Jamnagar

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This article is about the municipality in India. For its namesake district, see Jamnagar district. For the merchant ship and Royal Indian Navy patrol vessel, see HMIS Jamnagar.
Jamnagar
Metropolitan City
Jamnagar is located in Gujarat
Jamnagar
Jamnagar
Location in Gujarat, India
Coordinates: 22°28′N 70°04′E / 22.47°N 70.07°E / 22.47; 70.07Coordinates: 22°28′N 70°04′E / 22.47°N 70.07°E / 22.47; 70.07
Country  India
State Gujarat
Region Saurashtra
District Jamnagar
Government
 • Mayor Dinesh Patel[1]
 • Municipal Commissioner Shri Anupam
Area
 • Metropolitan City 120 km2 (50 sq mi)
Elevation 21 m (69 ft)
Population (2011 census)
 • Metropolitan City 690,000
 • Density 5,800/km2 (15,000/sq mi)
 • Metro 690,000
Languages
 • Official Gujarati, Hindi, English
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Website www.mcjamnagar.com

Jamnagar About this sound pronunciation  (Gujarati: જામનગર) is a city and a municipal corporation, located in Jamnagar district, in the Indian state of Gujarat. Jamnagar is the fifth largest city in the Indian state of Gujarat after Ahmedabad, Surat, Vadodara and Rajkot. The city was built up substantially by Maharaja Kumar Shri Ranjitsinhji in the 1920s, when it was known as Nawanagar. The city lies just to the south of the Gulf of Kutch and is 337 km west of the state capital, Gandhinagar. Recently, Jamnagar has shot to prominence as Reliance Industries, India's largest private company, established the world's largest oil refinery near the village of Moti Khavdi in Jamnagar.[2] It is also home to an Essar Oil refinery, located near the town of Vadinar.[3]

History[edit]

Kumar Shri Ranjitsinhji

Jamnagar was founded in 1540 A.D.[4] as the capital of the Princely State of Nawanagar. Jamnagar, historically known as Nawanagar (the new town), was one of the most important princely states of the Jadejas in the region of Saurashtra.[5] According to Pauranik literature, Lord Krishna established his kingdom at Dwarka town in Jamnagar district, after migrating from Mathura, and accordingly, it is to the Yadava race that the Jams of Nawanagar trace their ancestry.

According to bardic chronicles, impressed by Jam Lakhaji's role at the siege of Pawagadh, Bahadurshah, the Emperor of Gujarat, bestowed 12 villages on him. As Jam Lakaji was going to take possession of his new fief, he was treacherously killed by his cousins, Tamachi Deda and Hamirji Jadeja. Jam Lakhaji's son Jam Rawal escaped and on growing up, took vengeance of his father's murder in the same manner by killing Hamirji Jadeja.

Hamirji's two sons Khengarji and Sahibji fled to Delhi to pay obeisance to the mughal Emperor Humayun. During a lion hunt, the two brothers saved the Emperor from being killed by the lion. As a reward for their valour, an army was sent with them to regain their kingdom. When Jam Rawal heard of the two princes coming back to the Kutch with the imperial army, he started getting ready for the battle. One night he dreamt of the goddess Ashapura, who told him that although he had broken an oath taken in her name not to kill Hamirji, even though he was the person responsible for the death of his father, she had refrained from punishing him because he had at all other times honored her, but he was no longer to dwell in Kutch but cross the sea and reside in Kathiawar instead.

Jam Rawal and his entourage marched out of Kutch, attacked and killed King Tamachi, the other conspirator in the killing of his father, and conquered the town of Dhrol and its dependencies. Jam Rawal bestowed the rule of Dhrol province on his brother Hardholji, who was later killed in battle, whereupon the throne passed to his eldest son, Jasoji. Jam Rawal conquered parts of Saurashtra and formed his kingdom.

Once on a hunting trip on the land of present-day Jamnagar, a hare was found to be brave enough to turn on the hunting dogs and put them to flight. Deeply impressed by this, Jam Rawal thought that if this land could breed such hares, the men born here would be superior to other men, and accordingly he made this place his capital. On the 7th day of the bright half of the month of Srawan, VS 1956 (August 1540 AD) on the banks of two rivers Rangmati and Nagmati, he laid the foundation of his new capital and named it Nawanagar (new town). Nawanagar eventually came to be known as Jamnagar, meaning the town of the Jams.

