jihad." Responsibility for defense in the state would go to the Amir al-Jihad. In Hizb ut-Tahrir's vision of the caliphate, the Amir al-Jihad "is the supervisor and director" of four departments comprising "the army, the police, equipment, tasks, armament supplies", internal security, foreign affairs, and finally industry — since "all factories of whatever type should be established on the basis of the military policy." However, the Khaleefah [Caliph], not the Amir al-Jihad, is the leader of the army, he appoints the commander-in-chief, a general for each brigade and a commander for each division."[35]

Democracy[edit]

Hizb ut-Tahrir rejects democracy as a western system and un-Islamic despite aspects of it such as elections existing in the Islamic political system. Hizb ut-Tahrir argues democracy as a system is

the rule of people, for the people, by the people. The basis of the democratic system is that people possess the right of sovereignty, choice and implementation. ... it is a Kufr system because it is laid down by man and it is not from the Shari'ah Laws.

However, Hizb ut-Tahrir believes the Caliph, i.e., the head of the Caliphate state, should be elected and should be accountable to those who have appointed him. The position should not be inherited through blood lines, or imposed on Muslims, but elected by them, contrary to the principles of Shia Islam. Muslims should then pledge their loyalty to the Caliph.

[The Caliph] is the head of state in the Khilafah. He is not a king or dictator but an elected leader whose authority to rule must be given willingly by the Muslims through a special ruling contact called baya. Without this baya he cannot be the head of state. This is completely opposite to a king or dictator who imposes his authority through coercion and force. It argues the tyrant kings and dictators in the Muslim world are examples of this, imprisoning and torturing their populations and stealing their wealth and resources.[36]

Hizb ut-Tahrir favor a system of elections for Muslims to choose the Caliph.

Also part of the Hizb ut-Tahrir proposed draft constitution is a Majlis al-Umma for the Caliph, an institution for consultation and accountability of political rulers.

The founder of Hizb ut-Tahrir, Taqiuddin an-Nabhani, is careful to note that Shura differs from Western representative democracy in that while part of "the ruling structure" of the Islamic caliphate, it's "not one of its pillars."

This is because the shura (consultation) in Islam is for seeking the opinion and not for ruling. This is contrary to the parliamentary system in democracy.[37]

In another book Nabhani elaborates further, stating that when the Majlis makes a decision after the Caliph consults them it is binding on the Caliph to accept the decision; the Caliph's powers outlined in the draft proposed constitution refer only to foreign affairs when in a state of war that he considered existent during his life.[38]

Economy[edit]

The draft constitution also details an economic system that allows private enterprise, but reserves public ownership of utilities, public transport, health care, energy resources such as oil, and unused farm land (similar to communitarianism). However, it calls for use of the Gold Standard, gold and silver coinage. The draft constitution gives quite specific instructions for the gold and silver weight of the coins, arguing

... it is the duty of the Khilafah State to make its currency in gold and silver and to work on the basis of gold and silver as it was during the time of the Messenger of Allah and his Khulafa'a after him... to fix the weight of dinars equal to the Shari'ah dinar or 4.25 grams (of Gold) for one dinar... the dirham has the weight of 2.975 grams (of Silver). The basis of gold and silver as currency is the only way to solve currency related economic problems and the high inflation rates that are common in the world, and to produce currency stability for rates of exchange and progress in international trade.... Only by taking gold and silver as the standard, can the American control and the control of the dollar as an international currency, be demolished in international trade and world economies.[39]

Non-Muslims[edit]

In Hizb ut-Tahrir's draft constitution for its unified Islamic state, any non-Muslims living in the state may not serve in any of the ruling offices, such as the position of caliph, nor vote for these officials, as these positions require those who fulfil them to believe in the system. Muslims also have "the right to participate in the election of the Khaleefah [head of state] and in giving him the pledge (ba'iah). Non-Muslims have no right in this regard." However non-Muslims may voice "complaints in respect to unjust acts performed by the rulers or the misapplication of Islam upon them."

Hizb ut-Tahrir claims that:

rights of Jews and other non-Muslims are enshrined within statuary Islamic Law (Sharia). These were laid down by the Prophet Muhammad when he established the first Islamic State in Medina in the 7th century. He said, "Whoever harms a dhimmi (non-Muslim citizen) has harmed me.... Non-Muslims in the khilafah (caliphate) will have established channels to air any grievances or denial of their rights. All citizens will be empowered with the right to speak out where necessary."[40]

In regards to foreign policy, Article 186 of the draft constitution states: "The State is forbidden to belong to any organisation that is based on something other than Islam or that applies non-Islamic rules". This includes organizations such as the UN, the World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund and the Arab League. Article 185 of the draft constitution states: "It is permitted to conclude good neighbouring, economic, commercial, financial, cultural and armistice treaties."

Rights or freedoms[edit]

Two areas in which Hizb ut-Tahrir rejects the notion of freedom are religion and economics. Article 7 of its Draft Constitution declares that Muslims who "have by themselves renounced Islam... are guilty of apostasy (ridda) from Islam [and] are to be executed." David Commins of Department of History at Dickinson College writes that, according to Hizb ut-Tahrir, "individuals do not have absolute freedom as in capitalism: Apostasy, adultery, alcohol, and certain economic practices are forbidden. But within well-recognized bounds, the Muslim enjoys much freedom."[41]

It[clarification needed] argues that "there is no such thing as a clergy in Islam", that "every Muslim has the right to perform ijtihad",[citation needed] (the expenditure of effort, seeking the (prevalent) opinion about a thing from the Shari'ah rules in a manner such that the Mujtahid feels unable to do any more), and that "every thing or object is permitted, unless there is an evidence of prohibition" in the Qur'an[citation needed]. It is incumbent on Muslims to implement the hudud law, divinely ordained capital punishment for certain crimes. Hizb ut-Tahrir's constitution states that "every individual is innocent until proven guilty", "no person shall be punished without a court sentence" and that "torture is absolutely forbidden and whoever inflicts torture on anyone shall be punished." Article 7 of the constitution institutes capital punishment for ridda (see ridda article for various definitions). It maintains that under the caliphate, "Arabic is the language of Islam and the sole language of the state."

The only sources of legislation to be considered divine and statutory, and therefore to be accepted without debate, according to Article 12, are those based upon fair interpretations of the Qur'an, the Sunnah, consensus of the companions (Ijma al-Sahaba), and legitimate analogies (Qiyas) from the previous three.

The West[edit]

Hizb ut-Tahrir opposes any Western influence in the Muslim world. Its founder, Nabhani, has been described as preaching that "British plots in particular and western imperialist conspiracies in general pervade the modern history of the Muslim world and ultimately explain its main lines of political evolution."[6] In his book, The System of Islam, which is studied by all Hizb ut-Tahrir members, Nabhani states:

If not for the influence of the deceptive Western culture and the oppression of its agents that will soon vanish, then the return to the domain of Islam in its ideology and system would be quicker than the blink of an eye.[42]

According to the same book, the Muslim world has not lagged behind the West, East Asia, the Hindu or any other non-Muslim society because it has failed to borrow some political, cultural or social concepts of the West, but rather:

Muslim stagnation commenced the day they abandoned this adherence to Islam and ... allowed the foreign culture to enter their lands and the Western concepts to occupy their minds.[43]

Hizb ut-Tahrir Indonesia spokesperson, Ismail Yusanto said to Nikolaos van Dam, the Dutch ambassador for Indonesia that the Dutch government is responsible for the Fitna (film) of Geert Wilders and said aslim taslam.[44]

In July 2013, Imam Ismat Al-Hammouri—a leader of the Jerusalem-based Hizb ut-Tahrir—called for the destruction of America, France, Britain, and Rome, during a gathering at the Al-Aqsa Mosque during Ramadan. He stated:

We warn you, oh America: Take your hands off the Muslims. You have wreaked havoc in Syria, and before that, in Afghanistan and in Iraq, and now in Egypt. Who do you think we are, America? We are the nation of Islam — a giant and mighty nation, which extends from east to west. Soon, we will teach you a political and military lesson, Allah willing. Allah Akbar. All glory to Allah.[45]

Al-Hammouri also warned US president Barack Obama that there will be an impending rise of a united Muslim empire that will instill religious law on all of its subjects.[45]

Women[edit]

The Hizb ut-Tahrir draft constitution states, "the primary role of a woman is that of a mother and wife. She is an honour ('ird) that must be protected."[46] Hizb ut-Tahrir advocates women's suffrage or right to vote (i.e., Muslim women, as only Muslims have the right to vote for the Caliph),[47] the right of Muslim women to choose a Muslim partner freely (Muslim women are not allowed to marry non-Muslim men), right to seek employment, serve in the military, have custody of children after divorce even if she is not Muslim,[48] and run in elections.

