||This article needs additional citations for verification. (February 2011)|
|c. 65 to 75 million|
|Regions with significant populations|
Gujarati people or Gujaratis are an Indian ethnic group that is traditionally Gujarati-speaking. Famous Gujaratis include Mohandas Gandhi (The Father of India), Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel (The Iron Man of India), Dhirubhai Ambani (Billionaire rags-to-riches Business Tycoon), Swami Dayananda Saraswati (Vedic Scholar), Muhammad Ali Jinnah (The Father of Pakistan), Virchand Gandhi (Jain Scholar), Vikram Sarabhai (Physicist and Father of the Indian Space Program)
Gujaratis in India 
Research shows that Gujaratis think that they are the best in India. Another fact that research shows that the Punjabis have the best culture in India. The dances and food are the best(Punjabi) . 80% of people say that the dance "Dandiya" is boring. That's 8 out of 10 people.
Gujaratis of Pakistan 
There is a community of Muslim Gujaratis in neighbouring Pakistan, mainly settled in Sindh for generations. A sizable number migrated after the Partition of India and subsequent creation of independent Pakistan in 1947. These Pakistani Gujaratis belong mainly to the Khoja, Dawoodi Bohra, Chundrigar, Charotar Sunni Vohra, Muslim Ghanchi and Memon groups; however, many Gujaratis are also a part of Pakistan's small but vibrant Hindu community. Many Gujaratis in Pakistan retain ties to their relatives in Muslim communities living in Gujarat, and maintain Gujarati as their native language. However, a growing number are adopting Urdu as their native tongue. Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founding father of Pakistan whose mother tongue was also Gujarati and were Gujarati Hindus before, is one of the most notable people of Gujarati Muslim ancestry who ethnically belonged to the province of Gujarat, but was however born in Karachi. Gujarati Muslims constitute the majority in Saddar Town and form the backbone of the Pakistani economy.
In terms of ancestry, the majority of Gujaratis share identical genes with the rest of the northern Indian populations, but show a significant relationship with West Asia.
A 2004 Stanford study conducted with a wide sampling from India, found that over 33% of genetic markers in Gujarat were partially of West Eurasian origin, the second highest amongst the sampled group of South Asians with Punjabis at 42%, and Kashmiris at 30%.
Haplogroup U7 is found in Iran, the Near East, Afghanistan, India, and Pakistan; with extremely low frequencies in neighboring countries Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Iraq. Its frequency peaks at over 12% in Gujarat, 9% in Iran, 9% in Punjab, 6% in Pakistan and 6% in Afghanistan. Elsewhere in India, its frequency is very low (0.00% to 0.90%). Outside of the Near East, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and the Northwestern Indian states, Haplogroup U7 is non-existent. Expansion times and haplotype diversities for the Indian and Near and Middle Eastern U7 mtDNAs are strikingly similar. The possible homeland of this haplogroup likely spans the coverage of Iran to Western India. From there its frequency declines steeply both to the east and to the west. Its equally high frequency as well as diversity in Gujarat favors a scenario whereby U7 has been introduced by the coastal Gujarat to areas of Iran.
Some preliminary conclusions from these varying tests support some of the highest degrees of Indian mtDNAs found in Western Asia, with a particular close relationship between Iran and Gujarat, supporting a theory of trade contact and migrations out of Gujarat into West Asia.
Hindus and Jains are predominantly vegetarians, to a greater extent than Hindu communities elsewhere in India. Gujarati cuisine follows the traditional Indian full meal structure of rice, cooked vegetables, lentil dal or curry and roti. The different types of rotli (breads) that a Gujarati cooks are rotli or chapati, bhakhri, thepla or dhebara, puri, maal purah, and puran-pohli. Khaman, Dhokla pani puri, dhokli, dal-dhokli, daal,undhiyu, jalebi, fafda, chevdoh, Samosa, papdi, muthia, bhajia, patra, bhusu and Sev mamra are traditional Gujarati dishes savoured by many communities across the world.
Khichdi – a mix of rice and toor daal, a type of lentil, cooked with little spices in a pressure cooker – is a popular Gujarati meal. It is found very satisfying by most Gujaratis, and cooked very regularly in most homes, typically on a busy day due to its ease of cooking. It can also become an elaborate meal when served with several side dishes such as a vegetable curry, yogurt, papad, mango pickle, and onions.
The making of masala is traditionally done on grinding stones but today people usually use a blender or grinder. There is no standard recipe. People from north Gujarat use dry red chili powder, whereas people from south Gujarat prefer using green chili and coriander in their cooking. Gujarati Jains don't eat root vegetables like potato, onion, garlic, radish, carrot, etc. Traditionally Gujaratis eat mukhwas or paan at the end of a meal. In many parts of Gujarat, having chhass (chilled buttermilk) or soda after lunch or dinner is quite common. Gujarati families celebrate Sharad Purnima by having dinner with doodh-pauva under moonlight.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (November 2012)|
Indian jewelry like mangalsutras, necklaces, nose rings, earrings, bangles and rings, toe rings, bracelets are all part of the Gujarati attire. Most of this jewelry is made in 22 carat gold but cheaper costume jewelry is also available. During weddings, Gujarati brides wear a lot of jewelry, this is traditionally a form of trust handed to the girl as 22 karat jewelry.