Climate[edit]

Jamnagar has a hot semi-arid climate (Köppen: BSh). There are three defined seasons. The “hot” season lasts from March to May and is extremely hot and humid, but dry, before giving way to the “wet” season with extremely erratic monsoonal rainfall[6] that averages around 630 millimetres (25 in) but has varied from less than 100 millimetres (3.9 in) in 1911 and 1939 to over 1,500 millimetres (59.1 in) for the district in 2010.[7] Tropical cyclones sometimes affect the region during this period. The “cool” season from October to February remains hot during the day but has negligible rainfall, low humidity and cool nights, so it is by far the most comfortable time of year.

The highest recorded temperature was 47 °C (117 °F) on May 5, 1990, while the lowest recorded temperature was 1 °C (34 °F) on February 5, 1984.[8]

Climate data for Jamnagar
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 36
(97)
38
(100)
44
(111)
45
(113)
47
(117)
46
(115)
40
(104)
39
(102)
41
(106)
43
(109)
40
(104)
38
(100)
47
(117)
Average high °C (°F) 26.5
(79.7)
28.8
(83.8)
33
(91)
35.6
(96.1)
36.4
(97.5)
35.9
(96.6)
32.3
(90.1)
31.5
(88.7)
32
(90)
34.5
(94.1)
32.4
(90.3)
28
(82)
32.24
(89.99)
Daily mean °C (°F) 18.6
(65.5)
20.9
(69.6)
25.4
(77.7)
28.6
(83.5)
30.9
(87.6)
31.4
(88.5)
29.2
(84.6)
28.4
(83.1)
27.9
(82.2)
28
(82)
24.3
(75.7)
20.1
(68.2)
26.14
(79.02)
Average low °C (°F) 10.7
(51.3)
13
(55)
17.8
(64)
21.6
(70.9)
25.4
(77.7)
27
(81)
26.2
(79.2)
25.4
(77.7)
23.9
(75)
21.6
(70.9)
16.2
(61.2)
12.2
(54)
20.08
(68.16)
Record low °C (°F) 1
(34)
1
(34)
9
(48)
13
(55)
18
(64)
20
(68)
10
(50)
12
(54)
16
(61)
11
(52)
8
(46)
1
(34)
1
(34)
Precipitation mm (inches) 1
(0.04)
1
(0.04)
0
(0)
0
(0)
5
(0.2)
61
(2.4)
213
(8.39)
126
(4.96)
64
(2.52)
11
(0.43)
4
(0.16)
1
(0.04)
487
(19.18)
Source #1: Climate-Data.org (altitude: 23m),[9] Voodoo Skies for record temperatures[8]
Source #2: Jamnagar Weather[dead link]

Demographics[edit]

At the time of the 2011 Indian census, Jamnagar had a population of 529,308, and its urban agglomeration 600,411. Jamnagar has an average literacy rate of 83%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 87%, and female literacy is 78%. In Jamnagar, 10% of the population is under 6 years of age.[10] Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. In 2011, the sex ratio in Jamnagar was 939 females per 1000 males.

Culture[edit]

Most residents of Jamnagar are Gujarati and speak the Gujarati language. A small portion of the population speak the Kachchi language, which is written in the Gujarati script but not mutually intelligible with Gujarati. The Kathiawadi language (which is a colloquial dialect of Gujarati) is widely used for day-to-day communication. Major communities include the Satvaras (Dalvadis), Ahirs (Yadav), Patels, Bhanushalis, Rajputs (Darbars), Mers, Jains, Lohanas, Brahmins and Vaghers (Muslim and Hindu), and Khavas (Sorathiya Rajput).

The Marine National Park, the only marine sanctuary in India, is near Jamnagar, on the coral reef island of Pirotan. Jamnagar is well known for its four marble Jain temples: Vardhman Shah's Temple, Raisi Shah's Temple, Sheth's Temple, and Vasupujya Swami's Temple; all built between 1574 and 1622. The Bala Hanuman Temple in Jamnagar is also very famous and is listed in The Guinness Book of World Records for the longest continuous chanting of "Ram Dhun" (since 1 August 1964). Also in the Guinness Book of Records is the world's largest Chapati, which weighed 63.99 kg (141 lb 1 oz) and was made by the Shree Jalarm Mandir Jirnodhar Samitee organisation at the Jalaram Temple, Jamnagar, on 15 January 2005.[11]