However, Hizb ut-Tahrir believe Islam forbids women from ruling positions such as caliph, Chief Justice,[49] provincial governor, or mayor citing Prophetic traditions. Article 109 of the party's draft constitution prescribes segregation of the sexes in public activities such as school, sporting activities, etc. Muslim women would be required to hide "their charms"[50] (i.e., their body, with the exception of hands and face), and so dress in accordance with khimar and jilbab,[51] although not necessarily with the niqab favoured by more fundamentalist movements.[52][53] Article 114 of the constitution specifies that women should not be allowed to be in private with men other than their husband or members of their immediate family (father, brother, son). Article 116 stipulates that once married a woman is obliged to obey her husband.[54]

While opponents may consider this unequal status, Hizb ut-Tahrir maintains:

Women in the Khilafah are not regarded as inferior or second class citizens. Islam gave women the right to wealth, property rights, rights over marriage and divorce as well as a place in society. Very recently Islamists established a public dress code for women – the Khimar and Jilbab which promotes women to cover themselves up to avoid judgement and also to establish a society without the perceived type of negative relationships prevalent in the west.[55]

Zionism[edit]

Hizb ut-Tahrir strongly opposes Zionism and the state of Israel. Statements by Hizb ut-Tahrir differ on what its position toward Israel and the Jews. "Palestine – why only a one state solution will work," pledges Hizb ut-Tahrir support for a "one state solution" for Israel and the Palestinians. However, by the phrase "one state solution" Hizb ut-Tahrir does not mean a united secular state (see: Binational solution), but rather, making Palestine part of the united Islamic caliphate state where everyone, Muslims and non-Muslims alike, follow statutory shariah Islamic law.[56]

Other statements by Hizb ut-Tahrir and officials have been less temperate. A 2001 statement removed from the Hizb ut-Tahrir website includes the statement, "In origin, no one likes the Jews except the Jews. Even they themselves rarely like each other".[57] Global head of Hizb ut-Tahrir, Ata Abu-Rishta is reported (at the Hizb ut-Tahrir August 2007 annual conference in Jakarta, Indonesia) to have "(...) whipped the 100,000-strong crowd into a frenzy by calling for a war on Jews."[14]

Charges of anti-semitism[edit]

In a 2000 article entitled "The Muslim Ummah will never submit to the Jews", Hizb ut-Tahrir lamented what it saw as the innate behavior of Jews:

... In origin, no one likes the Jews except the Jews. Even they themselves rarely like each other.... The American people do not like the Jews nor do the Europeans, because the Jews by their very nature do not like anyone else. Rather they look at other people as wild animals that have to be tamed to serve them. So, how can we imagine it being possible for any Arab or Muslim to like the Jews whose character is such?... Know that the Jews and their usurping state in Palestine will, by the Help and Mercy of Allah, be destroyed "until the stones and trees will say: O Muslim, O Slave of Allah. Here is a Jew behind me, so come and kill him."[57]

In October 2002, a court in Denmark handed down a 60-day suspended sentence to Fadi Abdelatif, Hizb ut-Tahrir's spokesman in Denmark, after he was found guilty of distributing racist propaganda. The leaflet he distributed contained a quote from the Quran: "And kill them wherever you find them, and turn them out from where they have turned you out," followed by a passage stating: "the Jews are a people of slander... a treacherous people."[58]

In January 2003, Hizb ut-Tahrir was barred from public activity in Germany, German Interior Minister Otto Schily stating that the group was spreading violence and hate and had called for the killing of Jews.[59] Membership in the party is still permitted. The charges originate from a conference at the Technical University of Berlin, organized by a student society allegedly affiliated with Hizb ut-Tahrir. The furor was caused because the conference was attended by members of the neo-Nazi National Democratic Party of Germany (NPD), which allegedly sparked fears of an alliance between neo-Nazi groups and Islamists. Schily banned Hizb ut-Tahrir three months later, for going "against the concept of international understanding" contained in the German constitution, a charge that has been used in the past against neo-Nazi groups. The group's representative in Germany Assem Shaker responded that the group was not anti-Semitic. He added, "We do not call to kill Jews. Our call is addressed to the Muslim people to defend themselves against the Zionist aggression in Palestine. And they have the right to do so."[59]

In July 2005 Dilpazier Aslam, a 27-year-old British Muslim and trainee journalist with The Guardian, lost his position with the newspaper when it was exposed he was a member of Hizb ut-Tahrir. Citing the antisemitic statement discovered on the party's website, Guardian executives decided that membership of Hizb ut-Tahrir was not compatible with membership of the newspaper's trainee scheme. Aslam refused to leave the group, saying he was not an antisemite and did not consider Hizb ut-Tahrir's website to be antisemitic.[60] Dilpazier later sued for unfair dismissal and there was an out-of-court settlement.[60]

After allegations that party members had spread antisemitic propaganda, in 2004 the British National Union of Students imposed a No Platform order.[61] The party then resumed recruiting at British universities under the name "Stop Islamophobia."[62]

Position on violence[edit]

Hizb ut-Tahrir states on its British website that it adopts the methods "employed by the Prophet Muhammad [who] limited his struggle for the establishment of the Islamic State to intellectual and political work. He established this Islamic state without resorting to violence." [63] In addition, seven days after the September 11, 2001 attacks Hizb ut-Tahrir issued a statement that "The rules of this Message forbids any aggression against civilian non-combatants. They forbid killing of children, the elderly and non-combatant women even in the battlefield. They forbid the hijacking of civilian aeroplanes carrying innocent civilians and forbid the destruction of homes and offices that contain innocent civilians. All of these actions are types of aggression that Islam forbids and Muslims should not undertake such actions."[64][65] The U.S. government, according to the Global Security thinktank, "has found no clear ties between Hizb ut-Tahrir and terrorist activity. Hizb ut-Tahrir has not been proven to have involvement in or direct links to any recent acts of violence or terrorism. Nor has it been proven to give financial support to other groups engaged in terrorism."[66]

The British branch of Hizb ut-Tahrir immediately condemned the 7 July 2005 London bombings.[67] Imran Waheed, the group's spokesperson in Great Britain, however, stated just after the bombings that "When Westerners get killed, the world cries. But if Muslims get killed in Iraq or Afghanistan, it's the smallest of news. I will condemn what happened in London only after there is the promise from Western leaders to condemn what they have done in Falluja and other parts of Iraq and in Afghanistan."[68] Waheed later stated that "The entire Muslim community has made its position on the London bombings clear — these actions have no justification as far as Islam is concerned."[69] The spokesperson of the Danish branch of Hizb-ut-Tahrir echoed Waheed's comments, calling the attacks un-Islamic but refraining from directly condemning them as long as the occupation of Iraq continued.[67]

Hizb ut-Tahrir's opposition to violence has been questioned. For example, the think tank Globalsecurity.org states that Hizb ut-Tahrir "is not against violence as such. It is just against the use of violence now."[70] Similarly, in 2007 "senior members"[not in citation given] of Hizb ut-Tahrir are quoted condemning Hamas on the grounds that sending poorly armed Palestinians now against the Israeli army is "fruitless," and that military operations[not in citation given] against Israel and its occupation of Palestinian lands should await a united Caliphate[not in citation given] and the combined armies of Islam.[71][72] Writer and broadcaster Ziauddin Sardar wrote in 2005 that Hizb ut-Tahrir's intolerance of any compromise with its goals was "a natural precursor of, and invitation to, violence."[73] He added that, in the long run, "violence is central" to the goal of an Islamic Caliphate.[74]

