||This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. (March 2008)|
|• Mayor||Amiben Parikh|
|• City||122 km2 (47 sq mi)|
|Population (2011 census)|
|• Density||4,300/km2 (11,000/sq mi)|
|• Official||Gujarati, Hindi|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
Jamnagar pronunciation (help·info) (Gujarati: જામનગર) is a city and a municipal corporation, located in Jamnagar district, in the Indian state of Gujarat. The city was built up substantially by Maharaja Kumar Shri Ranjitsinhji in the 1920s, when it was known as Nawanagar. The city lies just to the south of the Gulf of Kutch and is 337 km west of the state capital, Gandhinagar. Recently, Jamnagar has shot to prominence as Reliance Industries, India's largest private company, established the world's largest oil refinery near the village of Moti Khavdi in Jamnagar. It is also home to an Essar Oil refinery, located near the town of Vadinar. Jamnagar has consequently been nicknamed the 'Oil City of India'.
Jamnagar was founded by Jam Rava Jadeja in 1540 A.D. as the capital of the Princely State of Nawanagar. Jamnagar, historically known as Nawanagar (the new town), was one of the most important princely states of the JADEJA's in the region of Saurashtra. According to Pauranik literature, Lord Krishna established his kingdom at Dwarka town in Jamnagar district, after migrating from Mathura and accordingly, it is to the Yadava race that the Jams of Nawanagar trace their ancestry.
According to bardic chronicles, impressed by Jam Lakhaji's role in at the siege of Pawagadh, Bahadurshah, the Emperor of Gujarat, bestowed 12 villages on him. As Jam Lakaji was going to take possession of his new fief, he was treacherously killed by his cousins, Tamachi Deda and Hamirji Jadeja. Jam Lakhajis son Jam Rawal escaped and on growing up, took vengeance of his father's murder in the same manner by killing Hamirji Jadeja.
Hamirji's two sons Khengarji and Sahibji fled to Delhi to pay obeisance to the mughal Emperor Humayun. During a lion hunt, the two brothers saved the Emperor from being killed by the lion. As a reward for their valour, an army was sent with them to regain their kingdom. When Jam Rawal heard of the two princes coming back to the Kutch with the imperial army, he started getting ready for the battle. On one night, he dreamt of the goddess Ashapura who told him that as he had broken an oath taken on her name about not killing Hamirji, even though, he was the person responsible for the death of his father. She had refrained from punishing him as he had at all other times honored her, but he was no longer to dwell in Kutch but cross the sea and reside in Kathiawar instead.
Jam Rawal and his entourage marched out of Kutch, attacked and killed King Tamachi the other conspirator in the killing of his father, and conquered the town of Dhrol and its dependencies. Jam Rawal bestowed the rule of Dhrol province to his brother Hardholji, who was later killed in battle, and the throne passed to his eldest son, Jasoji. Jam Rawal conquered parts of Saurashtra and formed his kingdom.
Once on a hunting trip on the land of present day Jamnagar, a hare was found to be brave enough to turn on the hunting dogs and putting them to flight. Deeply impressed by this, Jam Rawal thought that if this land can breed such hares, the men born here would be superior than other men, and accordingly made this place his capital. On the 7th day of the bright half of the month of Srawan, VS 1956 (August 1540 AD) on the banks of two rivers Rangmati and Nagmati, he lay the foundation of his new capital and named it Nawanagar (new town). Nawanagar eventually came to be known as Jamnagar meaning the town of the Jams.
Jamnagar has a hot semi-arid climate (Köppen BSh). There are three defined seasons. The “hot” season lasts from March to May and is extremely hot, humid, but dry, before giving way to the “wet” season with extremely erratic monsoonal rainfall that averages around 630 millimetres (25 in) but has varied from less than 100 millimetres (3.9 in) in 1911 and 1939 to over 1,300 millimetres (51.2 in) over the district in 1959. Tropical cyclones sometimes affect the region during this period. The “cool” season from October to February remains hot during the day but has negligible rainfall, low humidity and cool nights to be by far the most comfortable time of year.
|Climate data for Jamnagar|
|Average high °C (°F)||28
|Average low °C (°F)||10
|Rainfall mm (inches)||0
|Source: Jamnagar Weather|
At the time of the 2011 India census, Jamnagar had a population of 529,308 and its urban agglomeration 600,411. Jamnagar has an average literacy rate of 83%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 87%, and female literacy is 78%. In Jamnagar, 10% of the population is under 6 years of age. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%.