Religion[edit]

Jamnagar contains several ancient temples, such as Sidhnath Mahadev Temple in the Jamnagar city area, the Navlakhi Temple in Ghumli, Kileshwar Temple in the Barda Hills, the Ancient Sun Temple at Gop and the Ancient Bhid Bhanjan Temple built by the Jams. Bala Hanuman is highly venerated among the devotees of Rama.[12] The Bala Hanuman Temple is noted for the continuous chanting of the mantra "Sri Ram, Jai Ram, Jai Jai Ram". Started on 1 August 1964, the chant continues for 24 hours a day, in shifts, and is still continuing. This has earned the temple a place in the Guinness Book of World Records[4] Click here to know how many years

There are many Shiv Temples within the city, such as Badri Kedar Nath and Nilkanth Mahadev Temple near the Town Hall and the Kashi Vishwanath Temple on the K.V. Road.

Jamnagar is well known for its four marble Jain temples: Vardhman Shah's Temple, Raisi Shah's Temple, Sheth's Temple, and Vasupujya Swami's Temple. All were built between 1574 and 1622. There are more than 30 Jain Temples in Jamnagar. Click here for list of Jain Temples in Jamnagar.

10.00%[13] of Jamnagar District's population is Muslim. The local population has long given up its ancestral fishing business, and adopted many new age professions as the local economy has picked up due to the industrialisation of Jamnagar and the arrival of several giant companies.

Shri Mahamati Devchandraji began his journey preaching the Pranami Religion from Jamnagar. Shri Rajmandir is a place in Jamnagar where Shri Devachandraji lived with his parents and listened to the discourses of Shrimad Bhagvata for fourteen years. Shri Chakla Mandir is the house of Shri Gangjibhai, who was the first disciple of Devachandraji. Shri Shyamji Mandir is very ancient; here the idol of Shyam Banke Bihari is worshipped. It was here that Shri Devchandraji listened to the discourses of Shrimad Bhagavat from the scholar Kanji Bhatt. Footprints and photographs of Shri Devchandraji are still kept there. Shri 5 Navtanpuri Dham (Shri Khijada Mandir) was founded by Nijanand Swami Shri Devchandraji.

The Shri Krishna Pranami religion was founded in this pious land, which formerly was a garden. According to the tradition, once Shri Devchandraji went to the garden. He took a small twig of a Khijda tree and cleaned his teeth with it, and then tearing in two, planted the pieces in the ground. In course of time they grew into big trees, and both the trees are still attached to the main wall of the shrine. Devotees visit it to get their desires fulfilled and return with pleasure. This is the reason that the temple is famous everywhere under the name 'Khijda Mandir'. Gadi Orado is a place of three rooms. In the middle it is adorned by the divine throne of the revered preceptor and so it is known as Gadi Orada. Jamunajino Kuvo is a place where the revered preceptor described the Advait-absolute abode [Paramdham] to Sunder Sath. Hearing the divine description of the water of Jamuna, Sunder Sath expressed the desire of drinking that water. Drawing a line with his finger, the preceptor described the original place of Jamuna, and at once the water of Jamuna was seen there. It is therefore called Jamunajino Kuvo <http://pranami.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=67&Itemid=175>

Economy[edit]

The Reliance Oil refinery in Jamnagar

Jamnagar is known as 'Oil City' because the world's biggest oil refinery, belonging to Reliance Industries, and a smaller one belonging to Essar Oil are located in Jamnagar. It was formerly known as 'Brass City', since it houses more than 5,000 large-scale and 10,000 small-scale workshops manufacturing brass items in and around the industrial estates of Shankar Tekari, Udhyognagar, M P Shah Udhyognagar and Dared.[5]

The Jamnagar Refinery is a private sector crude oil refinery owned by Reliance Industries Limited. The refinery was commissioned on 14 July 1999 with an installed capacity of 661,000 barrels per day (105,100 m3/d). It is the largest refinery in the world.[14] The refinery is currently undergoing a massive expansion, scheduled for commissioning in 2008[dated info], that will double its capacity to 1.2 million barrels per day (190,000 m3/d).[citation needed]

According to an article in the 28 April 2008 issue of Fortune Magazine, the Reliance Industries oil refinery at Jamnagar will produce 1.2 million US gallons (4,500 m3) of petroleum, or 5% of the world's capacity, after the expansion is completed in December 2008. The expansion began in October 2005 and is being managed by San Francisco-based Bechtel Corporation. The expanded refinery covers an area equal to 1/3 the size of Manhattan. The refinery has an advanced design, so that it can process a wide range of crude oils, including heavy high-sulfur sour crude, which many refineries cannot handle. Reliance Industries has said that the refinery's output is for export only and will not be sold domestically within India. Reliance is targeting the U.S. market for gasoline and the European market for diesel. The refinery is owned by Reliance's Reliance Petroleum Ltd. unit, in which U.S. oil company Chevron Corp. has a 5% stake.