Zeyno Baran of the Nixon Center and Ariel Cohen of the Heritage Foundation[4] have argued that although Hizb ut-Tahrir does not promote or engage in violence, it acts as a "conveyor belt" for young Muslims, using its legal status to indoctrinate them before they leave the group to join more extreme groups that may engage in violence.[75] An investigative journalist specialising in British terrorism, Shiv Malik sympathizes with the position, stating that it "is not without foundation."."[4][76] In support of this perspective, Malik quotes unnamed intelligence sources stating that Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, a leader of al-Qaeda in Iraq, and al-Qaeda leader Khalid Sheikh Mohammed are both former members of Hizb ut-Tahrir.[4] Omar Sharif, who attempted a suicide bombing in Israel in 2003, is also alleged to have been affililated with Hizb ut-Tahrir, but the group denies this, stating that "despite extensive investigations by the police and security services, including legal proceedings against members of the Sharif family, no link to Hizb ut-Tahrir has ever been proven."[77] The British government, in a classified report, discounted the conveyor belt theory, stating "We do not believe that it is accurate to regard radicalisation in this country as a linear 'conveyor belt' moving from grievance, through radicalisation, to violence … This thesis seems to both misread the radicalisation process and to give undue weight to ideological factors."[78]

Britain's National Union of Students has asked universities to ban Hizb ut-Tahrir from campuses, accusing the group of "supporting terrorism and publishing material that incites racial hatred."[79]

The Panorama programme on the BBC showed an August 2006 speech by Ata Abu-Rishta, the global leader of Hizb ut-Tahrir, in which he called for the "destruction" of Hindus living in Kashmir, Russians in Chechnya and Jews in Israel.[14]

Hizb ut-Tahrir by region[edit]

The Heritage Foundation in the US reports the organization is active in 40 countries, with 5,000 to 10,000 "hardcore" members and tens of thousands of followers.[80] Shiv Malik in the New Statesmen magazine estimates Hizb ut-Tahrir has about one million members.[4] It is proscribed in Russia,[81] and in some Arab countries.[82] It had a ban lifted on it by the Lahore High Court in Pakistan,[83][84] and it survived proposed bans in Australia and the UK after clearance from the intelligence services and police.[60][85]

Africa and the Arab world[edit]

Hizb ut-Tahrir is proscribed in many Arab countries, but is permitted to operate in the United Arab Emirates, Lebanon and Yemen.[82]

Throughout 2006 a spate of Hizb ut-Tahrir campaigns and related arrests took place throughout the Arab world. There were arrests in Jordan, Morocco, Tunisia, and visible public activities in the Palestinian territories, Zanzibar, and Lebanon, enjoying growing support among senior army staff, government officials, and the intelligentsia.[citation needed]

Egypt[edit]

According to Amnesty, four Muslim Britons and several Egyptians were tortured in Egypt for suspected affiliation with Hizb ut-Tahrir.[86] Eventually 26 were put on trial for what observers in Egypt considered "contradictory" and "weak" charges.[87]

The Egyptian government banned Hizb ut-Tahrir in 1974 after an alleged coup attempt. Since the Egyptian revolution Hizb ut Tahrir has been increasingly active due to the lifting of the ban upon it. Hizb ut Tahrir has held demonstrations in Tahrir Square and has held conferences calling for the return of the Caliphate. Furthermore, Hizb ut Tahrir in Egypt appear on a weekly television show on the Khaleejia satellite TV channel called 'Thuma Ta Kuna Khilafah.'[88]

Iraq[edit]

In 1969 when the son of Iraq's highest Shia Ayatollah Muhsin al-Hakim was arrested and allegedly tortured, during widespread persecution of Shia, 'Abd al-'Aziz al-Badri, a Sunni Islamic lawyer (Alim) and local Hizb ut-Tahrir leader, criticised the regime, and was killed under torture. A Sunni member of Hizb ut-Tahrir is thus seen as the first martyr for the rights of Shia in Iraq, against the old Baathist regime.[89] The party has called for Sunni, Shia, Arab and Kurdish citizens to unite in Iraq.[90] Some of the party's prominent members have been murdered there, the bodies showing signs of torture.[91] Regarding the hanging of former president of Iraq Saddam Hussain, Ismail Yusanto, spokesman of Hizb ut-Tahrir in Indonesia, said: "The punishment should have been given to Saddam, because Saddam killed many Iraqi people and also members of Hizb ut-Tahrir there," and that President Bush and Tony Blair "deserved no better.".[92]

Palestinian Territories[edit]

According to a 2007 report by Globe and Mail reporter Mark MacKinnon, Hizb ut-Tahrir has been "capitalizing on public unhappiness with the recent bloodshed between the mainstream Hamas and Fatah movements that has split the Palestinian cause in two. A recent rally in the West Bank drew a crowd estimated in the tens of thousands." He quotes Hizb ut-Tahrir Sheik Abu Abdullah as preaching to Muslims

Why are we watching infidels prosper in this world and not stopping them? ... Muslims in China, Indonesia, Pakistan and everywhere in their thousands are asking for God's government through the Caliphate. They demand the return of God's rule on Earth.[71]

Jordan[edit]

Sheik Ahmad Abu Quddum is a spokesman for the Jordanian Tahrir party and calls for the establishment of a worldwide caliphate and destruction of all Jews.[93][94]

Libya[edit]

Mohammed M. Ramadan, a Libyan journalist and announcer at the BBC's Arabic section in London, was a member of Hizb ut-Tahrir and opposed to the regime of Colonel Muammar al-Gaddafi. He was assassinated on 11 April 1980 by Libyan operatives outside London's Regent's Park Mosque. Several other members were killed in extrajudicial detention in Libya during the 1980s.[95] According to Hizb ut-Tahrir along with the Muslim Brotherhood are the "important organizations causing anxiety" for the Libyan regime with Hizb ut-Tahrir endorsing "armed resistance" and successfully recruiting "students from the universities and military academies."[96] As of 2003, Amnesty International reported that while Libya report that "five prisoners of conscience ... who had been imprisoned for almost three decades for their peaceful involvement with the prohibited Islamic Liberation Party, Hizb al-Tahrir" were released, but that many more remained in prison.[97]

Syria[edit]

Prior to the civil war, in Syria, party members, along with their relatives and acquaintances, were subject to repeated extrajudicial arrest. The Middle East Intelligence Bulletin issue July 2000 and the Syrian Human Rights Committee quoted on the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees website, in its annual report of June 2006 reported that the Syrian authorities began its clampdown on Hizb ut-Tahrir in 1998–1999 with hundreds of members being arrested in a nationwide manhunt led by Air Force Intelligence (Mukhabarat). The MEIB issue of December 2000 states that "Representatives of the group have said that 1,200 of its members were arrested by Syrian security forces in December 1999 and January 2000." In its 2005 report Amnesty International stated that in 2004 dozens of Islamist students and clerics were arrested, many with links to Hizb ut-Tahrir and tried before military courts.[98][99]

Central Asia[edit]

Most Hizb ut-Tahrir in the former Soviet Union are ethnic Uzbeks.[66] Hizb ut-Tahrir has been accused by the governments of Central Asia of terrorist activity or illegal importation of arms into their countries. According to globalsecurity.org, the group "is believed by some to clandestinely fund and provide logistical support to a wide range of terrorist operations in Central Asia, and elsewhere, although attacks may be carried out in the names of local groups."[66] Human rights organizations and a former British Ambassador have accused central Asian governments of torturing Hizb ut-Tahrir members and violating international law in their campaigns against the group.[100]

Azerbaijan[edit]

Hizb ut-Tahrir is also suspected of having several hundred members in Azerbaijan. Dozens of its members have been arrested.[101]

Kazakhstan[edit]