Most residents of Jamnagar are Gujarati and speak the Gujarati language. A small portion of the population speak the Kachchi language which is written in the Gujarati script but not mutually intelligible with Gujarati. Kathiawadi Language (which is a colloquial dialect of Gujarati) is widely used for day to day communication. Major communities include the Satvaras (Dalvadis), Ahirs (Yadav), Patels, Bhanushalis, Rajputs (Darbars), Mers, Jains, Lohanas, Brahmins and Vaghers (Muslims and Hindu)
The Marine National Park, the only marine sanctuary in India is near Jamnagar, on the coral reef island of Pirotan. Jamnagar is well known for its four marble Jain temples: Vardhman Shah's Temple, Raisi Shah's Temple, Sheth's Temple, and Vasupujya Swami's Temple; all built between 1574 and 1622. The Bala Hanuman temple in Jamnagar is also very famous and is listed in The Guinness Book of World Records for the longest continuous chanting of "Ram Dhun" (since 1 August 1964). Also on Guinness Book of records is World's largest Chapati which weighed 63.99 kg (141 lb 1 oz) and was made by the Shree Jalarm Mandir Jirnodhar Samitee organisation at the Jalaram Temple, Jamnagar, on 15 January 2005.
Jamnagar contains several ancient temples such as Sidhnath Mahadev Temple in Jamnagar city area, the Navlakhi Temple in Ghumli, Kileshwar Temple in Barda Hills, The Ancient Sun Temple at Gop and The Ancient Bhid Bhanjan Temple built by the Jams. Bala Hanuman is highly venerated among the devotees of Rama. The Bala Hanuman Temple is noted for the continuous chanting of the mantra "Sri Ram, Jai Ram, Jai Jai Ram". Started on 1 August 1964, the chant continues for 24 hours a day, in shifts, and is still continuing. This has earned the temple a place in the Guinness Book of World Records Click here to know how many years
There are many Shiv Temples within the city, such as Badri kedar Nath and Nilkanth Mahadev Temle around the Town Hall and the Kashi Vishwanath Temple on the K.V. Road.
Jamnagar is well known for its four marble Jain temples: Vardhman Shah's Temple, Raisi Shah's Temple, Sheth's Temple, and Vasupujya Swami's Temple. All were built between 1574 and 1622. There are more than 30 Jain Temples in Jamnagar. Click here for list of Jain Temples in Jamnagar.
10.00% of Jamnagar District's Population is Muslim. The local population has long left the ancestral fishing business, and have adopted many new age professions as the local economy has picked up due to the industrialisation of Jamnagar and the arrival of few giant companies.
Jamnagar is today known as 'Oil City' because the world's biggest oil refinery belonging to Reliance Industries and a smaller one belonging to Essar Oil are located in Jamnagar. It was earlier known as 'Brass City', the city housing more than 5,000 large scale and 10,000 small scale units manufacturing brass items in and around the industrial estates of Shankar Tekari, Udhyognagar, M P Shah Udhyognagar and Dared. There are about 4,500 units of Brass Part in Jamnagar district supplying their products to major electric and electronic factories located in Delhi, Bangalore and Mumbai
The Jamnagar Refinery is a private sector crude oil refinery owned by Reliance Industries Limited in Jamnagar, India. The refinery was commissioned on 14 July 1999 with an installed capacity of 661,000 barrels per day (105,100 m3/d). It is the largest refinery in the world. The refinery is currently undergoing massive expansion, scheduled for commissioning in 2008[dated info], that will double its capacity to 1.2 million barrels per day (190,000 m3/d).