Jamnagar has base stations of all three wings of Defence: the Indian Air Force, Indian Army, and Indian Navy. Geographically Jamnagar supports all branches of defence, as it has access to the sea for the Indian Navy and a large air base due to the city's strategic location close to Pakistan. The city has an all-weather intermediate seaport, Bedi Port, seven kilometers away, through which various merchandise is imported and exported. According to the recent figures available from the local Port Office, in 2007–2008 exports were 3,912,402 metric tons and imports 1,388,181 metric tons, for a total 5,300,583 metric tons. The major commodities exported from this port are bauxite, soya meal extracts, and ground nut extracts, while the imports include coal, fertilizer and other items.

Also Jamnagar has reserves of bauxite, contributing 96% of the total production in the state.[4]

Jamnagar is also famous for its Bandhni clothes. Approximately 10% of Jamnagar derives its income from this industry; this clothing is traditional in Jamnagar, and it is exported outside of India.

Transport[edit]

The city has an airport (IATA: JGA – ICAO: VAJM) with direct flights to Mumbai. The airport is a civil enclave which allows commercial flights.

Jamnagar has a railway station connected with a variety of destinations across India.[15] Jamnagar has 3 daily trains to Mumbai and weekly trains to the north, east and south. There are daily Volvo buses running between Jamnagar and Ahmedabad by various operators. Recently State Transport has started a new service between Jamnagar and Ahmedabad Airport.

Places of interest[edit]

Darbargadh Palace
Darbargadh (Maharajah's palace), the old royal residence of Jam Saheb and the most important historical complex in Jamnagar, reflects the fusion of Rajput and European styles of architecture. The semi-circular palace complex consists of a number of buildings with very fine architectural features and detailing. It has some fine examples of stone carvings, wall paintings, fretwork jali-screens, ornamental mirrors, carved pillars and sculpture. The walls outside have carved jarokha balconies in the Indian tradition, a carved gate and Venetian-Gothic arches. The earthquake in 2001 caused significant damage to the Darbargadh.

Lakhota Fort

Entrance of antique weapons section at Lakhota Fort museum, Jamnagar

This small palace, on an island in the middle of Lakhota Lake, once belonged to the Maharaja of Nawanagar. This fort-like palace has semi-circular bastions, turrets, a pavilion with guard-rooms housing swords, powder flasks and musket loops. An arched stone bridge with a balustrade connects the Lakhota Palace with the town. Today it houses a small museum. The fort museum has a good collection of sculptures that spans a period from the 9th to the 18th century and pottery found in ruined medieval villages from the surrounding area. The museum is reached by a short causeway from the northern side of Ranmal Lake and is open daily except on Wednesdays.

A local describing a statue, Lakhota Fort, Jamnagar

Willingdon Crescent
The impressive Willingdon Crescent was constructed by Ranjit Singh, inspired by his European journey. It comprises arcades of cusped arches, larger on the ground floor and smaller on the upper storey, pilasters on the curving walls, and balusters on the parapet. The statue of Jam Saheb is situated in the center of the crescent. Gujarat Earthquake in 2001 caused only slight damage to this shopping area.

Pratap Vilas Palace
The beautiful Pratap Vilas Palace, built during the rule of His Royal Highness Ranjitsinhji, is a distinct place to visit for a variety of reasons. It has European architecture with Indian carvings that give it a totally distinct appeal. It was built as an imitation of the Victoria Memorial Building in Calcutta, but the domes built on it are according to Indian architecture, three of them made of glass. Carvings of creepers, flowers, leaves, birds and animals on the columns make the palace lively. Damage in the 2001 earthquake caused a costly loss of some parapets, and the separation of some upper walls at the roof level in some corners. Visitors are not allowed in.