Tajikistan[edit]

Uzbekistan[edit]

In 1999, Hizb ut-Tahrir "was blamed for a series of bomb attacks in the Uzbekistan capital, Tashkent." The Uzbek government reportedly withdrew its accusation of terrorism and blamed the IMU for terrorist attacks.[citation needed] Amnesty has accused the Government of Uzbekistan of giving Hizb ut-Tahrir members unfair trials, saying members are convicted on little evidence and given heavy sentences.[102] Craig Murray, former British ambassador to Uzbekistan, has made many claims about Uzbek President Islam Karimov and his alleged dictatorial practices, specifically against Hizb ut-Tahrir. He alleged that members were tortured into signing renunciations of their faith, to stop praying the five daily prayers of Islam (salat), and that two members who refused to do so;

...had been plunged into a vat of boiling water and had died both of them as a result. I didn't know that at the time, I just saw the photographs of this body in this appalling state; I couldn't work out what could account for it. I sent it to the pathology department of the University of Glasgow; there were a lot of photographs. The chief pathologist of the University of Glasgow, who is now chief pathologist of the United Kingdom, wrote that the only explanation for this was "immersion in boiling water".[103]

Russia[edit]

In February 2003, the Russian Supreme Court put "Hizb ut-Tahrir and 14 other groups on a list of banned terrorist organizations."[66] In June 2003 Russia's Federal Security Service (FSB) arrested 121 illegal immigrants suspected of having ties with Hizb ut-Tahrir al-Islami. "Moscow media reports said hand grenades, explosives, and ammunition ... as well as Islamic propaganda leaflets" were found on two of immigrants, Alisher Musayev of Kyrgyzstan and Akram Jalolov of Tajikistan.[66]

In 2010, three members of Hizb al-Tahrir were killed in Staroye Almetyevo, Tatarstan, after resisting to arrest. They were accused for recent bombing against a law enforcement facility.

Human rights groups have complained that authorities are increasingly becoming repressive and have planted evidence on Muslims to justify charges.[104]

South and Southeast Asia[edit]

Indonesia and Malaysia[edit]

Hizb ut-Tahrir also works openly in Malaysia and Indonesia and has never been banned in these two countries with dominantly Muslim population. It held an international khilafah conference in Indonesia on 12 August 2007 at the Bung Karno Stadium, which has a capacity of 100,000 people and thus has the joint 10th largest capacity for any stadium worldwide. The event was attended by around 100,000 people from international participants.

Bangladesh[edit]

Bangladesh banned Hizb ut-Tahrir on 22 October 2009, for "destabilizing" the country. Home Minister Sahara Khatun told AFP that Hizb ut Tahrir Bangladesh has been banned for "unleashing destructive activities" and work that goes against the "laws of the land".[105] The party started its activities in Bangladesh in 2000.[106] On 19 January 2012, Bangladesh Army pointed to Hizb ut-Tahrir's involvement in a foiled coup plotted in December 2011 to topple the government. On 23 January 2012 Rapid Action Battalion (RAB) arrested Dr. Golam Haider Rasul, a noted physician of United Hospital of Dhaka for his connection with the organization.[8] His father, Dr. Golam Rasul, former professor of surgery, Dhaka Medical College and former director general of Directorate of Health Services, Bangladesh is also a famous surgeon of the country. [9]

Pakistan[edit]

In Pakistan, Hizb ut-Tahrir was proscribed by Pakistani President General Musharraf in 2004, to date the party is still banned in Pakistan.

According to "a senior Obama Administration official" interviewed by journalist Seymour Hersch in 2009, "HT has "penetrated the Pakistani military and now have cells in the Army." Hersch reports that the Pakistan Army denies this.[107]

About Hizb ut-Tahrir's activities in Pakistan and subsequent political crackdown Multan Bench of the Lahore High Court said in March 2005 : "Hizb ut-Tahrir has shown dissatisfaction on the policies of the [Pakistan] government that is the right of each and every citizen ... I am unable to understand as to how distribution of these pamphlets in the general public was termed as terrorism or sectarianism."[citation needed]

Pakistani author Ahmed Rashid writes in Jihad: The Rise of Militant Islam in Central Asia, that there are "strong links and cooperation between the rank and file" of Hizb ut-Tahrir and the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan especially when they are from the same village or town. However, according to Jean-François Mayer of the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, the insinuation "that the party will turn violent and has links with the IMU" is inaccurate; the comments attributed to a member "contradicted the party's ideas". Representatives of Hizb ut-Tahrir report that they have repeatedly attempted to contact Ahmed Rashid in order to make their views known, but say they have not succeeded. They are even considering writing a rebuttal of his book.[108]

On 6 May 2011, Brigadier Ali Khan of Pakistan Army was detained, just four days after the US-led Abbottabad Operation; for his alleged links with Hizb-ut-Tahrir, official military sources said.[109]

Turkey[edit]

The Hizb ut-Tahrir is outlawed in Turkey. However, it is still in operation as a clandestine organization.[110] According to Today's Zaman, lieutenant Mehmet Ali Çelebi, detained in the Ergenekon investigations in 2008, allegedly had links with Hizb ut-Tahrir.[111] Çelebi was allegedly the key that made possible the arrest of five Hizb ut-Tahrir members in September 2008.[111] Despite the charges, Çelebi was found innocent. Although his cell phone was claimed to have sent signals for one minute and 22 seconds to the Fatih base station,[112] police officials (widely considered to be members of the Islamist Gülen movement)[citation needed] admitted that they had entered the terrorist group's phone numbers in Çelebi's phone by accident during the investigation.[113]

On 24 July 2009, Turkish police arrested almost 200 people suspected of being members of Hizb ut-Tahrir. [114]

Western countries[edit]

Australia[edit]

In 2005, the party survived a proposed ban in Australia after clearance from the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation.[115]

The party planned its first Khilafah conference in Sydney for 27 January 2007. The planned conference led to allegations in newspaper reports that the party was linked to the July 2005 London bombings.[116] Opposition politicians called on the local and federal governments not to grant visas to foreign speakers attending, and to re-consider proscribing Hizb ut-Tahrir. The demands for a ban were rejected by Attorney General Philip Ruddock, on the grounds there was insufficient evidence to warrant banning the group.[117] Radical clerics from the group demanded the establishment of a Muslim superstate, and warned Muslims they must be prepared to kill anyone who threatened its existence.[118]

Hizb ut-Tahrir members originally planned to hold the conference in the town hall of Bankstown, New South Wales, a suburb of Sydney with adjacent Lakemba as Australia's biggest Muslim electorate, but the Sydney council cancelled it.[119] Hizb ut-Tahrir secured another location the next day on 28 January. According to the Herald Sun, he also stated, "if you people are united and a third person comes along and tries to incite disunity ... kill him..., Muslims are not unique in doing so, as most nations kill those charged with treason...."[120]

Conference spokesman Wassim Doureihi said the work of Hizb ut-Tahrir was not to change the political landscape in Australia. He added, "It is because of Islam and my allegiance to Islam that I am responsible for ensuring to do what I can to protect the safety and security of all peoples in this country and beyond."[121]

Morris Iemma Premier of New South Wales and MP for Lakemba, which with adjacent Bankstown has Australia's largest Muslim community,[122] stated around the time of the conference that Hizb ut-Tahrir "is an organisation that is basically saying that it desires to declare war on Australia, our values and our people." even though according to Sydney Morning Herald, the speakers at the Khilafah Conference "made it clear they did not see Australia as part of their fundamentalist society"[123] Attorney General Philip Ruddock responded that the local government of Iemma should "stop playing politics and if it had any evidence helpful to the security agencies, it should give it to them."[124]