According to an article in the 28 April 2008 issue of Fortune Magazine, the world-class Reliance Industries oil refinery at Jamnagar will output 1.2 million US gallons (4,500 m3) of petroleum, or 5% of the world's capacity, after an expansion is completed in December 2008. The expansion had begun in October 2005 and is managed by San Francisco-based Bechtel Corporation. The expanded refinery consumes an area equal to 1/3 the size of Manhattan. The refinery is advanced in that it can process a wide range of crude oils, including heavy high-sulfur sour crude, which many refineries can not handle. Reliance Industries has said that the refinery's output is for export only, and will not be sold domestically within India. Reliance is targeting the U.S. market for gasoline and the European market for diesel. The refinery is owned by Reliance's Reliance Petroleum Ltd. unit, in which U.S. oil company Chevron Corp. has a 5% stake. (also see article in the Friday, 26 December 2008 issue of the Wall Street Journal)
Jamnagar has base stations of all three wings of Defence. Indian Air Force, Indian Army & Indian Navy all the three wings have their training and big bases. Geographically Jamnagar supports all branches of defence as it has access to the sea for Indian Navy and a large Air Base including Army due to the city's strategic location close to Pakistan. The city has an All weather Intermediate Sea port, Bedi Port, just seven kilometers away, through which various merchandise is imported and exported. According to the recent figures available from the local Port Office, in 2007–2008 exports were 3,912,402 metric tons & imports 1,388,181 Metric Tons for a total 5,300,583 metric tons. The major commodity that has exported from this Port are Bauxite, soya Meal extraction, Ground nut extraction while the imports are coal, fertilizer and other items. Due to the locational advantage with respect to the vast hinder land compromising of Central & North, India, and also due to proximity to the Gulf countries gives Jamnagar a status of most favored Port among the exporters & Importers. This is also one of the main reasons which encouraged the Reliance Group to set up their Grass root petro-refining unit and other subsidiary Industries. At present, Reliance Group has developed their own Port Terminal facility at Sikka.
Jamnagar is also famous for its Bandhni clothes. Approximately 10% Jamnagar derives its income from this industry; this clothing is traditional in Jamnagar, and it is exported outside of India. There is a temple to Shiva named "Siddhnath" in Nageshwar.
The city has an Airport (IATA: JGA – ICAO: VAJM) with direct flights to Mumbai and a railway station (with the Indian Railways code JAM) to a variety of destinations across India. There are daily Volvo buses running between Jamnagar and Ahmedabad by various operators. Recently State Transport has started a new service between jamnagar and Ahmedabad Airport.
Places of interest
Darbargadh (Maharajah's palace), the old royal residence of Jam Sahebs and the most important historical complex in Jamnagar, reflects the fusion of Rajputs and European style of architecture. The semi-circular palace complex consists of a number of buildings with very fine architectural features and detailing. It has some fine examples of stone carvings, wall paintings, fretwork jali-screens, ornamental mirrors, carved pillars and sculpture. The walls outside have carved jarokha balconies in the Indian tradition, a carved gate and Venetian-Gothic arches. The earthquake in 2001 caused significant damage to the Darbargadh.
This small palace, on an island in the middle of the Lakhota lake, once belonged to the Maharaja of Nawanagar. This fort-like palace has semi-circular bastions, turrets, a pavilion with guard-rooms housing swords, powder flasks and musket loops. An arched stone bridge with balustrade connects the Lakhota Palace with the town. Today it houses a small museum. The fort museum has a good collection of sculptures that spans a period from the 9th to the 18th century and pottery found in ruined medieval villages from the surrounding area. The museum is reached by a short causeway from the northern side of Ranmal Lake and is open daily except on Wednesdays.
The impressive Willingdon crescent was constructed by Ranjit Singh, inspired by his European journey. It comprises arcades of cusped arches, larger on the ground floor and smaller on the upper storey, pilasters on the curving walls, and balusters on the parapet. The statue of Jam Saheb is situated in the center of the crescent. Gujarat Earthquake in 2001 has caused only a slight damage to this shopping area.