Kotha Bastion
The Kotha Bastion contains a fine collection of sculptures, coins, inscriptions and copper plates and the skeleton of a whale. One of its most interesting sights is an old well where the water can be drawn by blowing into a small hole in the floor.

Dhanvantri Mandir Gujarat Ayurved University
Dhanvantri Mandir was built under the personal supervision of Dr. Pranjivan Manekchand Mehta, Chief Medical Officer of Guru Govindsingh Hospital. After independence it gained the status of Ayurveda University. It has a good library, workshops and has been a place for research and international seminars on Ayurveda, an ancient Indian medicinal system.

Solarium
Also known as the Ranjit Institute of Poly-Radio Therapy, the Solarium was built by Jam Shri Ranjitsinhji during his rule by bringing in an expert from France. This slowly revolving tower provides full daylong sunlight for the treatment of skin diseases. With the destruction of two similar solaria in France during World War II, this is probably now the only one of its kind in the world, and certainly in Asia. Due to advancement in medicine and treatment it is now obsolete and not in working condition for the treatment.

Bhujio Kotho
Bhujio Kotho is well known among tourists due to its height and circumference. It is on the bank of the Lakhota Tank, near Khambhaliya Gate. This monument has five floors, and is believed to have been constructed for protection during the invasions. On the first floor there were guns placed in each direction, and in the walls, holes for rifles are found. On the upper floor a tank with a dancing peacock on its peak was constructed to store water. Unfortunately, in an earthquake in 2001 Bhujio Kotho partially collapsed and visits are now prohibited due to safety concerns.

Bohra Hajira
The Bohra Hajira is also worth a visit. On entering Jamnagar City by road on the Rajkot Highway, one can see this magnificent structure on the banks of the river. Permission has to be obtained before visiting the place. Many years back boats used to sail on the Rangmati and Nagmati Rivers, but presently the water level is low; often the river dries up and the river bed is used for hosting the Shravan Month Fairs.

Jam Ranjitsinhji Park(RanjitSagar Dam)
The Municipal Corporation of Jamnagar has recently developed a Park near RanjitSagar Dam. The park has a beautiful garden with colorful fountains. There are also rides for children. The park remains open from 10am to 8pm on all days except Sunday and Monday. On Sunday the park remains open till 10pm and on Monday it is closed for maintenance.

Main Gate of Jam Ranjitsinhji Park.

Temples[edit]

Bala Hanuman Temple near Lakhota
Bholeshwar Mahadev

Mota Ashapura Maa Temple

The Goddess (Kuldevi) of the Jadeja clan of Rajputs who ruled this place. The temple is located in the east part of Jamnagar where the entrance (gate) leads into the city and is close to Darbargadh in the old city area.

Shantinath Mandir
Shantinath Mandir is situated south-west of Bedi Gate in Jamnagar. The temple has intricate carvings and the walls are adorned with fine murals, which depict the lives of Jain saints. The floor is made of marble and decorated with distinctive Jain patterns in yellow, black, white and red.

Vardhman Shah’s Temple
Vardhman Shah’s Temple is a delightful shrine and one of the four main Jain temples in Jamnagar. The foundation stone of this shrine was laid in 1612, during the reign of Jam Jasaji I, and it was completed in the year 1620. Fifty-two very small temples or ‘Deri’ were built around the temple in 1622.

Bala Hanuman Temple
The Bala Hanuman Temple is on the south-eastern side of Ranmal Lake. The temple is famous for the continuous 24-hour chanting of the mantra 'Sri Ram, Jai Ram, Jai Jai Ram', since 1 August 1964. This devotion has earned Bala Hanuman Temple a place in the Guinness Book of Records. Thousands of devotees visit the temple every year. Early evening is a particularly good time to visit the temple.

Bholeshwar Mahadev Temple
Bholeshwar Mahadev Temple is situated in Gajna village of Tehsil Lalpur. The temple is situated on the bank of the River Dhandhar. This temple is famous for its fair on Shravani Amas.

Parks and Gardens[edit]

Khijadia Bird Sanctuary
Khijadia Bird Sanctuary,[16] located 10 km north east of Jamnagar, represents the combination of a seasonal freshwater shallow lake, inter-tidal mudflats, creeks, saltpans, saline land and mangrove scrub. The place is a known breeding ground of the Great Crested Grebe. Apart from this, the Little Grebe, Purple Moorhen, Coot, Black-winged Stilt and Pheasant-tailed Jacana are also recorded breeding here. Raptors, including harriers, eagles, hawks and falcons are also spotted here. The sanctuary also shelters migratory birds such as swallows, martins, wagtails and various waterfowl. It is considered an important site for ecological research and education.