One opponent of a ban on Hizb ut-Tahrir, Irfan Yusuf, writing in the on-line publication Crikey, stating in No need to be alarmed about Hizb ut-Tahrir that the opposition Australian Labor Party "clearly wants to look tougher than the government on national security. But it risks alienating much of its support base in some Muslim circles by picking on a group many Muslims regard as harmless."[125] Ban supporter Rebecca Weisser, however, alleged in The Australian that former members of Hizb ut-Tahrir include Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, Khalid Sheikh Mohammed Omar Bakri Mohammed "four of the seven suspects in the failed terror attacks on London on June 29 and in Glasgow on July 1."[126] In Australia, writer Thomas Lehmann criticized the party and its former media representative, Wassim Doureihi, because they "openly flout our hospitality and tolerance while advocating the replacement of our democratic system with theocratic fascism," and for refusing "to condemn the September 11, Bali or London terror attacks."[127]

In 15 September 2012, there were protests outside the American Embassy in Sydney urged on by the website of Hizb ut-Tahrir against non-Muslims. The visiting UK Spokesman for Hizb ut-Tahrir, Taji Mustafa, has denied demanding for protests and uprisings, although all links on his website leading to Facebook groups substantiate these denials as untrue.[citation needed] The protests preceded an organised gathering at Bankstown on 16 September. Although a video is blamed for the protests, Hizb ut-Tahrir's objectives, led by Taji Mustafa, tend to be for a Caliphate. Placards carried during the protest on 15 September called for beheading, with one such placard being carried by a young child. Taji Mustafa brought further denials that his website has hate speech. There are calls for Hizb ut-Tahrir to be banned in Australia and Taji Mustafa not to re-enter Australia.[128]

At a Hizb ut-Tahrir conference held in Sydney in November 2013, speakers called on those present to resist any attempts to moderate Islam, with a Hizb ut-Tahrir spokesman condemned any, "watering down of Islam". The audience was told that a war on Islam is being waged in this country.[129] Reporting on the conference, a commentator noted the paradox in which, "Hizb ut-Tahrir [has the] propensity for condemning the government, culture, values and democratic traditions of Australia, while its members seem happy to live here".[130]

Organisers of a cultural event hosted at the Sydney Opera House, which was part of the Festival of Dangerous Ideas, cancelled a speech by Hizb ut-Tahrir spokesman Uthman Badar in June 2014 titled ‘Honour Killings are Morally Justified’ after widespread outrage.[131]

At a demonstration in Sydney held on July 25, 2014, Ismail Al-Wahwah, who is the group's leader in Australia stated (as translated by MEMRI):

At the same rally, Wassim Doureihi described the conflict against Israel as "a civilizational struggle between Islam and between kufir," further stating that "This is an Islamic struggle to liberate Islamic lands, to re-institute Islamic rule over what is, and will always be, Islamic land." Regarding Jews who currently live in Israel, Doureihi offered the following advice: "our advice, very clearly, is to return to the lands from which you immigrated, to do so peacefully before you will do so forcefully."[132]

In an audio clip of a speech on Voice of Islam Radio (Australia), which was later posted online October 16, 2014, Ismail Al-Wahwah stated (as translated by MEMRI) that "Our true conflict is with Europe and the U.S. They are the enemy. They are the ones that perpetrated crimes against the Islamic nation and its history." He further stated that "The Western standard of living is high because they stole our oil and resources, and prevented us from engaging in agriculture, industry, and trade. The famine in our country stems from Western policies."[134]

Denmark[edit]

Hizb ut-Tahrir demonstrating in Copenhagen.

Hizb ut-Tahrir is legal in Denmark but ran into controversy in 2002, when it distributed leaflets in Copenhagen that a Danish court determined were racist propaganda. Imran Khan of the BBC program "Newsnight" described the leaflet as follows:

In March and April 2002, Hizb Ut Tahrir handed out leaflets in a square in Copenhagen, and at a mosque. The leaflet also said, 'The Jews are a people of slander... a treacherous people... they fabricate lies and twist words from their right context.' And the leaflet describes suicide bombings in Israel as "legitimate" acts of "Martyrdom".[135]

In August 2006, Fadi Abdelatif, Hizb ut-Tahrir's spokesperson in Denmark, was given a suspended 60-day jail sentence for distributing the leaflet.[136] Abdelatif was also found guilty of threats against the Danish Prime Minister Anders Fogh Rasmussen.[137] The court rejected his claims that he was just quoting from the Koran, that it was an act of free speech and that it was aimed only at the Israeli state and not Jews.[135]

In 2007 Berlingske Tidende reported that a kindergarten in Copenhagen was being run in line with the ideology of Hizb ut-Tahrir.[138] Also that year, several well known imams in Copenhagen attended a convention of Hizb ut-Tahrir and announced that they were willing to work together towards mutual goals. This move attracted criticism from a variety of Muslim and non-Muslim voices.[139]

Germany[edit]

German police expelled a member of the party from Germany for alleged ties to one of the hijackers involved in the 11 September 2001 attacks. However, German police said the raids and searches in offices and homes revealed little.[59] The German government then banned Hizb ut-Tahrir from public activity after a charge of distributing antisemitic propaganda (see above section on Controversy over anti-Semitism). The anti-semitism charges were not upheld in German courts, but the ban was continued based on the state's finding that the group's activity opposed the idea of understanding among nations and endorsed force as a means towards its political aims. A lawsuit against the ban was rejected on 23 January 2006 by the Federal Administrative Court in Germany. The organization appealed the ban to the European Court, stating in 2008:[140]

"We note that the German courts did not uphold any of the German Interior Ministries accusations of anti-Semitism against HT, however, they have now relied on an obscure principle of the 'idea of international understanding' to ban all of our activities (speeches, study circles, articles, vigils, political meetings, books, magazines, and debates)."

United Kingdom[edit]

From 1986 to 1996, under the leadership of Syrian-born Omar Bakri Muhammad, Hizb ut-Tahrir grew from a very small organization in Britain to a one of the most active Islamic organizations in the country. In 1996 Bakri split with Hizb ut-Tahrir over disagreements on policy, style and methods, and focused on another organization Al-Muhajiroun.[141]

A report in Foreign Affairs Journal claims that Hizb ut-Tahrir "dominates" the British Islamist "scene" with some 8,500 members in the United Kingdom, compared to only 1,000 for a rival, Muslim Association of Britain.[142]

According to ex-Hizb ut-Tahrir associate Maajid Nawaz Omar Bakri encouraged its members to engage in vigilantism against non Muslims and Muslim women:

"We were encouraged by Omar Bakri to operate like street gangs and we did, prowling London, fighting Indian Sikhs in the west and African Christians in the east. We intimidated Muslim women until they wore the hijab and we thought we were invincible."[143]

According to another ex-Hizb ut-Tahrir associate Ed Husain, "Britain remains vital to the Hizb, for it gives the group access to the global media and provides a fertile recruiting ground at mosques and universities."[144]

Hizb ut-Tahrir in Britain emphasized the importance of Muslims choosing loyalty to their religion above loyalty to Britain or any other country.[145] In Hizb ut-Tahrir's view, Islam is anti-nationalist, transnational and pan-Islamic in nature. In a promotional video shown on BBC News a group representative asked:

I think Muslims in this country need to take a long, hard look at themselves and decide what is their identity. Are they British or are they Muslim? I am a Muslim. Where I live, is irrelevant.[146]

Following the 7 July 2005 London bombings the British government announced its intention to ban the organization[147] but abandoned its plans. According to The Independent Blair "shelved the ban after warnings from police, intelligence chiefs, and civil liberties groups that it is a non-violent group, and driving it underground could backfire."[85][148] and according to the Observer because the Home Office believed a legal ban would not stick.[149]

In July 2007, Leader of the Opposition David Cameron asked the new Prime Minister Gordon Brown why the organisation had not been banned from the United Kingdom, arguing it was an extremist group. Gordon Brown responded that more evidence would be needed before banning a group and, when pressed further, John Reid the previous home secretary stepped in arguing that there had already been two reviews of the group with insufficient evidence to justify a ban.[150][151]

In November 2009, Cameron again questioned the Government over Hizb ut-Tahrir, claiming that government Pathfinder fund aimed at combating violent extremism was being used to fund schools run by an organisation with links to extremism.[152] He later acknowledged that this statement was an error as another government fund was perceived.[153]