Years ago, only married Gujarati (Hindu) women wore a red bindi (red powder worn in a round shape on the forehead also found in the form of stickers). These days, most women, married or not, wear 'bindi' as a fashion accessory when they wear traditional Indian outfits. Modern Bindis are like stickers, and are available in various shapes, sizes, colors and designs. Only married women however, wear red powder, called 'sindoor', in a short straight line on the scalp, starting near the hairline and covers the area where the hair is generally parted(middle). During a traditional Hindu wedding, the groom applies 'sindoor' on the bride for the very first time. This act can be compared to a ring ceremony in western weddings.
There are several different outfits that are worn by both men and women depending on the occasion. Younger women wear western outfits like skirts, dresses, jeans, etc. Older women usually wear saris or salwar kamiz. The Gujarati method of wearing a sari is different from the Bengali method which is usually prevalent in fashion shows. Gujarati ladies drape the pallu over the front of their right shoulder and across the chest tucked into the waist. The Bengali method which is more prevalent in India and amongst younger women involves draping the pallu over the left shoulder with the pallu hanging freely in back
Generally, men wear pants and shirts or t-shirts however traditionally, males will wear dhotis be it every day on a special occasion and a kurta is worn on top. Females will wear saris or something similar. On special occasions females will wear slightly more expensive saris. These traditional garments can be seen both in and outside of India. A famous example is Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi who wore a dhoti.
Gujarati literature's history may be traced to 1000 AD. Since then literature has flourished till date. Well known laureates of Gujarati literature are Jhaverchand Meghani, Avinash Vyas, Hemchandracharya, Narsinh Mehta, Akho, Premanand Bhatt, Shamal Bhatt, Dayaram, Dalpatram, Narmad, Govardhanram Tripathi, Gandhiji, K. M. Munshi, Umashankar Joshi, Suresh Joshi, Pannalal Patel and Rajendra Keshavlal Shah.
Gujarat Vidhya Sabha, Gujarat Sahitya Sabha, and Gujarati Sahitya Parishad are Ahmedabad based literary institutions promoting the spread of Gujarati literature. Saraswatichandra is a novel by Govardhanram Tripathi. Writers like Harindra Dave, Suresh Dalal, Jyotindra Dave, Tarak Mehta, Harkisan Mehta, Chandrakant Bakshi, Vinod Bhatt, Kanti Bhatt, Makarand Dave, and Varsha Adalja have influenced Gujarati thinkers.
Gujarati theatre owes a lot to bhavai. Bhavai is a musical performance of stage plays. Ketan Mehta and Sanjay Leela Bhansali explored artistic use of bhavai in films such as Bhavni Bhavai, Oh Darling! Yeh Hai India and Hum Dil De Chuke Sanam. Dayro (gathering) involves singing and conversation reflecting on human nature.
Gujarati language is enriched by the Adhytmic Literature written by Srimad Rajchandra and Pandit Himmatlal Jethalal Shah. This literature is both in the form of Poetry and Prose.
Mention in history 
Early European travelers like Ludovico di Varthema (15th century) traveled to Gujarat and wrote on the people of Gujarat. He noted that Jainism had a strong presence in Gujarat and opined that Gujaratis were deprived of their kingdom by Mughals because of their kind heartedness. His description of Gujaratis was:
...a certain race which eats nothing that has blood, never kills any living things... and these people are neither moors nor heathens... if they were baptized, they would all be saved by the virtue of their works, for they never do to others what they would not do unto them.
Notable people 
Arts and entertainment 
Gujarati films have made artists like Upendra Trivedi, Snehlata, Raajeev, Aruna Irani and Asrani popular in the entertainment industry. In the U.S., Bali Brahmbhatt came up with the hit song "Patel Rap", referring to changing values of Gujarati culture.
Popular Bollywood actress Prachi Desai belongs to Gujarat. In Indian Television industry too Gujarati culture, Gujarati lifestyle had made a prominent place. Other actors such as Urvashi Dholakia, Sarita Joshi, Ketki Dave, Purbi Joshi, Disha Vakani, Dilip Joshi, Deven Bhojani, Rashmi Desai etc.. have made the place in audience hearts and ar presently the top actors on Indian Television
There are dedicated television channels airing Gujarati programs.
- Raymond Brady Williams (2004). Williams on South Asian Religions and Immigration By Raymond Brady Williams. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 207. Retrieved 25 February 2009.
- The Gujaratis of Pakistan[dead link]
- "Most of the extant mtDNA boundaries in South and Southwest Asia were likely shaped during the initial settlement of Eurasia by anatomically modern humans". Biomedcentral.com. Retrieved 9 December 2011.
- André Wink (1997) Al-Hind, the Making of the Indo-Islamic World: The Slavic Kings and the Islamic conquest, BRILL ISBN 90-04-10236-1 pp.355–356
Further reading 
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Gujarati people|
- Jhaveri, Krishanlal Mohanlal (ed.) (2003). The Gujaratis: The People, Their History, and Culture. New Delhi: Cosmo Publications..