Marine National Park
India's first marine sanctuary[17] has various parts where one can visit: one of them is Pirotan Island, which is about 16 nautical miles (30 km) away in the Arabian Sea near Jamnagar and spreads over an area of about 458 km2. Located about 7 km from the city center, the Marine National Park and Sanctuary comprises an archipelago of 42 islands noted for their coral reefs and mangroves. It is possible to see dolphins, fin-less porpoises and sea turtles and a variety of colorful tropical fish. The place is very beautiful. The entire forest has various marine life forms. The area also attracts a huge number of birds.

Rozi and Bedi Ports
Rozi and Bedi are two important ports close to Jamnagar, Rozi Port on the shore of the Gulf of Kutch and Bedi Port two nautical miles (4 km) inland on the Rangamati River. These attractive waterside picnic spots offer excellent facilities for fishing and angling.

Cremation Park
Cremation Park is situated 10 minutes north of the city centre. The park holds statues of saints and deities, as well as scenes from the Ramayana. This is an interesting place to visit. The Circle of Life, showing the stages in the life of man, is also considered thought-evoking.

Jogger's Park
This is a new botanical garden in the city beside the Palace Ground, and its official name is Gulab Kunvarbaa Udhyan. It is very much used by the daily walkers and joggers of the city.

Entertainment[edit]

Jamnagar has a few single screen cinemas, as well as several multiplex cinemas, one near Samarpan Hospital and one in the Reliance Mart 30 km from the city. The city's town hall is used for local cultural programs, shows and plays. Recently, a new mall has been built on the aerodrome road which has a food court (the largest food court in Saurashtra) and a multiplex, along with places for many shops.

Crystal Mall, Jamnagar.jpg

Sports[edit]

Cricket is a major sport in Jamnagar. A number of Indian Test cricketers originate from Jamnagar, including Vinoo Mankad, Salim Durrani, Karsan Ghavri, Kumar Indrajitsinhji, Ajay Jadeja and Ravindra Jadeja.

The Ranji Trophy and Duleep Trophy Indian cricket competitions are named in memory of princes of Jamnagar.

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.mcjamnagar.com/inc-chart-mayors.asp
  2. ^ Reliance Industries Limited – Jamnagar http://www.ril.com/html/aboutus/manufact_jamnagar.html
  3. ^ "Essar Oil Refinery, Vadinar, Gujarat". Hydrocarbons Technology. Retrieved 22 June 2012. 
  4. ^ a b c Municipal Corporation Of Jamnagar Official Site http://www.mcjamnagar.com/
  5. ^ a b "Jamnagar India – Jamnagar Gujarat, Jamnagar Tourism, Travel to Jamnagar". Bharatonline.com. Retrieved 22 June 2012. 
  6. ^ Kane, R.P.; “Extreme of the ENSO Phenomenon and Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall” in International Journal of Climatology; 18: 775–791 (1998)
  7. ^ [1]
  8. ^ a b "Jamnagar, India". Voodoo Skies. Retrieved 2014-01-05. 
  9. ^ "Climate: Jamnagar - Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 2014-01-05. 
  10. ^ Jamnagar City Census 2011 data
  11. ^ http://www.guinnessworldrecords.in/news/2012/8/happy-independence-day-our-top-10-records-from-india-44243/
  12. ^ Hanuman
  13. ^ "Indian Muslim Population Data". Aicmeu.org. Retrieved 22 June 2012. 
  14. ^ "Jamnagar gets ready to make its mark". Petroleum Intelligence Weekly. 
  15. ^ "Jamnagar/JAM Railway Station – Today's Train Departure Timings – India Rail Info – A Busy Junction for Travellers & Rail Enthusiasts". India Rail Info. 6 August 2010. Retrieved 22 June 2012. 
  16. ^ "Welcome to the Khijadiya Bird Sanctuary, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India". Khijadiyabirds.com. 22 June 2010. Retrieved 22 June 2012. 
  17. ^ Mustak. "www.jamnagar.org". www.jamnagar.org. Retrieved 22 June 2012.