In November 2006, the BBC reported that a street gang in South London, which claimed to be Hizb ut-Tahrir, encouraged an undercover reporter to rob another gang to "prove his loyalty". The short documentary ended with the reporter claiming that the gang may be a lone out-of-control group simply influenced by Hizb ut-Tahrir's notoriety. Abdul Wahid when questioned on the program condemned the behaviour, asked the BBC to hand over all material to the police, said he would be extremely surprised if any of the gang were members of his organisation, and that if they were, he would have them removed.[154]

United States[edit]

Hizb ut-Tahrir America, based in Chicago, was reportedly founded by Dr. Mohammed Malkawi, who is an adjunct professor at Argosy University-Chicago.[155] The group held its first conference in the United States in 2009. However, a subsequent attempt to hold a conference in 2010 at the Chicago Marriott Oak Brook hotel was cancelled after the hotel dropped the group's reservation. In 2012, the group attempted to hold its annual conference entitled "Revolution: Liberation by Revelation – Muslims Marching Toward Victory" conference at the Meadows Club, but this was also cancelled after the club pulled out due to criticism.[156]

Reza Iman, who is a spokesperson for the group, claimed that the group has been active in the United States for almost 30 years, and defended Hizb ut-Tahrir's activities, stating in an interview that "The call is not to bring that [an Islamic caliphate] here to this country or anything of that sort. The message is for Muslim countries to return to Islamic values." DePaul University history professor Thomas Mockaitis stated that "I have not seen any evidence they have engaged in violent activity in the U.S." and that the groups views and goals, while controversial, do not warrant its' labeling as a terrorist group.[157]

Zaher Sahloul, who is the chairman of the Council of Islamic Organizations of Greater Chicago and president of the Mosque Foundation of Bridgeview, stated that "[Hizb ut-Tahrir's is] on the fringes of the political Islamic groups. They are very vocal and they target young Muslims in college (who) are attracted to their ideologies. They tend to disrupt lectures, Friday prayers. Most of the time they are kicked out from mosques." Sahloul added that "We cannot deny people of speaking freely, but we believe that these kind of radical ideologies are not helpful."[157]

At a conference in Jordon in June 2013, Dr. Malkawi stated (as translated by MEMRI) "Let Britain, America, and the entire West go to hell, because the Caliphate is coming, Allah willing." Regarding US President Barack Obama, Malkawi stated "Obama says to you, in Syria, Egypt, and elsewhere: 'I have chosen heresy as a religion for you.' Will you accept heresy as your religion, oh Muslims? Say: 'Allah Akbar." [158]

Turkish American scholar Zeyno Baran described the organization as a "conveyor belt for terrorists."[156]

Prominent members[edit]

  • Shaykh Taqiuddin al-Nabhani (founder, deceased)
  • Shaykh Ahmed Dauor (Jordanian parliamentarian 1955–1957, deceased)
  • Shaykh Abdul Qadeem Zallum (second leader, deceased)
  • Shaykh Ata Abu Rashta (current global leader of Hizb ut-Tahrir)

Sheikh Ahmad Abu Quddum tahrir party Jordan http://www.newenglishreview.org/blog_direct_link.cfm/blog_id/39537/ https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/?tab=mm#drafts/14855c1e8521162f?projector=1

  • Osman Bakhach (Central Media Office Spokesman)
  • Jamal Harwood (Former Chairman of UK Executive Committee)
  • Taji Mustafa (UK spokesman)
  • Dr Imran Waheed (former UK spokesman 2001–2006)
  • Dr Nazreen Nawaz (UK women's media representative)[159]
  • Dr Abdul Wahid (Chairman of UK Executive Committee)[160]
  • Shaykh Ali Syed Abul-Hassan (Imam of Masjid as-Sahaba, Khartoum, Sudan spokesman, deceased)
  • Mohammad Nafi Abdul-Karim Salih (Jordanian member, deceased)
  • Shaykh Mahmoud Abdul-Latif Uweidah — Abu Iyas (prominent Jordanian Member)
  • Shaykh Taleb Awadallah (Palestinian member from al-Khalil, Hebron)
  • Shaykh Yusuf Ba'darani (Lebanese member)
  • Shaykh Abdul-Aziz Badri (Iraqi member, deceased)
  • Ashraf Doureihi (a prominent Australia member)
  • Wassim Doureihi (former Australia spokesperson)
  • Soadad Doureihi (a prominent Australia member)
  • Mohammed AbdulWahhab (a prominent Australia member)
  • Uthman Badar (Australian spokesperson)
  • Hamzah Qureshi (a prominent Australia member)
  • Naveed Butt (Pakistan spokesperson)
  • Imran Yousufzai (Pakistan spokesperson)
  • Yilmaz Celik (Turkey spokesperson)
  • Ridha Belhaj (Tunisia spokesman)
  • Hassan Al-Dahi (Kuwait spokesman)
  • Mahmood Tarshooby (Egypt spokesman)
  • Maher Al-Jabari (Palestine spokesman)
  • Shaker Assem (Germany spokesman)
  • Muhammad Ismail Yusanto (Indonesia spokesman)
  • Abdul Hakim Othman (Malaysia spokesperson)
  • Shaykh Ibrahim Othman — Abu Khalil (Sudan spokesman)
  • Mohiuddin Ahmed (Bangladesh Chief Coordinator and Spokesperson)
  • Farhad Usmanov (Uzbekistan, deceased in prison)
  • Okay Pala (Netherlands spokesperson)
  • Abdul Salam (USA member)
  • Hafidz Abdurrahman, (prominent leading member of Hizb ut-Tahrir Indonesia)
  • Shaykh Ahmad al-Qasas (Lebanon Spokesperson)
  • Behzaad Domun (Mauritius representative)

Books[edit]

The book The Islamist reveals the inner workings of the political organisation. It follows the path of a young man coming to terms with his extremist/Islamist mindset. He describes how violence and the increasing radicalisation of the group eventually lead to him cutting all ties and resigning from the head of the local group at Tower Hamlets University.[161] The author Ed Husain, now a moderate Muslim, is opposed to the ideology of Hizb ut-Tahrir and critical of the consequences of political Islam poisoning young minds.

Radical is Maajid Nawaz's autobiography. It partly recounts his time as a recruiter for Hizb ut-Tahrir, his imprisonment in Egypt from 2002–2006, and his release after being cited as a "prisoner of conscience" by Amnesty International. In 2007, he left HT and co-founded Quilliam with Ed Husain, an organization focused on countering extremism in the Muslim World. Radical was released in the UK in 2012; a US edition will be released by Lyons Press in October 2013.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Gross, Ariela (2012). Reaching wa'y. Mobilization and Recruitment in Hizb al-Tahrir al-Islami. A Case Study conducted in Beirut. Berlin: Klaus Schwarz. ISBN 3-87997-405-5. 
  • Hamid, Sadek (2007). "Islamic Political Radicalism in Britain: the case of Hizb-ut-Tahrir". In Tahir Abbas. Islamic Political Radicalism: A European Perspective. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. pp. 145–59. ISBN 0-74863-086-4. 
  • Taji-Farouki, Suha (1996). A Fundamental Quest: Hizb al-Tahrir and the Search for the Islamic Caliphate. London: Grey Seal. ISBN 1-85640-039-5. 
  • Valentine, S. R. (13 May 2010). "Monitoring Islamic Militancy: Hizb-ut-Tahrir: "The Party of Liberation"". Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice 4 (4): 411–420. doi:10.1093/police/paq015. 
  • Valentine, Dr. Simon Ross (12 February 2010). "Fighting Kufr and the American Raj: Hizb-ut-Tahrir in Pakistan". Brief Number 56. Pakistan Security Research Unit (PSRU) at the University of Bradford. Retrieved 19 March 2014. 
  • Valentine, S. R. (December 2009). "Hizb-ut-Tahrir in Pakistan". American Chronicle. 