Pratap Vilas Palace
The beautiful Pratap Vilas Palace, built during the rule of His Royal Highness Ranjitsinhji, is a distinct place to visit for a variety of reasons. It has European architecture with Indian carvings that give it a totally distinct appeal. It was built as a mimic of Victoria Memorial Building of Calcutta but the domes built on it are according to Indian architecture, out of which 3 domes are made of glass. Carvings of creepers, flowers, leaves, birds and animals on the columns make the palace lively. Damage in the 2001 earthquake has caused a costly loss of some parapets, and the separation of some upper walls at the roof level in some corners. Visitors are not allowed in.
The Kotha Bastion contains a fine collection of sculptures, coins, inscriptions and copper plates and the skeleton of a whale. One of its most interesting sights is an old well where the water can be drawn by blowing into a small hole in the floor.
Dhanvantri Mandir Gujarat Ayurved University
Dhanvantri Mandir was built under the personal supervision of Dr. Pranjivan Manekchand Mehta, Chief Medical Officer of Guru Govindsingh Hospital. After independence it gained the status of Ayurveda University. It has a good library, workshop and been a place of research and international seminars on Ayurveda- an ancient Indian medicinal system.
Also known as the Ranjit Institute of Poly-Radio Therapy, the Solarium was built by Jam Shri Ranjitsinhji during his rule by bringing in an expert from France. This slowly revolving tower provides full daylong sunlight for the treatment of skin diseases. With the destruction of two similar solaria in France during World War II, this is probably now the only one of its kind in the world, and certainly in Asia. Due to advancement in medicine and treatment now it is obsolete and not in working condition for the treatment.
Earlier Bhujio Kotho enjoys a distinct place among the tourists because of its height and circumference. It is on the bank of the Lakhota Tank, near Khambhaliya Gate. This monument had five floors was believed to be constructed for protection during the invasions. On the first floor there were guns placed in each directions and in the walls, holes are made to place the rifles. On the upper floor a tank was constructed to store water and on its peak a dancing peacock was placed. unfortunately in earthquake 2001 Bhujio Kotho was collapsed and now its prohibited to visit for safety purpose
The Bohra Hajira is also worth a visit, on entering Jamnagar city by road on the Rajkot Highway, one can see this magnificent Structure on the banks of the river. Permission has to be taken before visiting the place. Many years back boats used to sail in this Rangmati & Nagmati rivers, but presently the water level is low; often the river dries up and the river bed is used for hosting the Shravan Month Fairs.
Mota Ashapura Maa Temple
The Goddess (Kuldevi) of the Jadeja clan of Rajputs who ruled this place. The temple is located in the east part of Jamnagar from where the entrance (Gate) to the city and its close to Darbargadh in old city area.
Shantinath Mandir is situated, south-west of Bedi Gate, in Jamnagar. The temple has intricate carvings and the walls are adorned with fine murals, which depict the life of Jain saints. The floor is made of marble and decorated with distinctive Jain patterns in yellow, black, white and red.
Vardhman Shah’s Temple
Vardhman Shah’s Temple is a delightful shrine and one of the four main Jain temples in Jamnagar. The foundation stone of this shrine was laid in 1612, during the reign of Jam Jasaji I and was completed in the year 1620. Fifty two very small temples or ‘Deri’ were built around the temple in 1622.
Bala Hanuman Temple
The Bala Hanuman Temple is on the south-eastern side of Ranmal Lake. The temple is famous for the continuous 24-hour chanting of the mantra 'Sri Ram, Jai Ram, Jai Jai Ram', since 1 August 1964. This devotion has earned Bala Hanuman Temple a place in the Guinness Book of Records. Thousands of devotees visit the temple every year. Early evening is particularly a good time to visit the temple.
Bholeshwar Mahadev Temple
Bholeshwar mahadev temple is situated in Gajna village of tehsil Lalpur. The temple is situated on the bank of river Dhandhar.This temple is famous for its fair on shravani amas.