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Draft Constitution by Hizb ut-Tahrir". Media Office of Hizb ut-Tahrir. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 19 March 2014. 
  2. ^ an-Nabhani, Taqiuddin (1998). The Islamic State. London: De-Luxe Printers. pp. 240–276. ISBN 1-89957-400-X. 
  3. ^ "Hizb ut-Tahrir al-Islami (Islamic Party of Liberation)". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 19 March 2014. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f Malik, Shiv (13 September 2004). "For Allah and the caliphate". New Statesman. Retrieved 19 March 2014. 
  5. ^ Hizb ut-Tahrir article: Israeli aggression is the root cause of this disaster
  6. ^ a b Commins, David (1991). "Taqi al-Din al-Nabhani and the Islamic Liberation Party". The Muslim World 81 (3–4): 194–211. doi:10.1111/j.1478-1913.1991.tb03525.x. Retrieved 19 March 2014. 
  7. ^ "The Re-establishment of the Khilafah is an obligation upon all Muslims". Khilafah.com. 24 June 2007. Retrieved 19 March 2014. 
  8. ^ Mahmoud, Sheikh Ahmad (1995). The Da'wah to Islam. Khilafah.com. Retrieved 19 March 2014. 
  9. ^ "The Zionist Hatred". Hizb ut-Tahrir Britain. 22 July 2006. Archived from the original on 1 June 2010. 
  10. ^ The Islamic State, p. 9
  11. ^ Michael Whine, Government and International Affairs Director at the Community Security Trust (the defense agency of the UK Jewish community)
  12. ^ Is Hizb ut-Tahrir changing strategy or tactics?
  13. ^ The Islamic State, p. 240
  14. ^ a b c Tom Harper (30 Sep 2007). "Islamists 'urge young Muslims to use violence". The Telegraph (London). Retrieved 11 August 2010. 
  15. ^ "Fighting the War of Ideas", Zeyno Baran. Foreign Affairs. New York: Nov/Dec 2005. 84 (6); p. 79
  16. ^ David Schenker "One Year after the Cedar Revolution: The Potential for Sunni-Shiite Conflict in Lebanon", Policy #1114 (20 June 2006).
  17. ^ a b Central Asia's Islamic militancy BBC News
  18. ^ Natalia Zotova "Evolution of political regimes in Central Asia: ways and opportunities," Ferghana Information Agency (7 March 2007).
  19. ^ Dosym Satpayev, director of a Kazakh think tank Assessment Risks Group
  20. ^ a b c Untitled Hizb ut-Tahrir
  21. ^ BBC: Stadium crowd pushes for Islamist dream
  22. ^ "Fighting the War of Ideas", 2005
  23. ^ "HT will never assume the role of a vanguard party." Inside Hizb ut-Tahrir: An Interview With Jalaluddin Patel, Leader Of Hizb ut-Tahrir in the UK, By Mahan Abedin, 10 August 2004
  24. ^ Abou Zahab, Mariam; Roy, Olivier, Islamist Networks, Columbia University Press, (2004), p. 9–10
  25. ^ Hizb ut-Tahrir book, Structuring of a Party, 1953
  26. ^ a b Hizb ut-Tahrir leaflet: 'Caesarean Section', 27 January 1972
  27. ^ Hizb ut-Tahrir leaflet, 'A Style to Win the Ummah and to Take Its Leadership', 14 December 1980
  28. ^ Hizb ut-Tahrir , Answer to a Question about Force, 20 March 1970
  29. ^ a b Suha Taji-Farouki, A Fundamental Quest – Hizb ut-Tahrir and the Search for the Islamic Caliphate, pp. 27–29, Grey Seal, London 1996
  30. ^ Al-Waie magazine, issues 234–235, August/September 2006 (Arabic)
  31. ^ Hizb ut-Tahrir leaflet, 'A Letter to the Shebab', 20 July 1978
  32. ^ Hizb ut-Tahrir Progress Dossier, 1998
  33. ^ Al Sabeel, (489), p. 9, 6–12 May 2003 (Arabic).
  34. ^ Al Waie, (197), p. 3, August 2003 (Arabic)
  35. ^ Draft Constitution by Hizb ut-Tahrir, article 51
  36. ^ http://www.khilafah.com/kcom/the-khilafah/issues/what-is-the-khilafah-caliphate.html
  37. ^ The System of Islam, (Nidham ul Islam) by Taqiuddin an-Nabhani, Al-Khilafa Publications, 1423 AH – 2002 CE, p. 61
  38. ^ Nethaam al-Huqm fil-Islam, Chapter entitled Majlis al-Ummah
  39. ^ The Necessity of money being in Gold and Silver
  40. ^ Minorities in the new Middle East of the Caliphate Hizb ut-Tahrir Britain
  41. ^ [page needed]Taqi al-Din al-Nabhani...
  42. ^ system of islam p. 64
  43. ^ system of islam p. 73
  44. ^ "Dutch Government must be held accountable over FITNA". Hisb ut-Tahrir Indonesia. 4 April 2008. Retrieved 8 May 2011. 
  45. ^ a b imam calls for destruction of US and europe
  46. ^ Draft Constitution Article 108
  47. ^ Hizb ut-Tahrir draft constitution, art. 26
  48. ^ Draft Constitution Article 118 states "The custody of children is both a right and duty of the mother, whether Muslim or not, so long as the child is in need of this care. – The latter statement refers to when the child is mature"
  49. ^ literally judge of the 'Court of Unjust Acts'
  50. ^ Hizb ut-Tahrir draft constitution, art. 114
  51. ^ Re: 'Of course women have a right to choose. But agreeing to wear a jilbab is no choice at all' Hizb ut-Tahrir Britain
  52. ^ images of women's section: hizb Tahrir women Google Images
  53. ^ Although HT defends the right of women to choose the wearing of a niqab. Playing Politics with Communities: A Response from Dr Nazreen Nawaz Hizb ut-Tahrir Britain
  54. ^ Hizb ut-Tahrir draft constitution, art. 116
  55. ^ what is the khilafah caliphate
  56. ^ "Palestine: Why only a One State Solution will work," Hizb ut-Tahrir, Press Release (7 June 2007). Retrieved 2 September 2012.
  57. ^ a b "The Muslim Ummah will never submit to the Jews," Hizb ut-Tahrir (3/11/1999)
  58. ^ Sandra Laville "Banned groups with roots in UK appeal to disaffected young Muslims," The Guardian (6 August 2005).
  59. ^ a b c Lambroschini, Sophie. "Germany: Court Appeal By Hizb Ut-Tahrir Highlights Balancing Act Between Actions, Intentions", Radio Free Europe, 26 October 2004.
  60. ^ a b c "Background: the Guardian and Dilpazier Aslam", The Guardian, 22 July 2005.
  61. ^ "NUS representative addresses government committee on campus incitement", NUS Online.
  62. ^ "'Stealth' Islamists recruit students" The Sunday Times, 16 October 2005.
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  64. ^ Wojciech Grabowski "Hizb ut Tahrir – between violence and politics," pp.7
  65. ^ pp. 9
  66. ^ a b c d e Hizb ut-Tahrir al-Islami (Islamic Party of Liberation) Global Security
  67. ^ a b The Impact Of 7 July 2005 London Bomb Attacks On Muslim Communities In The EU The European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia, November 2005, p. 19
  68. ^ Elaine Sciolino "For a decade, London thrived as a busy crossroads of terror," The New York Times (10 July 2005).
  69. ^ Manuela Paraipan "Hizb ut Tahrir: An Interview With Imran Waheed," Worldpress.org (12 September 2005).
  70. ^ Hizb ut-Tahrir al-Islami
  71. ^ a b Muslim movement offers alternative to Hamas[dead link]
  72. ^ Mark MacKinnon "Growing Muslim movement offers alternative to Hamas," Toronto Globe and Mail (22 August 2007).
  73. ^ Sardar, Ziauddin (2008-03-17). "<img class="contributor-pic" src="http://static.guim.co.uk/artsblog/authorpics/ziauddin_sardar.jpg" alt="Picture of Ziauddin Sardar" title="Ziauddin Sardar" />". The Guardian (London). 
  74. ^ Ziauddin Sardar "Ziauddin Sardar explains the long history of violence behind Hizb ut-Tahrir" New Statesman, 14 November 2005
  75. ^ Globe and Mail: Muslim movement offers alternative to Hamas
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  77. ^ NS Profile Omar Sharif
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  79. ^ 'Stealth' Islamists recruit students The Times Online
  80. ^ Cohen, Ariel. "Hizb ut-Tahrir: An Emerging Threat to U.S. Interests in Central Asia", The Heritage Foundation, 30 May 2003.
  81. ^ 'Terror' list out; Russia tags two Kuwaiti groups, Arab Times
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  83. ^ High Court rules ruling that distribution of pamphlets carrying criticism of the government does not entail terrorism. [3]
  84. ^ High Court cancels detention orders of six members of Hizb-ut-Tahrir
  85. ^ a b Morris, Nigel. "PM forced to shelve Islamist group ban", The Independent, 18 July 2006.
  86. ^ Amnesty international press release Amnesty International.
  87. ^ 'Deviant' thought on trial Al Ahram. 26 June – 2 July 2003
  88. ^ [dead link]Muslim girl's brother linked to Islam radicals British Helsinki Human Rights Group
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  90. ^ The Caliphate will Unite Sunni and Shia under an Islamic Rule Khalifa.com
  91. ^ Hizb ut-Tahrir leaders murdered in Iraq June 24, 2006
  92. ^ Enemies hail it as 'Eid gift'
  93. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KE7aKk6hgV4&app=desktop
  94. ^ New English Review: http://www.newenglishreview.org/blog_direct_link.cfm/blog_id/39537
  95. ^ April Victims of The Gaddafi Regime
  96. ^ Qadhafi's Libya and the Prospect of Islamic Succession by Ray Takeyh
  97. ^ 3 September 2002 Libya: The release of prisoners, a positive step
  98. ^ dead link
  99. ^ dead link
  100. ^ Uzbekistan: Muslim Dissidents Jailed and Tortured | Human Rights Watch
  101. ^ Swietochowski, "Azerbaijan: The Hidden Faces of Islam," World Policy Journal, p. 75.
  102. ^ Covering events from January – December 2001 Amnesty International.
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  104. ^ Johnson's Russia List
  105. ^ Bangladesh bans Islamic group Hizb ut Tahrir: govt
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  107. ^ Hersch, Seymour M., "Defending the Arsenal," New Yorker, 16 November 2009, p.35
  108. ^ http://www.paktribune.com/news/index.shtml?240635
  109. ^ Hizb ut-Tahrir – Prepared for the CPT Terrorist Organization Dossier Center for Policing Terrorism (Madeleine Gruen).
  110. ^ a b Senior general knew about lieutenants' Ergenekon contacts, Today's Zaman, 24 September 2008.
  111. ^ Teğmen Çelebi Serbest , Odatv, 20 May 2011.
  112. ^ Teğmenin telefonuna Hizbut Tahrir eklemesi, Milliyet, 26 January 2011
  113. ^ Turkish police arrest 'Islamists', BBC News, 24 July 2009.
  114. ^ Islamic group to fight on against banning moves The Age
  115. ^ news.com.au Aussies called to jihad by Justin Vallejo January 29, 2007
  116. ^ Aussies called to jihad Herald Sun
  117. ^ NSW can ban radicals – Ruddock
  118. ^ Council refuses group use of town hall The Age
  119. ^ The Herald Sun circa January 2007
  120. ^ Fight for global Islamic state, conference told Monday – 29 January 2007 – Australian
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  122. ^ "Leaders disagree on Muslim ban". The Sydney Morning Herald. 29 January 2007. 
  123. ^ smh.com Leaders disagree on Muslim ban 29 January 2007
  124. ^ No need to be alarmed about Hizb ut-Tahrir
  125. ^ The Australian. Violent agenda carefully veiled July 09, 2007
  126. ^ The enemy within – Muslim fanatics in Australia
  127. ^ "Tony Abbott wants Taji out". 16 September 2012. 
  128. ^ Matthew Benns (18 November 2013). "Hizb ut-Tahrir Australia conference hears 'this country at war' with radical Islam". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 1 February 2014. 
  129. ^ Ean Higgins (23 November 2013). "Muslims urged to turn back on country". The Australian. Retrieved 1 February 2014. 
  130. ^ ‘Opera House cancels speech by Hizb ut-Tahrir spokesman Uthman Badar on why ‘honour killings are morally justified’’, [7] Daily Telegraph, 25 June 2014.
  131. ^ a b Australian Islamist Leaders Incite to Jihad to Expel Jews from Palestine, MEMRI, Clip. No. 4403, (video clip available here), July 25, 2014.
  132. ^ We’re muzzled as the bigots rant by Andrew Bolt, Herald Sun (reprinted in The Daily Telegraph (Australia)), August 07, 2014.
  133. ^ Australian Islamist Leader Ismail Al-Wahwah: Our Number One Enemy Is the U.S. and Europe, MEMRI, Clip No. 4672, (transcript). October 10 and 16, 2014.
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  136. ^ Western Resistance: Hizb ut-Tahrir Exploiting Latest Muslim "Cartoon Crisis"[dead link]
  137. ^ Islamic group took over nursery school, Copenhagen Post, 18 June 2007
  138. ^ Den ny muslimske alliance, Berlingske Tidende, 24 June 2007 (Danish)
  139. ^ Hizb ut-Tahrir Challenges German Ban at European Court 25 June 2008
  140. ^ Al-Muhajiroun in the UK: An Interview with Sheikh Omar Bakri Mohammed The Jamestown Foundation
  141. ^ Robert S. Leiken and Steven Brooke "The Moderate Muslim Brotherhood" Foreign Affairs Journal, p. 120, 86 (2), March / April 2007
  142. ^ I was a radical Islamist who hated all of you
  143. ^ Husain, Ed, The Islamist, Penguin, 2007, p. 272
  144. ^ "The roots of nationalism in the Muslim World" Chepter title " by Shabir Ahmed and Abid Karim
  145. ^ Hizb ut-Tahrir
  146. ^ Full text: The Prime Minister's statement on anti-terror measures The Guardian
  147. ^ Mark Townsend "Islamic radicals warn of city riots", The Observer, 7 August 2005
  148. ^ Jamie Doward (24 December 2006). "PM shelves Islamic group ban". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 4 May 2010. 
  149. ^ "Brown and Cameron clash over ID". BBC News. 4 July 2007. Retrieved 4 May 2010. 
  150. ^ Hansard: Cameron presses ban on HTB
  151. ^ "Cameron defends 'extremism' row". BBC News. 26 November 2009. Retrieved 4 May 2010. 
  152. ^ Cameron says sorry to MPs over Hizb ut-Tahrir claim BBC, 1 December 2009. Retrieved 29 November 2013
  153. ^ YouTube – Newsnights False allegations Against Hizb ut-Tahrir Britain
  154. ^ Dr. Mohammed Malkawi is also an associate professor of Computer Engineering at Middle East University and the Dean of Engineering at Jadara University, both located in Jordon. He is the author of the 2010 book The Fall of Capitalism and Rise of Islam.
  155. ^ a b American club refuses to host Hizb ut-Tahrir conference in U.S. after protests, Al Arabiya 12 June 2012.
  156. ^ a b Islamic conference won't be in Rolling Meadows by Madhu Krishnamurthy, Daily Herald, 13 June 2012.
  157. ^ Dr. Mohammed Malkawi, U.S. Professor And Founder of Hizb Al-Tahrir in Chicago: 'Let Britain, America, And The Entire West Go To Hell, Because The Caliphate Is Coming, Allah Willing', MEMRI, Special Dispatch No. 5364, 16 July 2013.
  158. ^ http://www.hizb.org.uk/downloads/index.php?id=2390_0_48_0_C
  159. ^ openDemocracy Author -Abdul Wahid
  160. ^ [The Islamist, page 154]

Further reading[edit]