Parks and Gardens
Khijadia Bird Sanctuary
Khijadia Bird Sanctuary, located 10 km north east of Jamnagar, represents the combination of seasonal freshwater shallow lake, inter-tidal mudflats, creeks, saltpans, saline land and mangrove scrub. The place is a known breeding ground of the Great Crested Grebe. Apart from it, Little Grebe, Purple Moorhen, Coot, Black-winged Stilt and Pheasant-tailed Jacana are also recorded breeding here. Raptors, including harriers, eagles, hawks and falcons are also spotted here. The sanctuary also shelters migratory birds such as swallows, martins, wagtails and various waterfowls. It is considered as an important site for ecological research and education.
Marine National Park
India's first marine sanctuary, has various parts where one can visit: one of them is Pirotan island which is about 16 nautical miles (30 km) away in the Arabian Sea near Jamnagar and spreads over an area of about 458 km2. Located about 7 km from the city center. The Marine National Park & Sanctuary comprises an archipelago of 42 islands noted for their coral reefs and mangroves. It is possible to see dolphins, fin-less porpoises and sea turtles and a variety of colorful tropical fish. The place is very beautiful. The entire forest has various marine life forms. The area also attracts a huge number of birds.
Rozi and Bedi Ports
Rozi and Bedi are two important ports close to Jamnagar. Rozi Port on the shore of the Gulf of Kutch and Bedi Port two nautical miles (4 km) inland on the Rangamati River. These attractive waterside picnic spots offer excellent facilities for fishing and angling.
Cremation park is situated 10 minutes north of the city centre. The park holds statues of saints and deities, as well as scenes from the Ramayana. This is an interesting place to visit. The circle of life showing the stages in life of man is also thought to be evoking.
This is a new botanical garden in the city besides Palace Ground and its official name is Gulab Kunvarbaa Udhyan. It is very much used by the daily walkers and joggers of city.
Jamnagar has got a few single screen cinemas, as well as several multiplex cinemas; one near Samarpan hospital and one in the Reliance Mart 30 km from city. The city's town hall is used for local cultural programs, shows and plays. Recently, a new mall has been built on the aerodrome road which has a food court (the largest food court in Saurashtra) and a multiplex along with place for many shops.
Cricket is a major sport in Jamnagar, and a number veteran, well-established, and emerging Indian test cricketers originate from Jamnagar; including vinu mankad, Salim Durrani, karsan ghavri, Indrajitsinhji, Ajay Jadeja and Ravindra Jadeja.
The prestigious Ranji and Duleep trophies of India are in the memory of the princes of Jamnagar
- Tourist information about Jamnagar
- Jamnagar Transport
- All info of Jamnagar
- Jamnagar formally known as Nawanagar
- NavaNagarNa NarBanka and RajSattaNa Rang – Books exploring History of Jamnagar
- Birds and Wildlife in Jamnagar
- Images Gulf of Kutch Marine National Park in Jamnagar
- Nobat-The Daily Local Newspaper
- There is an active ham operator in Jamnagar
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jamnagar.|
- Reliance Industries Limited – Jamnagar http://www.ril.com/html/aboutus/manufact_jamnagar.html
- "Essar Oil Refinery, Vadinar, Gujarat". Hydrocarbons Technology. Retrieved 22 June 2012.
- Municipal Corporation Of Jamnagar Official Site http://www.mcjamnagar.com/
- "Jamnagar India – Jamnagar Gujarat, Jamnagar Tourism, Travel to Jamnagar". Bharatonline.com. Retrieved 22 June 2012.
- Kane, R.P.; “Extreme of the ENSO Phenomenon and Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall” in Internation Journal of Climatology; 18: 775–791 (1998)
- Saurashtra and Kutch rainfall
- Jamnagar City Census 2011 data
- "Indian Muslim Population Data". Aicmeu.org. Retrieved 22 June 2012.
- "Jamnagar gets ready to make its mark". Petroleum Intelligence Weekly.
- "Jamnagar/JAM Railway Station – Today's Train Departure Timings – India Rail Info – A Busy Junction for Travellers & Rail Enthusiasts". India Rail Info. 6 August 2010. Retrieved 22 June 2012.
- "Welcome to the Khijadiya Bird Sanctuary, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India". Khijadiyabirds.com. 22 June 2010. Retrieved 22 June 2012.
- Mustak. "www.jamnagar.org". www.jamnagar.org. Retrieved 22 June 2012.